Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Cinematic Tourism in Madeinusa

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (2016), 93, (5), 531–548.

Abstract

The extensive film festival circuit gives independent films the potential to be seen by global audiences and, therefore, to influence an ever-increasing spectatorship interested in other cultures and spaces. By creating imaginary journeys on the screen, films presenting foreign locations convert viewers into cinematic tourists who explore the world through the power of cinematic images and narratives. Madeinusa (2006), Claudia Llosa’s directorial debut and one of the most internationally acclaimed films to come out of Peru, has given this Latin American country global exposure since its premiere in 2006. As a result of its success on the film festival circuit, Llosa’s film has introduced the Peruvian Andes as a sublime landscape uncontaminated by modernity and filled with magical and religious experiences to a wide international audience. However, it has also challenged the image of the Andean region as mythical, timeless and primitive by incorporating the Indigenous1 voice and perspective regarding modernity. This essay explores the ways in which Madeinusa teaches cinematic tourists how to engage in an intercultural approach that discards their preconceived notions of Andean indigeneity, and brings them to reflect on their experience as tourists when discovering new cultures.

Debido a la importancia del circuito internacional de festivales de cine, filmes independientes ahora tienen la posibilidad de ser vistos por públicos globales y, por consecuencia, de influir un audiencia siempre más grande compuesta de espectadores interesados en otras culturas y espacios. Al crear viajes imaginarios en la pantalla, los filmes que presentan lugares foráneos convierten a los espectadores en turistas cinematográficos que exploran el mundo a través del poder de las imágenes y narrativas fílmicas. Madeinusa (2006), la opera prima de Claudia Llosa, y uno de los filmes peruanos más premiados internacionalmente, le ha ofrecido una exposición mundial a este país latinoamericano desde su estreno en 2006. Debido a su éxito en el circuito internacional de festivales, el film de Llosa ha introducido los Andes peruanos a un público internacional amplio como paisaje sublime no contaminado por la modernidad y lleno de experiencias mágicas y religiosas. Sin embargo, al incorporar voces y perspectivas indígenas acerca de la modernidad, este film también ha cuestionado la imagen de los Andes como región mitica, atemporal y primitiva. Este ensayo explora las maneras en que Madeinusa enseña a los turistas cinematográficos cómo pueden entablar un intercambio intercultural que desecha sus nociones preconcebidas de la indigeneidad andina, y que los lleve a pensar en sus propias experiencias turísticas al momento de descubrir nuevas culturas.

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Strain, Ellen, 2003. Public Places, Private Journeys: Ethnography, Entertainment, and the Tourist Gaze (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press). Public Places, Private Journeys: Ethnography, Entertainment Google Scholar

Trevisan, Paula, and Luis Massa, 2009. ‘Fotografías cusqueñas atravesando el indigenismo’, Aisthesis, 46: 39–64. Fotografías cusqueñas atravesando el indigenismo Aisthesis 46 39 64 Google Scholar

Tzanelli, Rodanthi, 2007. The Cinematic Tourist: Explorations in Globalization, Culture, and Resistance (London: Routledge). The Cinematic Tourist: Explorations in Globalization, Culture, and Resistance Google Scholar

Urry, John, 1995. Consuming Places (London: Routledge). Consuming Places Google Scholar

Barrow, Sarah, 2013. ‘New Configurations for Peruvian Cinema: The Rising Star of Claudia Llosa’, Transnational Cinemas, 4.2: 197–215. New Configurations for Peruvian Cinema: The Rising Star of Claudia Llosa Transnational Cinemas 4.2 197 215 Google Scholar

Baudrillard, Jean, 1998. The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures (London: Sage Publications). The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures Google Scholar

Beasly-Murray, John, 2007. ‘Madeinusa’, Posthegemony, 8 November. Available at: http://posthegemony.blogspot.com/2007/11/madeinusa.html [accessed 3 March 2016]. Google Scholar

Bury, Jeffrey, 2008. ‘New Geographies of Tourism in Peru: Nature-based Tourism and Conservation in the Cordillera Huayhuash’, Tourism Geographies, 10.3: 312–33. New Geographies of Tourism in Peru: Nature-based Tourism and Conservation in the Cordillera Huayhuash Tourism Geographies 10.3 312 33 Google Scholar

