Jewish Hymnography

BookJewish Hymnography

Jewish Hymnography

A Literary History

The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization

2000

March 1st, 2000

£29.95
£29.95
READ THIS EBOOK

Details

Other Formats

Price

Description

Leon Weinberger draws on a wealth of material, much of it previously available only in Hebrew, to trace the history of Jewish hymnography from its origins in the eastern Mediterranean to its subsequent development in western Europe (Spain, Italy, Franco-Germany, and England) and Balkan Byzantium, on the Grecian periphery, under the Ottomans, and among the Karaites. Focusing on each region in turn, he provides a general background to the role of the synagogue poets in the society of the time; characterizes the principal poets and describes their contribution; examines the principal genres and forms; and considers their distinctive language, style, and themes. The copious excerpts from the liturgy are presented in transliterated Hebrew and in English translation, and their salient characteristics are fully discussed to bring out the historical development of ideas and regional themes as well as literary forms. Professor Weinberger’s study is a particularly valuable source-book for students of synagogue liturgy, Jewish worship, and medieval Hebrew poetry. It provides new perspectives for students of religious poetry and forms of worship more generally, while enabling the general reader to acquire a much-enriched appreciation of the synagogue services.

‘Weinberger deserves our deepest gratitude for a book that is an unprecedented English introduction to the world of piyyut . . . this book is a convincing endeavour to show an English-reading audience the great value of Hebrew liturgical poetry for Jewish religion and culture.’
- W. J. van Bekkum, Bulletin of Judaeo-Greek Studies

‘He deserves our deepest gratitude for producing the first introduction to piyyut in English and including many fragments of poems that have never previously been anthologized . . . for the English-reading audience, this book will show the great value of Hebrew liturgical poetry for the study of Jewish religion and culture.’
W. J. van Bekkum, Journal of Jewish Studies

‘Will serve well Judaic scholars of other areas who wish to understand the history, function, and language of piyyut better; and students of piyyut and medieval Hebrew literature whose resources in English have been sorely lacking . . . it is the lone introduction to piyyut for an English-speaking audience which offers a chronological and geographical survey of piyyut; and it brings to light many obscure poets, especially those of the Balkan region, England, and Karaite community. But it will also contribute to the appreciation and understanding of the literary riches of medieval Jewry in all their complexity and variety. Instructors of Judaica and their students alike are now provided with a good English guide to the fascinating and complicated world of piyyut.’
- Debra Reed Blank, Journal of Semitic Studies

‘It is a blessing to have in English such a felicitous treatment of the fruits of modern Israeli scholarship on piyyut or Jewish hymnography incorporated into the author's own prodigious research into Greek, Balkan, and Byzantine hymnography. The work is the best introduction in English to the whole subject, indeed it ranges more widely than any comparable wok in Hebrew. It is bound to encourage scholars of English-speaking universities to mount courses in this heretofore neglected area of Hebrew poetry. The lack of a good textbook can no longer serve as an excuse.’
- Reuven Kimelman

‘A pivotal reference book . . . The volume's coverage is admirably broad and dense; its approach and presentation are apt and felicitous. Nothing comparable has been available in English . . . we owe Weinberger a big debt of gratitude.’
Ephraim Nissan, Shofar

