Yom-Tov Lipmann Heller

BookYom-Tov Lipmann Heller

Yom-Tov Lipmann Heller

Portrait of a Seventeenth-Century Rabbi

The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization


June 30th, 2005

Access Token


Other Formats



This study portrays a man and an age. Yom-Tov Lipmann Heller (1578-1654), author of the famous Mishnah commentary Tosafot yom tov, was a major talmudist, a disciple of the legendary Rabbi Judah Loew of Prague, and himself the distinguished chief rabbi of Prague and Cracow. The time in which he lived began as a ‘golden age’ for the Jews of Prague and the Jews of Poland, an age of prosperity and the rise of Jewish mysticism. During Heller’s lifetime, however, the golden age changed to darkness, and prosperity gave way to war, persecution, plague, and massacres. It was the end of the Middle Ages, the last generation before Spinoza and Shabbetai Zevi.

Scholar, preacher, religious and communal leader, Heller embodied a religious and cultural ideal; he was the very model of a seventeenth-century rabbi. Born in Germany, he moved from one end of the world of Ashkenazi Jewry to the other, first to Prague, and then to Poland and the Ukraine. His life was enmeshed in a web of family ties, and bounded by complex rules of class and religion. His writing reflects not only the full heritage of medieval Jewish thought and its crystallization in the seventeenth century, but also the time and place in which he lived. In many ways, he exemplified his age, its achievements, and its limitations.

Carefully researched and well written, Joseph Davis’s work is the definitive biography of Heller. He presents a richly detailed study of Heller’s worldview, his conception of Judaism, of the world around him, and of himself within it: the seventeenth century seen through seventeenth-century eyes. Heller was eyewitness to momentous, epoch-making events: the beginning of the Thirty Years’ War and the massacres of 1648. He lived through a time of tumultuous change. Texts such as the sermon in which Heller responded to the new astronomy of Brahe and Kepler, or a poem on the massacres of 1648 in which he enlarged the capacity of Hebrew poetry to express horror are significant in the larger context of Jewish and European history.

Heller’s world-view was not static or motionless. His world changed greatly during his lifetime, and his views of it likewise changed greatly over the fifty years from his first writings to his last, from youth to middle age to old age. His personal circumstances also contributed to this: the experience of betrayal, arrest, imprisonment, the death of his children, and other misfortunes led him to wrestle with such questions as the differences between Jews and non-Jews and  the meaning of suffering. Davis weaves these developments succinctly into a fascinating narrative that does full justice both to Heller and the momentous events he experienced.

'All in all a very nuanced biography of a prominent pre-modern rabbi, enjoyable for any Jewish history buff.'
- Roger S. Kohn, AJL Newsletter
'Joseph Davis ... has done remarkably well in producing the first English biography of one of the giants in European Jewish life.'
- Uri ben Alexander, European Judaism
'A welcome addition to the history of early modern Jews, those of eastern Europe in particular'
- Magda Teter, Jewish History
'Does this person merit a biography? The answer is a resounding yes ... The narrative style is very vivid, paying close attention to particulars of time, place, personality traits, and interpersonal relationships that bring the story to life. While the primary audience of this book is other Jewish historians, the work will also be useful to the Europeanist who is not familiar with the details of Jewish life. Davis situates Heller in the larger European context and highlights many interesting points of comparison between Jews and their Christian contemporaries ... an exemplary study of Ashkenazi Jewry through the lens of one of its leading personalities.'
- Hava Tirosh-Samuelson, Renaissance Studies
'Highly successful biography ... Davis successfully brings Heller to life by detailing his intellectual achievements, his communal leadership, and personal travails ... a lucid and highly informative work that helps open the world of early modern Ashlenazic luminaries.'
- Shlomo Brody, Tradition Online


Author Information

Joseph Davis is Associate Professor of Jewish Thought, Gratz College, Pennsylvania. He studied at Brown and Harvard universities.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Section TitlePagePrice
Half Title2
Title Page4
List of Abbreviations14
Note on Transliteration and Place Names15
Map: The World of Yom-Tov Lipmann Heller18
A Rabbinic Life20
The Six Pillars23
Philosophy and Mysticism in Ashkenazi Culture24
Social Rabbis26
The Politics of Seventeenth-Century Jews28
Persecutions and Plagues30
Satan in Goray32
Part I: The Ladder of Ascension 1578–161736
1. The Orphan38
The Orphan38
Wallerstein, 157839
Marriage into a Prominent Family42
The Maharal of Prague45
The New Curriculum50
The Examination of the World54
2. The Exile of a Philosopher58
The Flowering of Philosophical Study among Ashkenazi Jews58
Joseph ben Isaac Halevi and Givat hamoreh63
‘A Dwarf on the Shoulders of a Giant’64
The Plague of 161166
The Exile of a Philosopher67
3. Two Kabbalists70
Isaiah Horowitz and the ‘Repudiation of Philosophy’70
Heller as Kabbalist73
On Magic, Magidim, and the Individual Self75
On Esotericism, Non-Kabbalistic Judaism, and the Purposes of Prayer78
In Defence of Philosophy82
4. Tosafot yom tov85
The Maharal and the Revival of the Mishnah85
On Rashi, Tosafot, and the Seventy Faces of Torah89
The Exegetical Experience98
Letter to Worms, 1616101
5. Jews and Non-Jews102
The Nikolsburg Wine Controversy of 1616102
On Non-Jewish Bread and Non-Jewish Books106
Humanizing the Non-Jews111
Against Trinitarianism, 1619115
On Unity116
Part II: The Trial 1618–1630118
6. Prague in Wartime120
The Defenestration of Prague, 1618120
Letter to Vienna, 1619120
Prague, 1620: Habsburg Loyalist125
On Providence and Miracles128
Jacob Bassevi131
The Plague of 1625132
7. The Chief Rabbi136
‘Who are the Kings? The Rabbis.’136
Rabbinical Activism and Educational Reform138
‘Delights of the King’140
Against the Shulhan Arukh141
On Humility145
Interpretations and Decisions146
The Constitutions of the Jews148
The Title Page150
Letter to Frankfurt, 1628151
8. The Trial155
The Arrest155
In the Prison of Vienna157
On Politics171
Again on Non-Jews172
A Day of Remembrance174
Part III: Change And Defeat 1631–1654176
9. The Sermon178
From Prague to Poland178
‘The Lessening of the Moon’180
Midrashic Natural History183
On the New Astronomy185
On Change187
The Maharal and the Illusion of Self190
The Acceptance of Suffering191
10. Attacks and Retreats194
To the Edge of Europe194
Again on the Shulhan Arukh197
On Honour200
The Ban on the Purchase of Rabbinical Office202
The Permission to Publish Kabbalah208
11. A Rabbi’s Autobiography211
The Coronation, 1644211
Deliverance Narrative and Autobiography212
On Silence216
On Himself220
12. The Massacres of 1648224
The Twentieth Day of Sivan224
Fasting and Silence225
Two Kinds of Messianism228
Demonizing the Cossacks230
The Absence of the King232
‘You have become a Plague’238
Letter to Checiny, 1651239
Yom-Tov Lipmann Heller’s Extant Works and Writings244
Index of Personal Names294
Index of References to Yom-Tov Lipmann Heller301
Index of Subjects306