Cabrera, Diego, 2007. ‘El reflejo del Ande’. Interview with Flaviano Quispe, in Pantalla Interior, 27 November. Available at: http://pantallainterior.blogspot.co.uk/2007/11/flaviano-quispeel-reflejo-del-ande.html [accessed 3 March 2016]. Google Scholar

Garcia Canclini, Nestor, 1995a. Consumers and Citizens (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press). Consumers and Citizens Google Scholar

Garcia Canclini, Nestor, 1995b. Hybrid Cultures: Strategies for Entering and Leaving Modernity (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press). Hybrid Cultures: Strategies for Entering and Leaving Modernity Google Scholar

Cohen, Erik, 1988. ‘Authenticity and Commoditization in Tourism’, Annals of Tourism Research, 15: 371–86. Authenticity and Commoditization in Tourism Annals of Tourism Research 15 371 86 Google Scholar

D’Argenio, Maria Chiara, 2013. ‘A Contemporary Andean Type: The Representation of the Indigenous World in Claudia Llosa’s Films’, Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies, 8.1: 20–42. A Contemporary Andean Type: The Representation of the Indigenous World in Claudia Llosa’s Films Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies 8.1 20 42 Google Scholar

Gaonkar, Dilip Parameshwar, 1999. ‘On Alternative Modernities’, Public Cultures, 11.1: 1–18. On Alternative Modernities Public Cultures 11.1 1 18 Google Scholar

Graburn, Nelson H. H., 2001. ‘Secular Ritual: A General Theory of Tourism’, in Hosts and Guests Revisited: Tourism Issues of the 21st Century, ed. Valene L. Smith and Maryann Brent (New York: Cognizant Communication Corp), pp. 42–50. Secular Ritual: A General Theory of Tourism Hosts and Guests Revisited: Tourism Issues of the 21st Century 42 50 Google Scholar

Hill, Michael, 2007. ‘Contesting Patrimony: Cusco’s Mystical Tourist Industry and the Politics of Incanismo’, Ethnos, 72.4: 433–60. Contesting Patrimony: Cusco’s Mystical Tourist Industry and the Politics of Incanismo Ethnos 72.4 433 60 Google Scholar

Hill, Michael, 2008. ‘Inca of the Blood, Inca of the Soul: Embodiment, Emotion, and Racialization in the Peruvian Mystical Tourist Industry’, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 76.2: 251–79. Inca of the Blood, Inca of the Soul: Embodiment, Emotion, and Racialization in the Peruvian Mystical Tourist Industry Journal of the American Academy of Religion 76.2 251 79 Google Scholar

Holmes, Amanda, 2012. ‘Regarding Gender and Nature in Madeinusa’, Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispánicos, 37.1: 203–216. Regarding Gender and Nature in Madeinusa Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispánicos 37.1 203 216 Google Scholar

Hudson, Simón, Youncheng Chang and Sergio Moreno Gil, 2011. ‘The Influence of a Film on Destination Image and the Desire to Travel: a Cross-Cultural Comparison’, International Journal of Tourism Research, 13: 177–90. The Influence of a Film on Destination Image and the Desire to Travel: a Cross-Cultural Comparison International Journal of Tourism Research 13 177 90 Google Scholar

Kroll, Juli A., 2009. ‘Between the “Sacred” and the “Profane”: Cultural Fantasy in Madeinusa by Claudia Llosa’, Chasqui, 38.2: 113–25. Between the “Sacred” and the “Profane”: Cultural Fantasy in Madeinusa by Claudia Llosa Chasqui 38.2 113 25 Google Scholar

Lefebvre, Martin, 2006. Landscape and Film (New York: Routledge). Landscape and Film Google Scholar

MacCannell, Dean, 1973. ‘Staged Authenticity: Arrangements of Social Space in Tourist Settings’, The American Journal of Sociology, 79.3: 589–603. Staged Authenticity: Arrangements of Social Space in Tourist Settings The American Journal of Sociology 79.3 589 603 Google Scholar

