Town Planning Review

The impact of brownfield regeneration on neighbourhood dynamics: the case of Salford Quays in England

Town Planning Review (2018), 89, (5), 513–534.

Abstract

Reusing brownfield land has been a key element of planning and regeneration policy in England for many years. While many sites are small and of local importance, there are a few major sites where reuse is expected to bring jobs and economic opportunities to a wider area. There has been a lack of longitudinal study that tracks the impact of such large-scale regeneration projects on neighbouring areas. This is partly due to data limitations and the short-term nature of most government-funded evaluation studies. One such site is Salford Quays, a canal harbour area in Greater Manchester, which fell derelict in the early 1980s. Since then a range of regeneration activities has taken place in the area, including the more recent strategic decision to locate part of the BBC’s broadcasting operations on the site as part of MediaCityUK. This paper aims to analyse the extent to which this investment has had a beneficial effect, with a focus on its workplace dynamics and social sustainability, on the regenerated area and its neighbouring areas, which are amongst the most deprived areas in England. The analysis uses a range of socio-economic indicators as well as innovative commuting-flow typologies to establish the spatial dynamics.

The impact of brownfield regeneration on neighbourhood dynamics: the case of Salford Quays in England

Abstract

Reusing brownfield land has been a key element of planning and regeneration policy in England for many years. While many sites are small and of local importance, there are a few major sites where reuse is expected to bring jobs and economic opportunities to a wider area. There has been a lack of longitudinal study that tracks the impact of such large-scale regeneration projects on neighbouring areas. This is partly due to data limitations and the short-term nature of most government-funded evaluation studies. One such site is Salford Quays, a canal harbour area in Greater Manchester, which fell derelict in the early 1980s. Since then a range of regeneration activities has taken place in the area, including the more recent strategic decision to locate part of the BBC’s broadcasting operations on the site as part of MediaCityUK. This paper aims to analyse the extent to which this investment has had a beneficial effect, with a focus on its workplace dynamics and social sustainability, on the regenerated area and its neighbouring areas, which are amongst the most deprived areas in England. The analysis uses a range of socio-economic indicators as well as innovative commuting-flow typologies to establish the spatial dynamics.

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BEGG, I. (ed.) (2002), Urban Competitiveness: Policies for Dynamic Cities, Bristol, Policy Press. Urban Competitiveness: Policies for Dynamic Cities Google Scholar

BENNETT, R. J. and KREBS, G. (1991), Local Economic Development: Public–Private Partnership Initiatives in Britain and Germany, London, Belhaven Press. Local Economic Development: Public–Private Partnership Initiatives in Britain and Germany Google Scholar

BODDY, M. (2002), ‘Linking competitiveness and cohesion’, in Begg (ed.), 33–54. ‘Linking competitiveness and cohesion’ 33 54 Google Scholar

CURRIER, J. (2008), ‘Art and power in the new China: an exploration of Beijing’s 798 District and its implications for contemporary urbanism’, Town Planning Review, 79, 237–65. ‘Art and power in the new China: an exploration of Beijing’ Town Planning Review 79 237 65 Google Scholar

DAVIDSON, M. and LEES, L. (2005), ‘New-build “gentrification” and London’s riverside renaissance’, Environment and Planning A, 37, 1165–90. ‘New-build “gentrification” and London’ Environment and Planning A 37 1165 90 Google Scholar

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DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2015), The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 Statistical Release, 30 September, London, DCLG. The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 Statistical Release Google Scholar

DENG, Y., POON, S. W. and CHAN, E. H. W. (2016), ‘Planning mega-event built legacies: a case of Expo 2010’, Habitat International, 53, 163–77. ‘Planning mega-event built legacies: a case of Expo 2010’ Habitat International 53 163 77 Google Scholar

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DIXON, T., POCOCK, Y. and WATERS, M. (2006), ‘An analysis of the UK development industry’s role in brownfield regeneration’, Journal of Property Investment and Finance, 24, 521–41. ‘An analysis of the UK development industry’s role in brownfield regeneration’ Journal of Property Investment and Finance 24 521 41 Google Scholar

ENGLISH PARTNERSHIPS (2003), Towards a National Brownfield Strategy, Research findings for the deputy prime minister, London, English Partnerships. Towards a National Brownfield Strategy Google Scholar