https://global.oup.com/academic/product/9781874774372?cc=us

Author Information

Leon J. Weinberger was University Research Professor Emeritus at the University of Alabama, and winner of the 1995 Friedman Prize of the Histadrut Ivrit of America for contributions to Hebrew literature and culture. He died in 2011.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Section TitlePagePrice
Cover1
Half Title2
Title Page4
Copyright5
Dedication6
Foreword7
Preface and Acknowledgements10
Contents12
A Note on Transliteration21
Abbreviations22
Hispano-Hebrew Metres23
Introduction26
1: The Beginnings of Hymnography in Ereṣ Yisra’el and Babylon44
The Early Period in Ereṣ Yisra’el44
General Background44
The Principal Poets46
The Early Cantor-Poets and the Anonymous Payṭanim46
Yose b. Yose48
The Principle Genres52
Seliḥah52
’Azharah52
‘Avodah52
The Classical Period in Ereṣ Yisra’el53
General Background53
A New Role for Cantor-Poets53
The Principal Poets66
Yannai66
Qillir67
The Principal Genres74
Qerovah74
Qedušta’75
Yoṣer81
Ma‘ariv83
Seliḥah85
Qinah86
Hoša‘not88
Qidduš Yeraḥim89
Mišmarot90
Birkat Ha-Mazon91
Language and Style92
Folk Legends92
Post-Classical Developments in the Babylonian Diaspora97
General Background97
The Principal Poets99
Sa‘adyah Ga’on99
Innovations99
Philosophy in the Liturgy100
Sa‘adyah’s Siddur100
Sa‘adyah’s Language101
Sa‘adyah’s Legacy102
Sa‘adyah’s Successors: Nehemiah b. Solomon, Samuel b. Hošanah, Ha’yyay Ga’on b. Šerirah102
The Principal Genres106
Revised Qedušta’ and Yoṣer106
New Genres108
‘Oseh Ha-Šalom, Rahaṭ, Ševaḥ, Maṣdar and We‘al Zo’t108
Personal Prayers: Confession, Supplication and Admonition110
2: Hymnographic Developments in Spain112
General Background112
Andalusia’s Golden Age: New Directions in Hymnography112
The Classical Revival in Christian Spain113
Language and Style115
Arabic Metrics in Synagogue Hymnography115
Arabic Qasidah and Muwashshaḥ116
Adventures in Rhyming119
Scriptural Adornments120
Acrostics and Signatures122
Musical Devices124
Stylistic Rhetorics125
Philosophical Themes130
Scriptural Usage and Plain Meaning132
The Principal Genres138
‘Avodah138
’Azharah139
Qedušta’139
Yoṣer142
Prayers for Dew and Rain144
Rešut144
Muḥarrak149
Seliḥah150
Tokheḥah151
Teḥinnah151
Gemar152
Muqaddimah153
Hištaḥawayah and Meyuššav153
Baqqašah154
Widduy155
Rehuṭah155
Qinah156
Elegy-Petiḥah157
Hymns for the Life-cycle: Circumcisions and Epithalamia158
Sabbath Hymns: Zemer and Havdalah159
3: Cantor-Rabbis in Italy, Franco-Germany and England161
General Background161
The Role of the Italian Synagogue Poet163
The Role of the Franco-German and English Synagogue Poets165
The Principal Italian Poets166
Amittai166
Solomon Ha-Bavli168
Elia b. Šemayah169
The Kalonymides170
Rome’s Anaw Family171
Anan b. Marino173
Yeraḥmiel b. Solomon and Yeḥiel b. Yekutiel173
Moses b. Isaac da Rieti175
Language and Style Italy175
Rhyme and Metre175
The Principal Italian Genres177
‘Avodah177
Qedušta’177
Yoṣer177
’Ofan179
Zulat180
The Principal Franco–German Poets180
Simeon b. Isaac180
Rabbenu Geršom b. Judah182
Joseph Ṭov Elem183
Menaḥem b. Makhir184
Meir b. Isaac185
Ephraim b. Isaac186
Ephraim b. Jacob188
Barukh b. Samuel189
Franco–German Language and Style190
Rabbinic Usage190
Rhyme190
Metre191
Polemics192
Philosophical Themes194
Folk Legends195
The Principal Franco–German Genres200
Qedušta’: ’Eloheykhem200
Yoṣer201
’Ofan201
’Ahavah202
Zulat202
’El ’Adon and Ševaḥ203
Rešut203
Nišmat206
'Illu Finu206
Ha-Melekh206
’El Ha-Hoda’ot206
Ma‘ariv207
Magen ’Avot208
Seliḥah209
Ḥaṭa’nu209
‘Aqedah209
Gezerot210
Petiḥah211
Qinah211
Birkat Ha-Mazon212
England's Principal Poets212
Caedmon?212