MacCannell, Dean, 2008. ‘Why it Never Really was About Authenticity’, Society, 45.4: 334–37. Why it Never Really was About Authenticity Society 45.4 334 37 Google Scholar

Mazierska, Ewa, and John K. Walton, 2006. ‘Tourism and the Moving Image’, Tourist Studies, 6.5: 5–11. Tourism and the Moving Image Tourist Studies 6.5 5 11 Google Scholar

Moscardo, Gianna, and Philip L. Pearce, 1999. ‘Understanding Ethnic Tourists’, Annals of Tourism Research, 26.2: 416–34. Understanding Ethnic Tourists Annals of Tourism Research 26.2 416 34 Google Scholar

Palaversich, Diana, 2013. ‘Cultural Dyslexia and the Politics of Cross-Cultural Excursion in Claudia Llosa’s Madeinusa’, Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, 90.4: 489–503. Cultural Dyslexia and the Politics of Cross-Cultural Excursion in Claudia Llosa’s Madeinusa Bulletin of Hispanic Studies 90.4 489 503 Google Scholar

Paschen, Jana-Axinja, 2010. ‘Decolonizing the Gaze at Uluru (Ayers Rock)’, in Tourism and Visual Culture, ed. Peter Burns, Cathy Palmer and Jo-Anne Lester. (Cambridge: CAB International), vol. 1, pp. 64–75. Decolonizing the Gaze at Uluru (Ayers Rock) Tourism and Visual Culture 1 64 75 Google Scholar

Portocarrerro, Gonzalo, 2006. ‘“Madeinusa” ¿la imposibilidad del Perú?’, in Página de Gonzalo Portocarrero. Blogsome. “Madeinusa” ¿la imposibilidad del Perú? Página de Gonzalo Portocarrero Google Scholar

Raygada, Juan Carlos Ubilluz, 2010. ‘¿Nuevos sujetos subalternos? ¡No en la nación cercada! Del ‘Informe sobre Uchuraccay’ de Mario Vargas Llosa a Madeinusa de Claudia Llosa’, Iberoamericana, 37: 135–54. ¿Nuevos sujetos subalternos? ¡No en la nación cercada! Del ‘Informe sobre Uchuraccay’ de Mario Vargas Llosa a Madeinusa de Claudia Llosa Iberoamericana 37 135 54 Google Scholar

Silverman, Helaine, 2002. ‘Touring Ancient Times: The Present and the Presented Past in Contemporary Peru’, American Anthropologist, 104.3: 881–992. Touring Ancient Times: The Present and the Presented Past in Contemporary Peru American Anthropologist 104.3 881 992 Google Scholar

Skar, Sarah Lund, 1993. ‘The Gendered Dynamics of Quechua Colonisation: Relations of Centre and Periphery in Peru’, in Migrant Women: Crossing Boundaries and Changing Identities (Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Women), ed. Gina Bujis (Oxford, UK: Berg), vol. 7, pp. 21–33. The Gendered Dynamics of Quechua Colonisation: Relations of Centre and Periphery in Peru Migrant Women: Crossing Boundaries and Changing Identities 7 21 33 Google Scholar

Sontag, Susan, 2011. On Photography (New York: Picador). On Photography Google Scholar

Strain, Ellen, 2003. Public Places, Private Journeys: Ethnography, Entertainment, and the Tourist Gaze (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press). Public Places, Private Journeys: Ethnography, Entertainment Google Scholar

Trevisan, Paula, and Luis Massa, 2009. ‘Fotografías cusqueñas atravesando el indigenismo’, Aisthesis, 46: 39–64. Fotografías cusqueñas atravesando el indigenismo Aisthesis 46 39 64 Google Scholar

Tzanelli, Rodanthi, 2007. The Cinematic Tourist: Explorations in Globalization, Culture, and Resistance (London: Routledge). The Cinematic Tourist: Explorations in Globalization, Culture, and Resistance Google Scholar

Urry, John, 1995. Consuming Places (London: Routledge). Consuming Places Google Scholar

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MONETTE, MARIE-EVE