GOLD, J. R. and GOLD, M. M. (2008), ‘Olympic cities: regeneration, city rebranding and changing urban agendas’, Geography Compass, 2, 300–18. ‘Olympic cities: regeneration, city rebranding and changing urban agendas’ Geography Compass 2 300 18 Google Scholar

HALL, P. and BREHENY, M. (eds) (1996), The People: Where Will They Go?, National report of the TCPA Regional Inquiry into Housing Need and Provision in England, London, Town and Country Planning Association. The People: Where Will They Go? Google Scholar

HAMBLETON, R. and THOMAS, H. (1995), Urban Policy Evaluation: Challenge and Change, London, SAGE. Urban Policy Evaluation: Challenge and Change Google Scholar

HARRISON, B. (2010), Finding a Role? The United Kingdom 1970–1990, Oxford, Clarendon Press. Finding a Role? The United Kingdom 1970–1990 Google Scholar

HINCKS, S., KINGSTON, R., WEBB, B. and WONG, C. (2017), ‘A new geodemographic classification of commuting flows for England and Wales’, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 32, 663–84. ‘A new geodemographic classification of commuting flows for England and Wales’ International Journal of Geographical Information Science 32 663 84 Google Scholar

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HOUSE OF COMMONS (2013), Oral Evidence Taken before the Public Accounts Committee on BBC’s Relocation to Salford, Monday 10 June 2013, UK Parliament, https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201314/cmselect/cmpubacc/uc293-i/uc29301.htm (accessed 8 March 2018). Google Scholar

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JONES, P. and EVANS, J. (2013), Urban Regeneration in the UK: Boom, Bust and Recovery, London, SAGE. Urban Regeneration in the UK: Boom, Bust and Recovery Google Scholar

KAVARATZIS, M. and ASHWORTH, G. (2015), ‘Hijacking culture: the disconnection between place culture and place brands’, Town Planning Review, 86, 155–76. ‘Hijacking culture: the disconnection between place culture and place brands’ Town Planning Review 86 155 76 Google Scholar

KUNZMANN, K. R. (2004), ‘Culture, creativity and spatial planning’, Town Planning Review, 75, 383–404. ‘Culture, creativity and spatial planning’ Town Planning Review 75 383 404 Google Scholar

LANDRY, C. (2002), Imagination and Regeneration: Cultural Policy and the Future of Cities, Strasbourg, Council of Europe. Imagination and Regeneration: Cultural Policy and the Future of Cities Google Scholar

LEYSHON, A. and FRENCH, S. (2009), ‘“We all live in a Robbie Fowler house”: the geographies of the buy to let market in the UK’, British Journal of Politics & International Relations, 11, 438–60. ‘“We all live in a Robbie Fowler house”: the geographies of the buy to let market in the UK’ British Journal of Politics & International Relations 11 438 60 Google Scholar

MIDDLETON, C. (2013), ‘BBC’s Media City causes house price boom in Salford’, The Telegraph, 30 January, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/property/buying-sellingmoving/9836890/BBCs-Media-City-causes-house-price-boom-in-Salford.html (accessed 8 March 2018). Google Scholar

NAO (NATIONAL AUDIT OFFICE) (2013), The BBC’s Move to Salford, Report by the comptroller and auditor general presented to the BBC Trust Finance Committee, 10 April, London, NAO. The BBC’s Move to Salford Google Scholar

PADDISON, R. (1993), ‘City marketing, image reconstruction and urban regeneration’, Urban Studies, 30, 339–50. ‘City marketing, image reconstruction and urban regeneration’ Urban Studies 30 339 50 Google Scholar

QURESHI, Y. (2013), ‘Salford’s middle class makeover’, Manchester Evening News, 12 January, www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/greater-manchester-news/salfords-middle-classmakeover-921039 (accessed 8 March 2018). Google Scholar

RAE, A. and WONG, C. (2012), ‘Monitoring spatial planning policies: towards an analytical, adaptive and spatial approach to a “wicked problem”’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 39, 880–96. ‘Monitoring spatial planning policies: towards an analytical, adaptive and spatial approach to a “wicked problem”’ Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 39 880 96 Google Scholar

ROBSON, B., PARKINSON, M., BODDY, M. and MACLENNAN, D. (2000), The State of English Cities, London, Department for the Environment, Transport and the Regions. The State of English Cities Google Scholar

