British Journal of Canadian Studies

Commemoration and reconciliation: the Mohawk Institute as a World Heritage Site

British Journal of Canadian Studies (2018), 31, (2), 195–208.

Abstract

The UNESCO World Heritage Convention (1972) was conceived with the mandate of protecting cultural and natural sites that represent part of the global narrative of humanity. This article contextualises the Canadian Indian residential school system, and specifically the Mohawk Institute of Brantford, Ontario, within this international convention. In demonstrating how the Mohawk Institute could be a contender for World Heritage status, this article incorporates recommendations from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission that illustrate how commemoration can be used as a tool towards reconciliation.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

References

Akhtar, Zia, 2010, ‘Canadian Genocide and Official Culpability’, International Criminal Law Review, 10:1, 111–35. Google Scholar

Anglican Church of Canada, 2008, The Mohawk Institute: Brantford, ON. Available from: http://www.anglican.ca/tr/histories/mohawk-institute/ (accessed 10 November 2016). Google Scholar

Belgrave, Michael, 2014, ‘Beyond the Treaty of Waitangi: Maori Tribal Aspirations in an Era of Reform, 1984–2014’, The Journal of Pacific History, 49:2, 193–213. Google Scholar

Brantford Expositor, 2011, ‘Six Nations sets record straight on Woodland Cultural Centre’. Available from: http://www.rcav.org/uploadedFiles/Six%20Nations%20denies%20info%20sent%20to%20Annett.pdf (accessed 10 November 2016). Google Scholar

CBC News, 2015,‘Red Crow College on Blood Reserve Destroyed by Fire’, 14 August, CBC News. Available from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/calgary/red-crow-college-on-blood-reserve-destroyed-by-fire-1.3191427 (accessed 19 November 2016). Google Scholar

CBC News, 2016, ‘Author of Abandoned Manitoba Explores Site of Old Birtle Indian Residential School’, 25 October 2016, CBC News. Available from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/abandoned-manitoba-book-launch-1.3821100 (accessed 19 November 2016). Google Scholar

Elliott, Michael A., and Vaughn Schmutz, 2012, ‘World Heritage: Constructing a Universal Cultural Order’, Poetics, 40:1, 256–77. Google Scholar

Enns, Richard A., 2009, ‘But What is the Object of Educating These Children, If It Costs Their Lives to Educate Them?: Federal Indian Education Policy in Western Canada in the Late 1800s’, Journal of Canadian Studies, 43:3, 101–23. Google Scholar

Fine, Sean, 2015, ‘Chief Justice says Canada attempted “cultural genocide” on Aboriginals’, 28 May 2015, Globe and Mail. Available from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/chief-justice-says-canada-attempted-cultural-genocide-on-abo-riginals/article24688854/ (accessed 8 November 2016). Google Scholar

Government of Canada, 2015a, Canada’s Residential Schools: Missing Children and Unmarked Burials (Volume Four): The Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press). Google Scholar

Government of Canada, 2015b, Canada’s Residential Schools: Reconciliation (Volume Six): The Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press). Google Scholar

Hueneke, Hannah, and Richard Baker, 2009, ‘Tourist Behaviour, Local Values, and Interpretation at Uluru: “The Sacred Deed at Australia’s Mighty Heart”’, Geojournal, 74:5, 477–90. Google Scholar

ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites), 2005, World Heritage List: Filling the Gaps: An Action Plan for the Future (Paris: ICOMOS Publishing). Google Scholar

Ilyniak, Natalia, 2015, ‘To Rob the World of Its People: Language Removal as an Instance of Colonial Genocide in the Fort Alexander Indian Residential School’, Genocide Studies and Prevention, 9:2, 76–97. Google Scholar

Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, 2015, Statement of Apology to Former Students of Indian Residential Schools. Available from: https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100015644/1100100015649 (accessed 8 November 2016). Google Scholar

Leung, Marlene, 2015, ‘Aboriginal Children at Residential Schools Often Buried in Unmarked Graves, Report Reveals’, 15 December, CTV News. Available from: http://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/aboriginal-children-at-residential-schools-often-buried-in-unmarked-graves-report-reveals-1.2701373 (accessed 19 November 2016). Google Scholar

Loewen, James W., 1999, Lies Across America: What Our Historic Sites Get Wrong (New York: New Press). Google Scholar

MacDonald, David B., and Graham Hudson, 2012, ‘The Genocide Question and Indian Residential Schools in Canada’, Canadian Journal of Political Science, 45:2, 427–49. Google Scholar

Meissner, Dirk, 2015, ‘Demolition Ceremony Set for Haunting Alert Bay Residential School’, 15 February, Times Colonist. Available from: http://www.timescolonist.com/2.3463/demolition-ceremony-set-for-haunting-alert-bay-residential-school-1.1763600 (accessed 19 November 2016). Google Scholar

Mosby, Ian, 2013, ‘Administering Colonial Science: Nutrition Research and Biomedical Experimentation in Aboriginal Communities and Residential Schools, 1942–1952’, Histoire Sociale, 46:91, 145–72. Google Scholar

Nagy, Rosemary, 2014, ‘The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Genesis and Design’, Canadian Journal of Law and Society, 29:2, 199–217. Google Scholar

Rico, Trinidad, 2008, ‘Negative Heritage: The Place of Conflict in World Heritage’, Conservation and Management of Archeological Sites, 10:4, 344–52. Google Scholar

Schmutz, Vaughn, and Michael A. Elliott, 2017, ‘World Heritage and the Scientific Consecration of “Outstanding Universal Value”’, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 58:1, 140–59. Google Scholar

Tasker, John Paul, 2016, ‘Justin Trudeau Announces 3 Steps to Help Enact Truth and Reconciliation Calls to Action’, CBC News. Available from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/trudeau-indigenous-leaders-trc-1.3897902 (accessed 15 December 2016). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 1972, ‘Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage’, UNESCO. Available from https://whc.unesco.org/en/conventiontext/ (accessed 3 May 2019). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 1979, Auschwitz Birkenau. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/31 (accessed 2 December 2016). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 1993, Jesuit Missions of La Santisima Trinidad de Parana and Jesus de Tavarangue. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/648 (accessed 5 December 2016). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 1994, Global Strategy for a Representative, Balanced and Credible World Heritage List (Paris: UNESCO Publishing). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 1996, Hiroshima Peace Memorial. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/775 (accessed 2 December 2016). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 1999, Robben Island. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/916 (accessed 2 December 2016). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 2000, Jesuit Block and Estancias of Cordoba. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/995 (accessed 5 December 2016). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 2008, Civil Rights Movement Sites. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5241/ (accessed 7 December 2016). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 2014, Cellular Jail, Andaman Islands. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5888/ (accessed 7 December 2016). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 2014, Sites of Saytagrah, India’s Non-Violent Freedom Movement. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5899/ (accessed 7 December 2016). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 2015, Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention (Paris: UNESCO Publishing). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 2017, States Parties Ratification Status. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/states-parties/ (accessed 3 March 2017). Google Scholar

Akhtar, Zia, 2010, ‘Canadian Genocide and Official Culpability’, International Criminal Law Review, 10:1, 111–35. Google Scholar

Anglican Church of Canada, 2008, The Mohawk Institute: Brantford, ON. Available from: http://www.anglican.ca/tr/histories/mohawk-institute/ (accessed 10 November 2016). Google Scholar

Belgrave, Michael, 2014, ‘Beyond the Treaty of Waitangi: Maori Tribal Aspirations in an Era of Reform, 1984–2014’, The Journal of Pacific History, 49:2, 193–213. Google Scholar

Brantford Expositor, 2011, ‘Six Nations sets record straight on Woodland Cultural Centre’. Available from: http://www.rcav.org/uploadedFiles/Six%20Nations%20denies%20info%20sent%20to%20Annett.pdf (accessed 10 November 2016). Google Scholar

CBC News, 2015,‘Red Crow College on Blood Reserve Destroyed by Fire’, 14 August, CBC News. Available from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/calgary/red-crow-college-on-blood-reserve-destroyed-by-fire-1.3191427 (accessed 19 November 2016). Google Scholar

CBC News, 2016, ‘Author of Abandoned Manitoba Explores Site of Old Birtle Indian Residential School’, 25 October 2016, CBC News. Available from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/abandoned-manitoba-book-launch-1.3821100 (accessed 19 November 2016). Google Scholar

Elliott, Michael A., and Vaughn Schmutz, 2012, ‘World Heritage: Constructing a Universal Cultural Order’, Poetics, 40:1, 256–77. Google Scholar

Enns, Richard A., 2009, ‘But What is the Object of Educating These Children, If It Costs Their Lives to Educate Them?: Federal Indian Education Policy in Western Canada in the Late 1800s’, Journal of Canadian Studies, 43:3, 101–23. Google Scholar

Fine, Sean, 2015, ‘Chief Justice says Canada attempted “cultural genocide” on Aboriginals’, 28 May 2015, Globe and Mail. Available from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/chief-justice-says-canada-attempted-cultural-genocide-on-abo-riginals/article24688854/ (accessed 8 November 2016). Google Scholar

Government of Canada, 2015a, Canada’s Residential Schools: Missing Children and Unmarked Burials (Volume Four): The Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press). Google Scholar

Government of Canada, 2015b, Canada’s Residential Schools: Reconciliation (Volume Six): The Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press). Google Scholar

Hueneke, Hannah, and Richard Baker, 2009, ‘Tourist Behaviour, Local Values, and Interpretation at Uluru: “The Sacred Deed at Australia’s Mighty Heart”’, Geojournal, 74:5, 477–90. Google Scholar

ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites), 2005, World Heritage List: Filling the Gaps: An Action Plan for the Future (Paris: ICOMOS Publishing). Google Scholar

Ilyniak, Natalia, 2015, ‘To Rob the World of Its People: Language Removal as an Instance of Colonial Genocide in the Fort Alexander Indian Residential School’, Genocide Studies and Prevention, 9:2, 76–97. Google Scholar

Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, 2015, Statement of Apology to Former Students of Indian Residential Schools. Available from: https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100015644/1100100015649 (accessed 8 November 2016). Google Scholar

Leung, Marlene, 2015, ‘Aboriginal Children at Residential Schools Often Buried in Unmarked Graves, Report Reveals’, 15 December, CTV News. Available from: http://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/aboriginal-children-at-residential-schools-often-buried-in-unmarked-graves-report-reveals-1.2701373 (accessed 19 November 2016). Google Scholar

Loewen, James W., 1999, Lies Across America: What Our Historic Sites Get Wrong (New York: New Press). Google Scholar

MacDonald, David B., and Graham Hudson, 2012, ‘The Genocide Question and Indian Residential Schools in Canada’, Canadian Journal of Political Science, 45:2, 427–49. Google Scholar

Meissner, Dirk, 2015, ‘Demolition Ceremony Set for Haunting Alert Bay Residential School’, 15 February, Times Colonist. Available from: http://www.timescolonist.com/2.3463/demolition-ceremony-set-for-haunting-alert-bay-residential-school-1.1763600 (accessed 19 November 2016). Google Scholar

Mosby, Ian, 2013, ‘Administering Colonial Science: Nutrition Research and Biomedical Experimentation in Aboriginal Communities and Residential Schools, 1942–1952’, Histoire Sociale, 46:91, 145–72. Google Scholar

Nagy, Rosemary, 2014, ‘The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Genesis and Design’, Canadian Journal of Law and Society, 29:2, 199–217. Google Scholar

Rico, Trinidad, 2008, ‘Negative Heritage: The Place of Conflict in World Heritage’, Conservation and Management of Archeological Sites, 10:4, 344–52. Google Scholar

Schmutz, Vaughn, and Michael A. Elliott, 2017, ‘World Heritage and the Scientific Consecration of “Outstanding Universal Value”’, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 58:1, 140–59. Google Scholar

Tasker, John Paul, 2016, ‘Justin Trudeau Announces 3 Steps to Help Enact Truth and Reconciliation Calls to Action’, CBC News. Available from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/trudeau-indigenous-leaders-trc-1.3897902 (accessed 15 December 2016). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 1972, ‘Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage’, UNESCO. Available from https://whc.unesco.org/en/conventiontext/ (accessed 3 May 2019). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 1979, Auschwitz Birkenau. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/31 (accessed 2 December 2016). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 1993, Jesuit Missions of La Santisima Trinidad de Parana and Jesus de Tavarangue. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/648 (accessed 5 December 2016). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 1994, Global Strategy for a Representative, Balanced and Credible World Heritage List (Paris: UNESCO Publishing). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 1996, Hiroshima Peace Memorial. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/775 (accessed 2 December 2016). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 1999, Robben Island. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/916 (accessed 2 December 2016). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 2000, Jesuit Block and Estancias of Cordoba. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/995 (accessed 5 December 2016). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 2008, Civil Rights Movement Sites. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5241/ (accessed 7 December 2016). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 2014, Cellular Jail, Andaman Islands. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5888/ (accessed 7 December 2016). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 2014, Sites of Saytagrah, India’s Non-Violent Freedom Movement. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5899/ (accessed 7 December 2016). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 2015, Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention (Paris: UNESCO Publishing). Google Scholar

UNESCO, 2017, States Parties Ratification Status. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/states-parties/ (accessed 3 March 2017). Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Groat, Cody