Yom Ṭov b. Isaac214
Meir of Norwich215
4: Synagogue Poets in Balkan Byzantium218
General Background218
Greece and Anatolia218
The Role of the Poet220
Romaniote Mysticism222
Romaniote Folk Practices227
The Principal Poets: Early Romaniotes228
Benjamin b. Samuel228
Isaac b. Judah232
Benjamin b. Zeraḥ232
The Principal Genres of the Early Romaniotes236
Qedušta’236
Yoṣer238
Silluq and ’Ofan240
Zulat240
Seliḥah246
Pizmon247
Šeniyyah, Šelisiyyah, Šalmonit248
‘Aqedah248
’Azharah249
The Principal Poets: Later Romaniotes250
Moses b Ḥiyyah250
Joseph Qalai252
Abraham b. Isaac b. Moses256
Moses Ḥazan of Thebes258
Solomon Šarvit Ha-Zahav261
The Principal Genres of the Later Romaniotes263
Rahiṭ263
Yoṣer266
Guf Ha-Yoṣer Dialogue266
Maṣdar271
’Ofan271
’Ahavah272
Zulat273
Mi Kamokha274
Ge’ullah278
Rešut278
Qaṣidah-style Rešuyyot279
Simḥat Torah Rešuyyot279
Petiḥah280
Muḥarrak285
Seliḥah286
Pizmon286
Mustajāb287
Šeniyyah, Šelisiyyah, Šalmonit288
Ḥaṭa’nu293
Tokheḥah298
Baqqašah302
‘Aqedah309
Tahanun/Teḥinnah310
Widduy314
Qinah316
Ṣidduq Ha-Din322
Epithalamia322
5: Cantor-Poets on Greece’s Periphery: Macedonia, Bulgaria, Corfu, Kaffa (Crimea) and Crete324
General Background: Macedonia and Bulgaria324
Macedonian Messianism325
The Principal Macedonian and Bulgarian Poets326
Tobias B. Eliezer and Eliezer B. Judah326
Mordecai Ha-’arokh328
Sabbetai Haviv330
Menahem B. Elia331
The Principal Macedonian Genres333
Qedusta’ and Rahit333
Yoser335
Zulat335
Mi Kamokha335
Resut and Petihah336
Selihah341
Seniyyah343
H Ata’nu344
Tokhehah348
Baqqasah349
‘aqedah352
Tahanun352
General Background: Corfu, Kaffa (Crimea) and Crete354
The Principal Corfiote Poets355
Samuel Memeli and Abraham Marino355
The Later Corfiotes355
The Principal Corfiote Genres356
Yoser356
Silluq357
’ofan357
Zulat358
Mi Kamokha359
Ge’ullah362
Resut362
’illu Finu and Kal ‘asmotay363
Petihah365
Selihah365
Moses Kohen’s Terzina366
General Background: Kaffa368
The Principal Kaffan Poets368
The Principal Kaffan Genres369
Memorial Prayer369
Resut369
Selihah371
Petihah371
Zemirot373
General Background: Crete374
Cretans in the Italian Renaissance374
The Principal Cretan Poets375
Anatoli Qazani375
Moses Del Medigo376
Malkiel Askenazi376
Jacob B. Eliezer376
Semaryah Ha-ikriti376
Elijah Philosof377
Semaryah B. Elqanah, Elqanah B.semaryah and Mattityah B. Joseph377
Moses Ha-yewani and Abraham Ha-kohen377
The Principal Cretan Genres378
Yoser378
Silluq379
’ofan380
Mi Kamokha380
Resut383
Petihah386
Selihah387
Hata’nu388
Tokhehah389
Baqqasah390
Tahanun and Tehinnah391
6: Ottoman Hymnography393
General Background393
Under Muslim Rule393
The Principal Poets395
Salom Enabi and Elia of Istip395
Mordecai Comtino and Elijahselebi395
Menahem Tamar and Elia Ha-levi396
Solomon B. Mazal Tov and the Ottoman Golden Age397
Solomon B. Mazaltov’s Messianism398
The Principal Genres401
’azharah401
Yoser402
’ofan403
Me’orah404
Mi Kamokha404
Ge’ullah408
Resut410
Petihah416
Selihah420
Pizmon420
Mustajab422
Salmonit Selihah422
Baqqasah423
Tahanun424
Qinah425
Epithalamia426
Zemirot428
Blessing for the Ruler of the Land429
Prayer Before Setting Forth on a Journey431
Introduction to Maimonides’ Thirteen Principles431
7: Karaite Synagogue Poets433
General Background433
The Principal Poets435
Tobias B. Moses435
Aaron B. Joseph435
Aaron B. Elijah435
Elijah Basyatchi436
Caleb Afendopolo436
Language and Style437
Karaite Poetics437
Rhetorics and Philosophy440
Literary Influences446
Rabbanite and Karaite Liturgical Exchanges450
Karaite Usages453
Polemics454
The Principal Genres455
Glossary458
Select Bibliography468
Index of Piyyuṭim (Hebrew)478
Index of Piyyuṭim (Transliterated)488
General Index496