Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Bolaño against Babel: Multilingualism, Translation and Narration in 2666, ‘La parte de los críticos’

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (2018), 95, (2), 217–234.

Abstract

This article examines the first part of Roberto Bolaño’s novel 2666 with regard to the strategy of telling a multilingual story in a monolingual narrative. Discussing the motives behind, and implications of, this flattening of the text’s linguistic surface, it argues that to dismiss the tension between story and discourse as a defect is to overlook one of the novel’s principal proposals and to deny a key aspect of Bolaño’s narrative poetics. The article shows that in ‘La parte de los criticos’, effortless communication is confined to a utopian communicative space, which provides a level playing field for characters from different cultural-linguistic backgrounds. The novel’s approach to multilingualism and translation, for which Bolaño may have found support in his readings of Ludwig Wittgenstein, suggests that to him, languages matter not for what separates them but for what they have in common as a generic means of communication. The article contends that the novel’s linguistic flatness is programmatic, exposing to ridicule narratives that claim to represent reality faithfully. In place of the myriad real-world problems of Babel, Bolaño sets an ideal of linguistic transparency and perfect translatability made possible by way of literature.

Este artículo examina la primera parte de la novela 2666, de Roberto Bolaño, con respecto a la estrategia de contar una historia plurilingüe en un relato monolingüe. Analizando los motivos detrás de esta nivelación de la superficie lingüística, así como las implicaciones de ella, argumenta que descartar la tensión entre historia y discurso como un defecto es pasar por alto una de las principales propuestas de 2666 y negar un aspecto clave de la poética narrativa de Bolaño. El artículo demuestra que, en ‘La parte de los críticos’, la comunicación fluida existe únicamente dentro de un espacio comunicativo utópico, que ofrece igualdad de condiciones para personajes de trasfondos lingüístico-culturales distintos. El particular enfoque de la novela sobre el plurilingualismo y la traducción, para el que Bolaño puede haberse inspirado en Ludwig Wittgenstein, sugiere que a aquel escritor las lenguas le importan no por lo que las separa sino por lo que tienen en común en cuanto medio de comunicación genérico (lenguaje). El artículo sostiene que el monolingüismo de la novela es programático, poniendo en ridículo narraciones que afirman representar la realidad fielmente. En lugar de los múltiples problemas reales de Babel, Bolaño propone el ideal de una transparencia lingüística y traducibilidad perfecta hechas posibles a través de la literatura.

Bolaño against Babel: Multilingualism, Translation and Narration in 2666, ‘La parte de los críticos’

Abstract

This article examines the first part of Roberto Bolaño’s novel 2666 with regard to the strategy of telling a multilingual story in a monolingual narrative. Discussing the motives behind, and implications of, this flattening of the text’s linguistic surface, it argues that to dismiss the tension between story and discourse as a defect is to overlook one of the novel’s principal proposals and to deny a key aspect of Bolaño’s narrative poetics. The article shows that in ‘La parte de los criticos’, effortless communication is confined to a utopian communicative space, which provides a level playing field for characters from different cultural-linguistic backgrounds. The novel’s approach to multilingualism and translation, for which Bolaño may have found support in his readings of Ludwig Wittgenstein, suggests that to him, languages matter not for what separates them but for what they have in common as a generic means of communication. The article contends that the novel’s linguistic flatness is programmatic, exposing to ridicule narratives that claim to represent reality faithfully. In place of the myriad real-world problems of Babel, Bolaño sets an ideal of linguistic transparency and perfect translatability made possible by way of literature.

Este artículo examina la primera parte de la novela 2666, de Roberto Bolaño, con respecto a la estrategia de contar una historia plurilingüe en un relato monolingüe. Analizando los motivos detrás de esta nivelación de la superficie lingüística, así como las implicaciones de ella, argumenta que descartar la tensión entre historia y discurso como un defecto es pasar por alto una de las principales propuestas de 2666 y negar un aspecto clave de la poética narrativa de Bolaño. El artículo demuestra que, en ‘La parte de los críticos’, la comunicación fluida existe únicamente dentro de un espacio comunicativo utópico, que ofrece igualdad de condiciones para personajes de trasfondos lingüístico-culturales distintos. El particular enfoque de la novela sobre el plurilingualismo y la traducción, para el que Bolaño puede haberse inspirado en Ludwig Wittgenstein, sugiere que a aquel escritor las lenguas le importan no por lo que las separa sino por lo que tienen en común en cuanto medio de comunicación genérico (lenguaje). El artículo sostiene que el monolingüismo de la novela es programático, poniendo en ridículo narraciones que afirman representar la realidad fielmente. En lugar de los múltiples problemas reales de Babel, Bolaño propone el ideal de una transparencia lingüística y traducibilidad perfecta hechas posibles a través de la literatura.