SALFORD CITY COUNCIL (2006), Outline Planning Application of Peel Media Ltd.’s Land at Quays Point off Broadway Salford Quays Salford, Salford City Council Planning Committee, studylib.net/doc/16028838/application-no--06-53168-out-applicant- (accessed 8 March 2018). Google Scholar

SALFORD CITY COUNCIL (2008), Salford Quays Milestones: The Story of Salford Quays, Salford, Salford City Council. Salford Quays Milestones: The Story of Salford Quays Google Scholar

SCHULZE BÄING, A. (2010), ‘Target-driven brownfield reuse: a benefit for deprived areas? A spatial analysis of brownfield reuse patterns in England’s core city regions’, Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, 3, 290–300. ‘Target-driven brownfield reuse: a benefit for deprived areas? A spatial analysis of brownfield reuse patterns in England’ Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal 3 290 300 Google Scholar

SCHULZE BÄING, A. and WONG, C. (2012), ‘Brownfield residential development: what happens to the most deprived neighbourhoods in England?’, Urban Studies, 49, 2986–3005. ‘Brownfield residential development: what happens to the most deprived neighbourhoods in England?’ Urban Studies 49 2986 3005 Google Scholar

SHIN, H. B. (2010), ‘Urban conservation and revalorisation of dilapidated historic quarters: the case of Nanluoguxiang in Beijing’, Cities, 27, S43–S54. ‘Urban conservation and revalorisation of dilapidated historic quarters: the case of Nanluoguxiang in Beijing’ Cities 27 S43 S54 Google Scholar

SMITH, T., NOBLE, M., NOBLE, S., WRIGHT, G., MCLENNAN, D. and PLUNKETT, E. (2015), The English Indices of Deprivation 2015, Research report, London, Department for Communities and Local Government. The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 Google Scholar

SPAANS, M., JANSSEN-JANSEN, L. and VAN DER VEEN, M. (2011), ‘Market-oriented compensation instruments: lessons for Dutch urban redevelopment’, Town Planning Review, 82, 425–40. ‘Market-oriented compensation instruments: lessons for Dutch urban redevelopment’ Town Planning Review 82 425 40 Google Scholar

STRUTHERS, W. A. K. (1997), ‘From Manchester Docks to Salford Quays: ten years of environmental improvements in the Mersey Basin Campaign’, Journal of Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management, 11, 1–7. ‘From Manchester Docks to Salford Quays: ten years of environmental improvements in the Mersey Basin Campaign’ Journal of Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management 11 1 7 Google Scholar

SWINNEY, P. and SIVAEV, D. (2013), Beyond the High Street: Why Our City Centres Really Matter, London, Centre for Cities. Beyond the High Street: Why Our City Centres Really Matter Google Scholar

WALLACE, A. (2014), ‘Salford loves it big and shiny: living in the edgelands of contemporary urban renewal’, New Left Project, www.newleftproject.org/index.php/site/article_comments/salford_loves_it_big_and_shiny_living_in_the_edgelands_of_contemporary_urba (accessed 8 March 2018). Google Scholar

WERNSTEDT, K., MEYER, P. B. and ALBERINI, A. (2006), ‘Incentives for private residential brown-fields development in US urban areas’, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 49, 101–19. ‘Incentives for private residential brown-fields development in US urban areas’ Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 49 101 19 Google Scholar

WONG, C. (2000), ‘Indicators in use: challenges to urban and environmental planning in Britain’, Town Planning Review, 71, 213–39. ‘Indicators in use: challenges to urban and environmental planning in Britain’ Town Planning Review 71 213 39 Google Scholar

WONG, C. (2006), Quantitative Indicators for Urban and Regional Planning: The Interplay of Policy and Methods, London, Routledge. Quantitative Indicators for Urban and Regional Planning: The Interplay of Policy and Methods Google Scholar

WONG, C., COOMBES, M. and RAYBOULD, S. (1991), ‘The environmental quality of residential neighbourhoods: a town planning application of GIS’, Town Planning Review, 62, 369–73. ‘The environmental quality of residential neighbourhoods: a town planning application of GIS’ Town Planning Review 62 369 73 Google Scholar

