Hunter Gatherer Research

Foraging and motorised mobility in contemporary Alaska

A twenty-first century ‘hunter-gatherer situation’

Hunter Gatherer Research (2017), 3, (2), 253–288.

Abstract

There is a need to understand better the capabilities of extant hunter-gatherer modes of production to withstand twenty-first century ecological and socioeconomic change. Drawing on Thomas Widlok’s (2016) proposal that anthropologists should identify and analyse specific ‘hunter-gatherer situations’, this article presents mobility as a primary factor needing analysis in the current situation of Alaska’s hunter-gatherers. Mobility is critical to the maintenance of hunter-gatherer subsistence systems. Contemporary Alaskan motorised mobility is dependent on involvement with external world-system forces. Cash obtained from adoption of market economics allows purchase of needed materials. Wild-food distribution by high-volume harvesters facilitates important aspects of food security and cultural continuity but the large-scale effects of industrially dependent harvest specialisation on socioeconomic evolution need attention. An examination of the situation for road-system hunter-gatherers in the context of a growing conflict with urbanism displays the trajectories of increasingly technologically stratified arrangements. Meanwhile, a flaw in current analyses is to overlook the integral role of energy in the sustainability of mixed cash-subsistence economic systems. Utilising a resilience-oriented social-ecological-systems approach, this article suggests that the long-range effects of industrial dependency on the foraging system need evaluation. Modest empirical evidence is presented to show that hunter-gatherers are creatively making small-scale efforts towards adaptive transformations in regard to mobility. Future monitoring of adaptive strategies by hunter-gatherers in response to energy related socioeconomic constraints is suggested as an important area of research.

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Van Lanen, James M