Since their arrival in Europe at the beginning of the eleventh century, the "Gypsies" have stimulated and fascinated the European imagination, but have also always been perceived as "other" and marginalised. This title is split into four parts and seeks to address the questions raised by the ambivalent encounter of the "Gypsies" with European cultures. The volume begins with three chapters about the genesis, development and scope of Romany Studies. Constructions of Romany culture and identity are at the heart of the second part. Part three focuses on nineteenth and twentieth century literary constructions of Romany identity, be it from a gadzo or Romany perspective. The final part tackles the question of how the role of the Romanies will be remembered, recorded and commemorated.