WONG, C., SCHULZE BÄING, A., SHAKERI, M. and SMITH, J. (2015), Does Space Matter? Housing, Transport and Accessibility in Greater Manchester, a report for Just GM research project, Manchester, University of Manchester. Does Space Matter? Housing, Transport and Accessibility in Greater Manchester Google Scholar

YELLING, J. (2000), ‘The incidence of slum clearance in England and Wales, 1955–85’, Urban History, 27, 234–54. ‘The incidence of slum clearance in England and Wales, 1955–85’ Urban History 27 234 54 Google Scholar

ADAMS, D. and WATKINS, C. (2009), Brownfield Market Signals: Greenfield Housing Land Supply and the Viability of Brownfield Housing Development, London, Campaign to Protect Rural England. Brownfield Market Signals: Greenfield Housing Land Supply and the Viability of Brownfield Housing Development Google Scholar

ALLEN, C. (2007), Housing Market Renewal and Social Class, London, Routledge and Wallace. Housing Market Renewal and Social Class Google Scholar

BARKER, K. (2003), Review of Housing Supply: Securing Our Future Needs, interim report – analysis, London, HM Treasury. Review of Housing Supply: Securing Our Future Needs Google Scholar

BEGG, I. (ed.) (2002), Urban Competitiveness: Policies for Dynamic Cities, Bristol, Policy Press. Urban Competitiveness: Policies for Dynamic Cities Google Scholar

BENNETT, R. J. and KREBS, G. (1991), Local Economic Development: Public–Private Partnership Initiatives in Britain and Germany, London, Belhaven Press. Local Economic Development: Public–Private Partnership Initiatives in Britain and Germany Google Scholar

BODDY, M. (2002), ‘Linking competitiveness and cohesion’, in Begg (ed.), 33–54. ‘Linking competitiveness and cohesion’ 33 54 Google Scholar

CURRIER, J. (2008), ‘Art and power in the new China: an exploration of Beijing’s 798 District and its implications for contemporary urbanism’, Town Planning Review, 79, 237–65. ‘Art and power in the new China: an exploration of Beijing’ Town Planning Review 79 237 65 Google Scholar

DAVIDSON, M. and LEES, L. (2005), ‘New-build “gentrification” and London’s riverside renaissance’, Environment and Planning A, 37, 1165–90. ‘New-build “gentrification” and London’ Environment and Planning A 37 1165 90 Google Scholar

DAVIS, H. (2007), ‘From dirty old town to shiny city’, The Telegraph, 7 June, www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/property/3358364/From-dirty-old-town-to-shiny-city.html (accessed 8 March 2018). Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2015), The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 Statistical Release, 30 September, London, DCLG. The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 Statistical Release Google Scholar

DENG, Y., POON, S. W. and CHAN, E. H. W. (2016), ‘Planning mega-event built legacies: a case of Expo 2010’, Habitat International, 53, 163–77. ‘Planning mega-event built legacies: a case of Expo 2010’ Habitat International 53 163 77 Google Scholar

DIAMOND, D. R. (1991), ‘Managing urban change’, in R. J. Bennett (ed.), Global Change and Challenge: Geography for the 1990s, London, Routledge, 217–41. ‘Managing urban change’ Global Change and Challenge: Geography for the 1990s 217 41 Google Scholar

DIXON, T. and ADAMS, D. (2008), ‘Housing supply and brownfield regeneration in a post-Barker world: is there enough brownfield land in England and Scotland?’, Urban Studies, 45, 115–39. ‘Housing supply and brownfield regeneration in a post-Barker world: is there enough brownfield land in England and Scotland?’ Urban Studies 45 115 39 Google Scholar

DIXON, T., POCOCK, Y. and WATERS, M. (2006), ‘An analysis of the UK development industry’s role in brownfield regeneration’, Journal of Property Investment and Finance, 24, 521–41. ‘An analysis of the UK development industry’s role in brownfield regeneration’ Journal of Property Investment and Finance 24 521 41 Google Scholar

ENGLISH PARTNERSHIPS (2003), Towards a National Brownfield Strategy, Research findings for the deputy prime minister, London, English Partnerships. Towards a National Brownfield Strategy Google Scholar

GOLD, J. R. and GOLD, M. M. (2008), ‘Olympic cities: regeneration, city rebranding and changing urban agendas’, Geography Compass, 2, 300–18. ‘Olympic cities: regeneration, city rebranding and changing urban agendas’ Geography Compass 2 300 18 Google Scholar

HALL, P. and BREHENY, M. (eds) (1996), The People: Where Will They Go?, National report of the TCPA Regional Inquiry into Housing Need and Provision in England, London, Town and Country Planning Association. The People: Where Will They Go? Google Scholar

HAMBLETON, R. and THOMAS, H. (1995), Urban Policy Evaluation: Challenge and Change, London, SAGE. Urban Policy Evaluation: Challenge and Change Google Scholar

HARRISON, B. (2010), Finding a Role? The United Kingdom 1970–1990, Oxford, Clarendon Press. Finding a Role? The United Kingdom 1970–1990 Google Scholar

HINCKS, S., KINGSTON, R., WEBB, B. and WONG, C. (2017), ‘A new geodemographic classification of commuting flows for England and Wales’, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 32, 663–84. ‘A new geodemographic classification of commuting flows for England and Wales’ International Journal of Geographical Information Science 32 663 84 Google Scholar

HM GOVERNMENT (2005), Securing the Future: Delivering UK Sustainable Development Strategy, London, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Securing the Future: Delivering UK Sustainable Development Strategy Google Scholar

HOUSE OF COMMONS (2013), Oral Evidence Taken before the Public Accounts Committee on BBC’s Relocation to Salford, Monday 10 June 2013, UK Parliament, https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201314/cmselect/cmpubacc/uc293-i/uc29301.htm (accessed 8 March 2018). Google Scholar

THE INDEPENDENT (1994), ‘No-go Britain: where, what, why’, 16 April, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/no-go-britain-where-what-why-1370749.html (accessed 8 March 2018). Google Scholar

JEFFERY, B. and JACKSON, W. (2012), ‘The Pendleton riot: a political sociology: Bob Jeffery and Will Jackson examine the background to the unrest in Salford’, Criminal Justice Matters, 87, 18–20. ‘The Pendleton riot: a political sociology: Bob Jeffery and Will Jackson examine the background to the unrest in Salford’ Criminal Justice Matters 87 18 20 Google Scholar

JONES, P. and EVANS, J. (2013), Urban Regeneration in the UK: Boom, Bust and Recovery, London, SAGE. Urban Regeneration in the UK: Boom, Bust and Recovery Google Scholar

KAVARATZIS, M. and ASHWORTH, G. (2015), ‘Hijacking culture: the disconnection between place culture and place brands’, Town Planning Review, 86, 155–76. ‘Hijacking culture: the disconnection between place culture and place brands’ Town Planning Review 86 155 76 Google Scholar

KUNZMANN, K. R. (2004), ‘Culture, creativity and spatial planning’, Town Planning Review, 75, 383–404. ‘Culture, creativity and spatial planning’ Town Planning Review 75 383 404 Google Scholar

LANDRY, C. (2002), Imagination and Regeneration: Cultural Policy and the Future of Cities, Strasbourg, Council of Europe. Imagination and Regeneration: Cultural Policy and the Future of Cities Google Scholar

LEYSHON, A. and FRENCH, S. (2009), ‘“We all live in a Robbie Fowler house”: the geographies of the buy to let market in the UK’, British Journal of Politics & International Relations, 11, 438–60. ‘“We all live in a Robbie Fowler house”: the geographies of the buy to let market in the UK’ British Journal of Politics & International Relations 11 438 60 Google Scholar

MIDDLETON, C. (2013), ‘BBC’s Media City causes house price boom in Salford’, The Telegraph, 30 January, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/property/buying-sellingmoving/9836890/BBCs-Media-City-causes-house-price-boom-in-Salford.html (accessed 8 March 2018). Google Scholar

NAO (NATIONAL AUDIT OFFICE) (2013), The BBC’s Move to Salford, Report by the comptroller and auditor general presented to the BBC Trust Finance Committee, 10 April, London, NAO. The BBC’s Move to Salford Google Scholar

PADDISON, R. (1993), ‘City marketing, image reconstruction and urban regeneration’, Urban Studies, 30, 339–50. ‘City marketing, image reconstruction and urban regeneration’ Urban Studies 30 339 50 Google Scholar

QURESHI, Y. (2013), ‘Salford’s middle class makeover’, Manchester Evening News, 12 January, www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/greater-manchester-news/salfords-middle-classmakeover-921039 (accessed 8 March 2018). Google Scholar

RAE, A. and WONG, C. (2012), ‘Monitoring spatial planning policies: towards an analytical, adaptive and spatial approach to a “wicked problem”’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 39, 880–96. ‘Monitoring spatial planning policies: towards an analytical, adaptive and spatial approach to a “wicked problem”’ Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 39 880 96 Google Scholar

ROBSON, B., PARKINSON, M., BODDY, M. and MACLENNAN, D. (2000), The State of English Cities, London, Department for the Environment, Transport and the Regions. The State of English Cities Google Scholar

SALFORD CITY COUNCIL (2006), Outline Planning Application of Peel Media Ltd.’s Land at Quays Point off Broadway Salford Quays Salford, Salford City Council Planning Committee, studylib.net/doc/16028838/application-no--06-53168-out-applicant- (accessed 8 March 2018). Google Scholar

SALFORD CITY COUNCIL (2008), Salford Quays Milestones: The Story of Salford Quays, Salford, Salford City Council. Salford Quays Milestones: The Story of Salford Quays Google Scholar

SCHULZE BÄING, A. (2010), ‘Target-driven brownfield reuse: a benefit for deprived areas? A spatial analysis of brownfield reuse patterns in England’s core city regions’, Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, 3, 290–300. ‘Target-driven brownfield reuse: a benefit for deprived areas? A spatial analysis of brownfield reuse patterns in England’ Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal 3 290 300 Google Scholar

SCHULZE BÄING, A. and WONG, C. (2012), ‘Brownfield residential development: what happens to the most deprived neighbourhoods in England?’, Urban Studies, 49, 2986–3005. ‘Brownfield residential development: what happens to the most deprived neighbourhoods in England?’ Urban Studies 49 2986 3005 Google Scholar

SHIN, H. B. (2010), ‘Urban conservation and revalorisation of dilapidated historic quarters: the case of Nanluoguxiang in Beijing’, Cities, 27, S43–S54. ‘Urban conservation and revalorisation of dilapidated historic quarters: the case of Nanluoguxiang in Beijing’ Cities 27 S43 S54 Google Scholar

SMITH, T., NOBLE, M., NOBLE, S., WRIGHT, G., MCLENNAN, D. and PLUNKETT, E. (2015), The English Indices of Deprivation 2015, Research report, London, Department for Communities and Local Government. The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 Google Scholar

SPAANS, M., JANSSEN-JANSEN, L. and VAN DER VEEN, M. (2011), ‘Market-oriented compensation instruments: lessons for Dutch urban redevelopment’, Town Planning Review, 82, 425–40. ‘Market-oriented compensation instruments: lessons for Dutch urban redevelopment’ Town Planning Review 82 425 40 Google Scholar

STRUTHERS, W. A. K. (1997), ‘From Manchester Docks to Salford Quays: ten years of environmental improvements in the Mersey Basin Campaign’, Journal of Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management, 11, 1–7. ‘From Manchester Docks to Salford Quays: ten years of environmental improvements in the Mersey Basin Campaign’ Journal of Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management 11 1 7 Google Scholar

SWINNEY, P. and SIVAEV, D. (2013), Beyond the High Street: Why Our City Centres Really Matter, London, Centre for Cities. Beyond the High Street: Why Our City Centres Really Matter Google Scholar

WALLACE, A. (2014), ‘Salford loves it big and shiny: living in the edgelands of contemporary urban renewal’, New Left Project, www.newleftproject.org/index.php/site/article_comments/salford_loves_it_big_and_shiny_living_in_the_edgelands_of_contemporary_urba (accessed 8 March 2018). Google Scholar

WERNSTEDT, K., MEYER, P. B. and ALBERINI, A. (2006), ‘Incentives for private residential brown-fields development in US urban areas’, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 49, 101–19. ‘Incentives for private residential brown-fields development in US urban areas’ Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 49 101 19 Google Scholar

WONG, C. (2000), ‘Indicators in use: challenges to urban and environmental planning in Britain’, Town Planning Review, 71, 213–39. ‘Indicators in use: challenges to urban and environmental planning in Britain’ Town Planning Review 71 213 39 Google Scholar

WONG, C. (2006), Quantitative Indicators for Urban and Regional Planning: The Interplay of Policy and Methods, London, Routledge. Quantitative Indicators for Urban and Regional Planning: The Interplay of Policy and Methods Google Scholar

