Town Planning Review

Exclusivity in the street railway era: neighbourhood entry gateways in streetcar suburbs

Town Planning Review (2019), 90, (5), 519–544.

Abstract

In early twentieth-century streetcar neighbourhoods, entryway markers or gateways were used as distinct neighbourhood design features. These markers typically took the form of a set of stone or brick towers, placed at the entrance to a residential street from an arterial roadway. We explore the nature, form and placement of these markers, and the role they play in neighbourhood identity. Using literature, field data and spatial analysis, we find that, in concert with other neighbourhood components, these structures serve to isolate neighbourhoods from undesirable urban influences, insulate and ensure privacy, and maintain the integrity of the neighbourhood’s intended design.

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References

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HESS, D. B., HATA, H. and STERNBERG, E. (2013), ‘Pathways and artifacts: neighborhood design for active living’, Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability, 6, 52–71. Google Scholar

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THE PUBLIC STAFF (2015), ‘Looking backward: streetcar named undesired’, The Public, 13 January. Google Scholar

BUFFALO NEWS (1941), ‘Zoning Board kills plan for I.R.C. loop in Kenmore Avenue’, Buffalo News, 20 February. Google Scholar

CHAS. S. BURKHARDT CO. (1925), ‘A new building plan for better homes at lower cost’, Buffalo Morning Express, 14 August. Google Scholar

SAVAGE, C. C. (1987), Architecture of the Private Streets of St. Louis: The Architects and the Houses They Designed, Columbia, University of Missouri Press. Google Scholar

SCHUYLER, D. (1992), ‘Cityscape and parkscape’, in Kowsky (ed.), 6–17. Google Scholar

CHAS. S. BURKHARDT CO. (1927a), ‘Some of the “extras” you get’, Buffalo Evening News, 24 September. Google Scholar

CHAS. S. BURKHARDT CO. (1927b), Untitled advertisement, Buffalo Courier-Express, 8 May. Google Scholar

STILGOE, J. R. (1988), Borderland: Origins of the American Suburb, 1820–1939, New Haven, Yale University Press. Google Scholar

CHEAPE, C. W. (1980), Moving the Masses: Urban Public Transit in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, 1880–1912, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Google Scholar

WARD, D. (1964), ‘A comparative historical geography of streetcar suburbs in Boston, Massachusetts and Leeds, England: 1850–1920’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 54, 477–89. Google Scholar

FERNALD, F. A. (1910), Buffalo Means Business: The Index Guide to Buffalo and Niagara Falls, Buffalo, NY, Frederik A. Fernald. Google Scholar

WARNER, S. B. (1978), Streetcar Suburbs: The Process of Growth in Boston, 1870–1900 (2nd edn), Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Google Scholar

WARNER, S. B. (1987), The Private City: Philadelphia in Three Periods of Its Growth (2nd edn), Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press. Google Scholar

FLEMING, R. B. (1991), ‘The trolley takes command, 1892 to 1894’, Urban History Review, 19, 218–25. Google Scholar

GOLDMAN, M. (2007), City on the Edge, Amherst, NY, Prometheus Books. Google Scholar

WARNER, S. B. and WHITTEMORE, A. H. (2012), American Urban Form: A Representative History, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Google Scholar

WILLIAMS, G. (2015), ‘A glimpse at your expenses 100 years ago’, US News and World Report, 2 January. Google Scholar

HALL, P. (2014), Cities of Tomorrow (4th edn), Chichester, Wiley Blackwell. Google Scholar

HESS, D. B. (2006), ‘Transportation beautiful: did the city beautiful movement improve urban transportation?’, Journal of Urban History, 32, 511–45. Google Scholar

HESS, D. B. and ALMEIDA, T. M. (2015), ‘Impact of proximity to light rail transit on station-area property values in Buffalo’, Urban Studies, 44, 1041–68. Google Scholar

HESS, D. B., HATA, H. and STERNBERG, E. (2013), ‘Pathways and artifacts: neighborhood design for active living’, Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability, 6, 52–71. Google Scholar

HUCK, A. J. (1914), University Park: A Restricted Residence Subdivision, Buffalo, NY, Matthews-Northrup Works. Google Scholar

KOWSKY, F. R. (1987), ‘Municipal parks and city planning: Frederick Law Olmsted’s Buffalo park and parkway system’, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 46, 49–64. Google Scholar

MCKAY, J. P. (1976), Tramways and Trolleys: The Rise of Urban Mass Transport in Europe, Princeton, Princeton University Press. Google Scholar

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES (2005), Multiple Resources Associated with the Suburban Development of Buffalo, NY, Buffalo, Erie County, New York, National Register of Historic Places, #64500937. Google Scholar

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES (2010), University Park Historic District, National Register of Historic Places, #11000273. Google Scholar

PENHURST PARK COMPANY (1909), Penhurst Park: A Choice Location for Handsome Homes, Buffalo, NY, Matthews-Northrup Works. Google Scholar

PILKEY, C. J. (1919), Greater Buffalo’s Official Street and Street Car Service Guide and Indexed Map, Buffalo, NY, C. J. Pilkey. Google Scholar

THE PUBLIC STAFF (2015), ‘Looking backward: streetcar named undesired’, The Public, 13 January. Google Scholar

SAVAGE, C. C. (1987), Architecture of the Private Streets of St. Louis: The Architects and the Houses They Designed, Columbia, University of Missouri Press. Google Scholar

SCHUYLER, D. (1992), ‘Cityscape and parkscape’, in Kowsky (ed.), 6–17. Google Scholar

STILGOE, J. R. (1988), Borderland: Origins of the American Suburb, 1820–1939, New Haven, Yale University Press. Google Scholar

WARD, D. (1964), ‘A comparative historical geography of streetcar suburbs in Boston, Massachusetts and Leeds, England: 1850–1920’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 54, 477–89. Google Scholar

WARNER, S. B. (1978), Streetcar Suburbs: The Process of Growth in Boston, 1870–1900 (2nd edn), Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Google Scholar

WARNER, S. B. (1987), The Private City: Philadelphia in Three Periods of Its Growth (2nd edn), Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press. Google Scholar

WARNER, S. B. and WHITTEMORE, A. H. (2012), American Urban Form: A Representative History, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Google Scholar

WILLIAMS, G. (2015), ‘A glimpse at your expenses 100 years ago’, US News and World Report, 2 January. Google Scholar

ALIOTH FINANCE (2019), Inflation calculator, US Official Inflation Data, 1 April. Google Scholar

BEITO, D. T. (1993), ‘From privies to boulevards: the private supply of infrastructure in the United States during the nineteenth century’, in J. Jenkins and D. E. Sisk (eds), Development by Consent: The Voluntary Supply of Public Goods and Services, San Francisco, ICS Press, 33–48. Google Scholar

BEITO, D. T. and SMITH, B. (1990), ‘The formation of urban infrastructure through nongovernmental planning: the private places of St. Louis, 1869–1920’, Journal of Urban History, 16, 263–303. Google Scholar

BETTMAN, A. (1927), ‘The decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in the Euclid Village zoning case’, University of Cincinnati Law Review, 1, 188–96. Google Scholar

BEVERIDGE, C. (1992), ‘Frederick Law Olmsted’s vision for Buffalo’, in F. Kowsky (ed.), The Best Planned City: The Olmsted Legacy in Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, Burchfield Art Center, 19–25. Google Scholar

BUFFALO COURIER (1914), ‘No midsummer slump in Buffalo realty market’, Buffalo Courier, 8 July. Google Scholar

BUFFALO NEWS (1941), ‘Zoning Board kills plan for I.R.C. loop in Kenmore Avenue’, Buffalo News, 20 February. Google Scholar

CHAS. S. BURKHARDT CO. (1925), ‘A new building plan for better homes at lower cost’, Buffalo Morning Express, 14 August. Google Scholar

CHAS. S. BURKHARDT CO. (1927a), ‘Some of the “extras” you get’, Buffalo Evening News, 24 September. Google Scholar

CHAS. S. BURKHARDT CO. (1927b), Untitled advertisement, Buffalo Courier-Express, 8 May. Google Scholar

CHEAPE, C. W. (1980), Moving the Masses: Urban Public Transit in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, 1880–1912, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Google Scholar

FERNALD, F. A. (1910), Buffalo Means Business: The Index Guide to Buffalo and Niagara Falls, Buffalo, NY, Frederik A. Fernald. Google Scholar

FLEMING, R. B. (1991), ‘The trolley takes command, 1892 to 1894’, Urban History Review, 19, 218–25. Google Scholar

GOLDMAN, M. (2007), City on the Edge, Amherst, NY, Prometheus Books. Google Scholar

HALL, P. (2014), Cities of Tomorrow (4th edn), Chichester, Wiley Blackwell. Google Scholar

HESS, D. B. (2006), ‘Transportation beautiful: did the city beautiful movement improve urban transportation?’, Journal of Urban History, 32, 511–45. Google Scholar

HESS, D. B. and ALMEIDA, T. M. (2015), ‘Impact of proximity to light rail transit on station-area property values in Buffalo’, Urban Studies, 44, 1041–68. Google Scholar

HESS, D. B., HATA, H. and STERNBERG, E. (2013), ‘Pathways and artifacts: neighborhood design for active living’, Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability, 6, 52–71. Google Scholar

HUCK, A. J. (1914), University Park: A Restricted Residence Subdivision, Buffalo, NY, Matthews-Northrup Works. Google Scholar

KOWSKY, F. R. (1987), ‘Municipal parks and city planning: Frederick Law Olmsted’s Buffalo park and parkway system’, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 46, 49–64. Google Scholar

MCKAY, J. P. (1976), Tramways and Trolleys: The Rise of Urban Mass Transport in Europe, Princeton, Princeton University Press. Google Scholar

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES (2005), Multiple Resources Associated with the Suburban Development of Buffalo, NY, Buffalo, Erie County, New York, National Register of Historic Places, #64500937. Google Scholar

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES (2010), University Park Historic District, National Register of Historic Places, #11000273. Google Scholar

PENHURST PARK COMPANY (1909), Penhurst Park: A Choice Location for Handsome Homes, Buffalo, NY, Matthews-Northrup Works. Google Scholar

PILKEY, C. J. (1919), Greater Buffalo’s Official Street and Street Car Service Guide and Indexed Map, Buffalo, NY, C. J. Pilkey. Google Scholar

THE PUBLIC STAFF (2015), ‘Looking backward: streetcar named undesired’, The Public, 13 January. Google Scholar

SAVAGE, C. C. (1987), Architecture of the Private Streets of St. Louis: The Architects and the Houses They Designed, Columbia, University of Missouri Press. Google Scholar

SCHUYLER, D. (1992), ‘Cityscape and parkscape’, in Kowsky (ed.), 6–17. Google Scholar

STILGOE, J. R. (1988), Borderland: Origins of the American Suburb, 1820–1939, New Haven, Yale University Press. Google Scholar

WARD, D. (1964), ‘A comparative historical geography of streetcar suburbs in Boston, Massachusetts and Leeds, England: 1850–1920’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 54, 477–89. Google Scholar

WARNER, S. B. (1978), Streetcar Suburbs: The Process of Growth in Boston, 1870–1900 (2nd edn), Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Google Scholar

WARNER, S. B. (1987), The Private City: Philadelphia in Three Periods of Its Growth (2nd edn), Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press. Google Scholar

WARNER, S. B. and WHITTEMORE, A. H. (2012), American Urban Form: A Representative History, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Google Scholar

WILLIAMS, G. (2015), ‘A glimpse at your expenses 100 years ago’, US News and World Report, 2 January. Google Scholar

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Author details

Iacobucci, Evan

Hess, Daniel Baldwin