innovative book recreates the historical consciousness that fired the
Haskalah—the Jewish Enlightenment movement. The proponents of this movement
advocated that Jews should capture the spirit of the future and take their
place in wider society, but as Jews—without denying their collective identity
and without denying their past. Claiming historical legitimacy for their
ideology and their vision of the future, they formulated an ethos of modernity
that they projected on to the universal and the Jewish past alike.
What was the image of
the past that the maskilim shaped? What tactics underpinned their use of
history? How did their historical awareness change and develop—from the
inception of the Haskalah in Germany at the time of Mendelssohn and Wessely,
through the centres of Haskalah in Austria, Galicia, and Russia, to the
emergence of modern nationalism in the maskilic circles in eastern Europe in
the last third of the nineteenth century? These are some of the questions
raised in this fascinating exploration of an ideological approach to history
which throws a searching new light on the Jewish Enlightenment movement and the
emergence of Jewish historical consciousness more generally.
Shmuel Feiner is Professor of Modern Jewish History at Bar- Ilan University and chairman of the Jerusalem Leo Baeck Institute. He is the author of The Jewish Enlightenment (2004), Moses Mendelssohn, Sage of Modernity (2010), and The Origins of Jewish Secularization in Eighteenth-Century Europe (2011).
Note on transliteration and conventions used in the text
Introduction: ‘Haskalah’ and ‘History’
1. From Traditional History to Maskilic History in Late Eighteenth-Century Germany
An Enlightened Avant-Garde • The Legitimization of Traditional History • The ‘Judgement of Reason’: Legitimizations for a New History • Rationalistic, Realistic, and Moralistic History • The Modern Period in the Maskilic Picture of the Past • The Pantheon of Historical Heroes • The Dissemination of Maskilic History in the Early Nineteenth Century
2. The Manipulation of History in Nineteenth-Century Galicia
The Galician Maskilim • The Unfolding of Maskilic History • A Natural History of Hasidism • Nahman Krochmal: The Middle-f-the-Road Maskil • Wissenschaft des Judentums in Galicia • The Struggle for Freedom of Thought • Iconoclasm: Attitudes to Religious Reform
3. Optimism under Oppression: Maskilic History in Russia, 1825–1855
The Idea Yearned to be Realized • A universal History for a Modern Era • The Maskilic Chain of Tradition • The Use of History in Maskilic Propaganda • Political History and Moral History
4. Reaching the Masses: The Dissemination of Maskilic History
The Channels of Distribution • Optimistic and Patriotic History • Scientifc Knowledge of the Past • The Autobiography of the Haskalah Movement • Abraham Mapu and the Popularization of Maskilic History • Heroics and Sacred memories in Popular Historical Fiction • Improvement of the Masses: History in Yiddish • Kalman Schulman: The First Professional Popularizer
5. Maskilic History in Crisis
The Radical Haskalah: A Loss of Optimism • The Anticlerical Struggle • The Historical Vindication of Hasidism • From ‘Maskilic History” to ‘National History’
Conclusion: New Directions
FOR ENGLISH EDITION:
'Meticulously researched [...] a definitive account of the Haskalah in its different manifestations.'
- David Biale, American Historical Review
'Shmuel Feiner's work becomes part of the mainstream of contemporary scholarship examining this aspect of European society and utilizing the paradigms of contemporary research [...] This text is essential to the scholar, particularly those dealing with Jewish thought after the Enlightenment. It is also totally relevant to our time.'
- Uri Ben Alexander, European Judaism
'Makes an important and lasting contribution to the study of modern Jewish history and culture [...] excellent.'
- Edward Breuer, Jewish Quarterly Review
'A pathbreaking book which surveys a key aspect of Hebrew-language Jewish enlightenment (haskalahA) thought in the modern period with authority, broad scope as well as with a deep and perceptive understanding of the leading and not-so-leading thinkers in the movement [...] breaks new ground by giving serious attention to 'middle level' enlightenment writers as a means of penetrating the mind of the less sophisticated individuals who made up the bulk of the movement [...] offers clear presentations of the thought of almost all the important ideologues of the movement and gives full bibliographical references. This will be a standard reference text for many years [...] should be a basic book in any collection that deals seriously with modern Jewish thought as well as collections interested in religious modernizations in various cultures.'
- Shaul Stampfer, Religious Studies Review
'Not only does this work successfully recapture a long-forgotten mental universe of maskilic historical writings, it also demonstrates the author's conviction that the Haskalah cannot be displaced from its central, if not exclusive, position in the narrative of Jewish modernization in Europe. Feiner deserves to be regarded as the leading historian of the Haskalah movement considered in its entirety. His mastery of the relevant sources and the scholarly literature on Enlightenment is phenomenal, as is the quality and quantity of his meticulous studies of key Haskalah phenomena and figures [...] a deeply rewarding book. Its very expansiveness suits its author's ambition to understand the Haskalah in its entirety, a task to which Feiner, as much as anyone, is equal [...] a work the reader can luxuriate in [...] this study, in its highly readable translation, now provides the best single-volume treatment in English of the broad (and yes, revolutionary) ideology of the Haskalah.'
- Jonathan Karp, Studies in Contemporary Jewry
FOR HEBREW EDITION:
'This excellent and learned book makes an important contribution to the on-going debate over the origins of modern historical thinking among the Jews [...] the first detailed analysis of the use and abuse of history in the Haskalah [...] It is Feiner's great merit that he is able to take a fresh and lively look at materials previously studied for their ideological and cultural content or literary style, dissecting their often disjointed and even parenthetical comments on and about history, and reassembling them into a coherent and compelling narrative about the ways in which Jews since the Enlightenment have thought or, more properly, written abut their past [...] wonderfully erudite book, at once impassioned and dispassionate.'
- Michael Stanislawski, AJS Review
'Feiner's monumental work is undoubtedly one of the most important to be published in this area, and it will become a bench-mark in the research of modern Jewish history [...] a pleasure to read [...] essential for understanding the modernization of Jewish society in Europe and the emergence of Jewish nationalism, it also makes a significant contribution to the study of the nature of history and historiography and the uses to which they are put [...] the enormous breadth of this work, covering almost a century of the Jewish Enlightenment in Europe, the clarity of its conceptual framework, and its balance between fine detail and the broad overall picture combine to make it an outstanding example of innovative research and exemplary writing on historiography and the representation of the past.'
- Zohar Shavit, Ha'aretz
'Insightful [...] Feiner's approach is highly ambitious in its scope [...] his account is always solidly based on little-know primary material, meticulously analysed; as a whole it adds up to a highly innovative picture of nineteenth-century Jewish historiography [...] This unpretentiously written study provides a wealth of new material and a fresh perspective on Jewish historiography. It will undoubtedly become a standard work on the desk of every serious Jewish historian.'
- Michael Brenner, Journal of Jewish Studies
'This excellent and learned book makes an important contribution to the ongoing debate over the origins of modern historical thinking among the Jews [...] the first detailed analysis of the use and abuse of history in the Haskalah [...] Feiner has performed a crucial service in retrieving, documenting, and explicating the reams of historical claims and commentary on the part of the maskilim from eighteenth-century Berlin to nineteenth-century Berdichev [...] wonderfully erudite book, at once impassioned and dispassionate.'
- Michael Stanislawski, Polin
235 × 155 × 33 mm
July 8, 2004
The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization