Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Failure as Man, Failure as King: Fernando IV the Unmanly King in the Chronicle of Fernando IV

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (2017), 94, (6), 575–589.

Abstract

This paper is an analysis of the Chronicle of Fernando IV using theories of queenship and of masculinity. These theories are placed in a larger context that understands gender as performative. The focus will be on the portrayal of Fernando’s coming of age and will demonstrate that his failed kingship is determined by his failure to become a man, since from the very beginning he is unable to perform as the hegemonic male that he is. Furthermore, it will show that the chronicler does not attack the nobles as a class, he attacks them as men. He does not reject their ideology, but their behaviour as males. Finally, it will prove that María de Molina is represented as the quintessential queen, perfect in the exercise of her vast power, a power that does not interest her personally but depends on her obligations as mother of a king.

Este trabajo es un análisis de la Crónica de Fernando IV a través del uso de las teorías de reginalidad y masculinidad. Estas teorías se colocan en un contexto más amplio que entiende el género como performativo. El enfoque estará en la representación de la mayoría de edad de Fernando. Se demostrará que su fracaso como rey está determinado por su fracaso como hombre, ya que desde el principio no es capaz de actuar como el hombre hegemónico que es. Además, se demostrará que el cronista no ataca a los nobles como clase, sino como hombres. No rechaza su ideología, sino su comportamiento como hombres. Finalmente, se probará que se representa a María de Molina como reina ejemplar, perfecta en el ejercicio de su vasto poder, que no le interesa personalmente, pero que ejerce como parte de sus obligaciones como madre de rey.

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Saul, Nigel, 2005. The Three Richards. Richard I, Richard II and Richard III (London: Hambledon Continuum). The Three Richards. Richard I, Richard II and Richard III Google Scholar

Benavides, Antonio, 1860. Memorias de D. Fernando IV de Castilla. 2 vols. (Madrid: Imprenta de José Rodríguez). Memorias de D. Fernando IV de Castilla Google Scholar

Benítez Guerrero, Carmen, 2013. La imagen del rey en la cronística castellana. Propaganda y legitimación durante la primera mitad del siglo XIV (Madrid: La Ergástula Ediciones). La imagen del rey en la cronística castellana. Propaganda y legitimación durante la primera mitad del siglo XIV Google Scholar

Benítez Guerrero, Carmen, 2014. ‘La transmisión de la Crónica de Fernando IV. Estado de la cuestión e hipótesis’, in El texto infinito. Tradición y escritura en la Edad Media y el Renacimiento, ed. Cesc Esteve, Marcela Londoño, Cristina Luna and Blanca Vizán (Salamanca: Seminario de Estudios Medievales y Renacentistas), pp. 313–25. La transmisión de la Crónica de Fernando IV. Estado de la cuestión e hipótesis El texto infinito. Tradición y escritura en la Edad Media y el Renacimiento 313 25 Google Scholar

Bullough, Vern, and James A. Brundage (eds), 1996. Handbook of Medieval Sexuality (New York: Garland Publishing). Handbook of Medieval Sexuality Google Scholar

Butler, Judith, 1999. Gender Trouble. 10th anniversary ed. (London: Routledge). Gender Trouble Google Scholar

Cohen, Jeffrey Jerome, and Bonnie Wheeler, 1997. Becoming Male in the Middle Ages (New York: Garland). Becoming Male in the Middle Ages Google Scholar

Connell, R. W., and James W. Messerschmidt, 2005. ‘Hegemonic Masculinity. Rethinking the Concept’, Gender and Society, 19.6: 829–59. Hegemonic Masculinity. Rethinking the Concept Gender and Society 19.6 829 59 Google Scholar

Conway, Colleen M., 2003. ‘“Behold the Man!” Masculine Christology and the Fourth Gospel’, in New Testament Masculinities, ed. Stephen D. Moore and Janice Capel Anderson (Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature), pp. 163–80. “Behold the Man!” Masculine Christology and the Fourth Gospel New Testament Masculinities 163 80 Google Scholar

Earenfight, Theresa, 2005. ‘Absent Kings: Queens as Political Partners in the Medieval Crown of Aragon’, in Queenship and Political Power in Medieval and Early Modern Spain, ed. Theresa Earen fight (Farnham, UK: Ashgate), pp. 33–54. Absent Kings: Queens as Political Partners in the Medieval Crown of Aragon Queenship and Political Power in Medieval and Early Modern Spain 33 54 Google Scholar

Earenfight, Theresa, 2013. Queenship in Medieval Europe (New York: Palgrave Macmillan). Queenship in Medieval Europe Google Scholar

