Intrigue and Revolution

BookIntrigue and Revolution

Intrigue and Revolution

Chief Rabbis in Aleppo, Baghdad, and Damascus, 1774-1914

The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization


June 18th, 2015

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This is a book of unexpected drama: all eleven chief rabbis appointed in this period of unprecedented change in the Jewish communities of the Fertile Crescent became the subject of controversy and were subsequently dismissed. This took place against a background of events rarely discussed in the context of Jewish society: crime, hooliganism, slander, power struggles, sexual promiscuity, and even assaults and assassination attempts on rabbis. Using a wide range of testimonies gleaned from Ottoman Jewish, Arabic, and European sources, Yaron Harel paints a colourful picture of these upheavals set firmly in the social and political context of the time and far removed from the commonly accepted image of Jewish communities in the Ottoman empire.

Jews were also affected by modernization and political conflict in the wider society of the time, and these too gave rise to power struggles. The chief rabbis were at the forefront of these confrontations, especially those that resulted from the new inclination towards Western culture. Most of them recognized that the challenges of modernization had to be met, although in a way that did not endanger religious principles. Their openness to change stemmed from a concern for the future of the communities for which they were responsible, but they were often vociferously opposed by those who were free from such responsibility. The communal politics that ensued were sometimes heated to the point of violence.

In the latter years of the empire, many Jews came to support the Young Turks, with their promise of liberty and equality for all. The atmosphere of the time was such that rabbis had to develop political awareness and engage in Ottoman politics. This was another source of tension within the community since the new regime punished anyone suspected of opposition severely.

This lively and fascinating study based on little-known sources offers a lens through which to view the Jewish society of the Ottoman empire at a time when all the traditional norms were being challenged.


‘Fascinating . . . Harel focuses on the main cities of the countries known today as Iraq and Syria, but the reader gains important knowledge and understanding of other regions as well, mainly Jerusalem and Turkey. The author thoroughly perused the available records of the period . . . Harel's mastery of rabbinical literature and its somewhat enigmatic language has enabled him to unearth a treasury of data which he successfully cross references with other historical records . . . The book is written in a clear language, analyzing the intricate histories of the rabbis of the three communities in chronological order, moving from city to city and from period to period deftly and seamlessly. The translation is fluid and engaging, not an easy task given the nature of the book and many rabbinic texts quoted. The author is to be commended for this thorough investigation of a period which has left an indelible mark on the religious life and practices of hundreds of thousands of Jews.'

'Harel's book is destined to become the fundamental starting point for research into many aspects of the Jewish communities it discusses, and of others too. It makes an outstanding contribution in at least four areas: the history of the three communities that are discussed and those which they were in contact; the multi-faceted nature of the rabbinate as an institution; Jewish identity and self-understanding; and the work of historian in the post-modern age . . . Harel's strength as a historian lies not only in how he uses his sources, but also in his ability both to ask stimulating new questions and to resolve them, thanks to the breadth of his knowledge, his intellectual honesty, and his empathy for the people about whom he is writing.'
Nachem Ilan, Pe'amim

Author Information

Yaron Harel is Professor of Jewish History at Bar-Ilan University. His contribution to the field of oriental Jewish history, especially in Syria, been recognized in a series of awards, including the Aminoah Prize (2000), the Ben-Zvi Prize for Research in Oriental Jewry (2004), and the Zalman Shazar Prize for Research in Jewish History (2009), He is also the author of The Books of Aleppo: The Rabbinic Literature of the Scholars of Aleppo (1997) and of the volume Syria (2009) in the series Jewish Communities in the East in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, and co-editor, with Yom Tov Assis and Miriam Frenkel, of Aleppo Studies - The Jews of Aleppo: Their History and Culture, Volume 1 (2009).

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Section TitlePagePrice
Cover 1
Half Title2
Title Page4
Preface and Acknowledgements8
Note on Transliteration and Conventions Used in the Text14
List of Abbreviations16
1. Sadkah Houssin’s Struggle for Control over the Baghdad Community36
2. Raphael Solomon Laniado and the Struggle in Aleppo against the Inheritance of the Rabbinate47
3. The Saga of Raphael Kassin: From Ḥakham Bashi in Baghdad to Reform Rabbi in Aleppo 72
4. The Baghdad Community Torn between Rabbis Samoha and Dangoor96
5. Abraham Dweck Hakohen (Khalousi): The Last Ḥakham Bashi Born in Aleppo 129
6. Yitshak Abulafia’s Troubled Path to Rabbinic Office in Damascus161
7. The Appointment and Deposition of Rabbi Yitshak Abulafia185
8. The Appointment and Removal of Rabbi Solomon Eli’ezer Mercado Alfandari in Damascus218
9. Jacob Danon’s Appointment as Chief Rabbi of Damascus and its Consequences251
10. Hezekiah Shabetai’s Struggle against Deposition in Aleppo289
11. The Removal of the Ḥakham Bashi of Baghdad, David Pappo, by the Young Turks 326