WONG, C., COOMBES, M. and RAYBOULD, S. (1991), ‘The environmental quality of residential neighbourhoods: a town planning application of GIS’, Town Planning Review, 62, 369–73. ‘The environmental quality of residential neighbourhoods: a town planning application of GIS’ Town Planning Review 62 369 73 Google Scholar

WONG, C., SCHULZE BÄING, A., SHAKERI, M. and SMITH, J. (2015), Does Space Matter? Housing, Transport and Accessibility in Greater Manchester, a report for Just GM research project, Manchester, University of Manchester. Does Space Matter? Housing, Transport and Accessibility in Greater Manchester Google Scholar

YELLING, J. (2000), ‘The incidence of slum clearance in England and Wales, 1955–85’, Urban History, 27, 234–54. ‘The incidence of slum clearance in England and Wales, 1955–85’ Urban History 27 234 54 Google Scholar

ADAMS, D. and WATKINS, C. (2009), Brownfield Market Signals: Greenfield Housing Land Supply and the Viability of Brownfield Housing Development, London, Campaign to Protect Rural England. Brownfield Market Signals: Greenfield Housing Land Supply and the Viability of Brownfield Housing Development Google Scholar

ALLEN, C. (2007), Housing Market Renewal and Social Class, London, Routledge and Wallace. Housing Market Renewal and Social Class Google Scholar

BARKER, K. (2003), Review of Housing Supply: Securing Our Future Needs, interim report – analysis, London, HM Treasury. Review of Housing Supply: Securing Our Future Needs Google Scholar

BEGG, I. (ed.) (2002), Urban Competitiveness: Policies for Dynamic Cities, Bristol, Policy Press. Urban Competitiveness: Policies for Dynamic Cities Google Scholar

BENNETT, R. J. and KREBS, G. (1991), Local Economic Development: Public–Private Partnership Initiatives in Britain and Germany, London, Belhaven Press. Local Economic Development: Public–Private Partnership Initiatives in Britain and Germany Google Scholar

BODDY, M. (2002), ‘Linking competitiveness and cohesion’, in Begg (ed.), 33–54. ‘Linking competitiveness and cohesion’ 33 54 Google Scholar

CURRIER, J. (2008), ‘Art and power in the new China: an exploration of Beijing’s 798 District and its implications for contemporary urbanism’, Town Planning Review, 79, 237–65. ‘Art and power in the new China: an exploration of Beijing’ Town Planning Review 79 237 65 Google Scholar

DAVIDSON, M. and LEES, L. (2005), ‘New-build “gentrification” and London’s riverside renaissance’, Environment and Planning A, 37, 1165–90. ‘New-build “gentrification” and London’ Environment and Planning A 37 1165 90 Google Scholar

DAVIS, H. (2007), ‘From dirty old town to shiny city’, The Telegraph, 7 June, www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/property/3358364/From-dirty-old-town-to-shiny-city.html (accessed 8 March 2018). Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2015), The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 Statistical Release, 30 September, London, DCLG. The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 Statistical Release Google Scholar

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WONG, C. (2006), Quantitative Indicators for Urban and Regional Planning: The Interplay of Policy and Methods, London, Routledge. Quantitative Indicators for Urban and Regional Planning: The Interplay of Policy and Methods Google Scholar

WONG, C., COOMBES, M. and RAYBOULD, S. (1991), ‘The environmental quality of residential neighbourhoods: a town planning application of GIS’, Town Planning Review, 62, 369–73. ‘The environmental quality of residential neighbourhoods: a town planning application of GIS’ Town Planning Review 62 369 73 Google Scholar

WONG, C., SCHULZE BÄING, A., SHAKERI, M. and SMITH, J. (2015), Does Space Matter? Housing, Transport and Accessibility in Greater Manchester, a report for Just GM research project, Manchester, University of Manchester. Does Space Matter? Housing, Transport and Accessibility in Greater Manchester Google Scholar

YELLING, J. (2000), ‘The incidence of slum clearance in England and Wales, 1955–85’, Urban History, 27, 234–54. ‘The incidence of slum clearance in England and Wales, 1955–85’ Urban History 27 234 54 Google Scholar


Details

Author details

Bäing, Andreas Schulze

Wong, Cecilia