Erler, Mary C., and Maryanne Kowaleski (eds), 1988. Women and Power in the Middle Ages (Athens: University of Georgia Press). Women and Power in the Middle Ages Google Scholar

Fletcher, Christopher, 2008. Richard II: Manhood, Youth and Politics, 1377–99 (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press). Richard II: Manhood, Youth and Politics, 1377–99 Google Scholar

Fradenburg, Louise Olga, 1992. ‘Rethinking Queenship’, in Women and Sovereignty, ed. Louise Olga Fradenburg (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press), pp. 1–13. Rethinking Queenship Women and Sovereignty 1 13 Google Scholar

Gleason, Maud W., 2010. ‘Elite Male Identity in the Roman Empire’, in Life, Death, and Entertainment in the Roman Empire, ed. D. S. Potter and D. J. Mattingly. 2nd ed. (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press), pp. 67–84. Elite Male Identity in the Roman Empire Life, Death, and Entertainment in the Roman Empire 67 84 Google Scholar

González Mínguez, César, 1995. Fernando IV. 1295–1312. Reyes de Castilla y León. Corona de España 4. (Palencia: Diputación Provincial de Palencia/Editorial La Olmeda). Fernando IV. 1295–1312. Reyes de Castilla y León Google Scholar

González Mínguez, César, 2012. ‘El perfil político de la reina María de Molina’, Serie III, Historia Medieval, 25: 239–54. El perfil político de la reina María de Molina Serie III, Historia Medieval 25 239 54 Google Scholar

Laynesmith, J. L., 2004. The Last Medieval Queens. English Queenship 1445–1503 (Oxford: Oxford University Press). The Last Medieval Queens. English Queenship 1445–1503 Google Scholar

Lees, Clare (ed.), 1994. Medieval Masculinities (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press). Medieval Masculinities Google Scholar

Lewis, Katherine, 2013. Kingship and Masculinity in Late Medieval England (London: Routledge). Kingship and Masculinity in Late Medieval England Google Scholar

Martin, Georges, 2006. ‘Régner sans régner. Bérengère de Castille (1214–1246) au miroir de l’historiographie de son temps’, e-Spania, 1. Available at: https://e-spania.revues.org/326 [accessed 19 April 2017]. Google Scholar

Maurer, Helen E., 2003. Margaret of Anjou. Queenship and Power in Late Medieval England (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press). Margaret of Anjou. Queenship and Power in Late Medieval England Google Scholar

Mazo Karras, Ruth, 2003. From Boys to Men. Formations of Masculinity in Late Medieval Europe (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press). From Boys to Men. Formations of Masculinity in Late Medieval Europe Google Scholar

Neal, Derek G., 2008. The Masculine Self in Late Medieval England (Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press). The Masculine Self in Late Medieval England Google Scholar

Ormond, W. H., 2004. ‘Monarchy and Masculinity. England in the Later Middle Ages’ in Holiness and Masculinity in the Middle Ages, ed. P. H. Collum and Katherine Lewis (Toronto: University of Toronto Press), pp. 174–91. Monarchy and Masculinity. England in the Later Middle Ages Holiness and Masculinity in the Middle Ages 174 91 Google Scholar

Ormrod, W. M., 1990. The Reign of Edward III. Crown and Political Society in England 1327–1377 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press). The Reign of Edward III. Crown and Political Society in England 1327–1377 Google Scholar

Parsons, John Carmi (ed.), 1993. Medieval Queenship (New York: Saint Martins Press). Medieval Queenship Google Scholar

Rosell, Cayetano (ed.), 1953 [1885]. Crónicas de los reyes de Castilla desde Alfonso el Sabio, hasta los Católicos don Fernando y doña Isabel. Biblioteca de Autores de España 66. Vol. 1. (Madrid: Atlas [Rivadeneyra Editor]). Crónicas de los reyes de Castilla desde Alfonso el Sabio, hasta los Católicos don Fernando y doña Isabel Google Scholar

Rosende, Marcelo, 2012. ‘La tradición manuscrita de la Crónica de Fernando IV’, Romance Philology, 66: 147–64. La tradición manuscrita de la Crónica de Fernando IV Romance Philology 66 147 64 Google Scholar

Saul, Nigel, 1997. Richard II (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press). Richard II Google Scholar

Saul, Nigel, 2005. The Three Richards. Richard I, Richard II and Richard III (London: Hambledon Continuum). The Three Richards. Richard I, Richard II and Richard III Google Scholar

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Martínez, Purificación