Bolaño, Roberto, 1996. La literatura nazi en América (Barcelona: Seix Barral). La literatura nazi en América Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 1998. Los detectives salvajes (Barcelona: Anagrama). Los detectives salvajes Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 2004a. 2666 (Barcelona: Anagrama). 2666 Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 2004b. Entre paréntesis. Ensayos, artículos y discursos (1998–2003), ed. Ignacio Echevarría (Barcelona: Anagrama). Entre paréntesis. Ensayos, artículos y discursos Google Scholar

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Bolaño, Roberto, 2008. 2666, traduit de l’espagnol (Chili) par Robert Amutio (Paris: Gallimard). 2666 Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 2010. El Tercer Reich (Barcelona: Anagrama). El Tercer Reich Google Scholar

Cercas, Javier, 2007. ‘Print the Legend!’, El País, 14 April. Available at: >http://elpais.com/diario/2007/04/14/babelia/1176507550_850215.html> [accessed 1 December 2017]. Google Scholar

Cuevas Guerrero, Carlos, 2006. ‘Escritura e hipérbole. Lectura de 2666 de Roberto Bolaño’, Espéculo. Revista de Estudios Literarios, 12.34. Available at: >http://www.ucm.es/info/especulo/numero34/hiperbol.html> [accessed 1 December 2017]. Google Scholar

Deckard, Sharae, 2012. ‘Peripheral Realism, Millennial Capitalism, and Roberto Bolaño’s 2666’, Modern Language Quarterly, 73.3: 351–72. Peripheral Realism, Millennial Capitalism, and Roberto Bolaño’s 2666 Modern Language Quarterly 73.3 351 72 Google Scholar

Dwyer, Tessa, 2005. ‘Universally Speaking. Lost in Translation and Polyglot Cinema’, Linguistica Antverpensia, 4: 295–310. Universally Speaking. Lost in Translation and Polyglot Cinema Linguistica Antverpensia 4 295 310 Google Scholar

Echevarría, Ignacio, 2004. ‘Nota a la primera edición’, in 2666 by Roberto Bolaño (Barcelona: Anagrama), pp. 1121–25. Nota a la primera edición 2666 1121 25 Google Scholar

Ercolino, Stefano, 2014. The Maximalist Novel. From Thomas Pynchon’s Gravity’s Rainbow to Roberto Bolaño’s 2666 (New York: Bloomsbury). The Maximalist Novel. From Thomas Pynchon’s Google Scholar

European Commission, 2012. Special Eurobarometer, 386 (Europeans and their Languages). (Brussels: European Commission, Directorate-General for Communication), June. Available at: >http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_386_en.pdf> [accessed 1 December 2017]. Google Scholar

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Jaramillo, Darío, 2007. ‘Mago de un solo truco’, El País, 14 April. Available at: >http://elpais.com/diario/2007/04/14/babelia/1176507557_850215.html> [accessed 1 December 2017]. Google Scholar

Lainck, Arndt, 2014. Las figuras del mal en 2666 de Roberto Bolaño (Berlin: Lit). Las figuras del mal en 2666 de Roberto Bolaño Google Scholar

Levinson, Brett, 2009. ‘Case Closed: Madness and Dissociation in 2666’, Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies, 18.2–3: 177–91. Case Closed: Madness and Dissociation in 2666 Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies 18.2–3 177 91 Google Scholar

Medina, Alberto, 2009. ‘Arts of Homelessness. Roberto Bolaño or the Commodification of Exile’, Novel: A Forum on Fiction, 42.3: 546–54. Arts of Homelessness. Roberto Bolaño or the Commodification of Exile Novel: A Forum on Fiction 42.3 546 54 Google Scholar

Meneses, Juan, 2014. ‘“Like in the Gringo Movies”. Translatorese and the Global in Roberto Bolaño’s 2666’, in The Paradox of Authenticity in a Globalized World, ed. Russell Cobb (New York: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 175–85. “Like in the Gringo Movies”. Translatorese and the Global in Roberto Bolaño’s 2666 The Paradox of Authenticity in a Globalized World 175 85 Google Scholar

Patterson, Annabel, 2014. ‘Roberto Bolaño, 2666. Apocalypse in a Border Town’, in The International Novel (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press), pp. 205–21. Roberto Bolaño, 2666. Apocalypse in a Border Town The International Novel 205 21 Google Scholar

Pollack, Sarah, 2013. ‘After Bolaño. Rethinking the Politics of Latin American Literature in Translation’, PMLA, 128.3: 660–67. After Bolaño. Rethinking the Politics of Latin American Literature in Translation PMLA 128.3 660 67 Google Scholar

Pope, Randolph D., 2011. ‘A Writer for a Globalized Age. Roberto Bolaño and 2666’, in Old Margins and New Centers. The European Literary Heritage in an Age of Globalization, ed. Marc Maufort and Caroline De Wagter (Brussels: P.I.E. Peter Lang), pp. 157–66. A Writer for a Globalized Age. Roberto Bolaño and 2666 Old Margins and New Centers. The European Literary Heritage in an Age of Globalization 157 66 Google Scholar

Rodríguez de Arce, Ignacio, 2006. ‘Una primera aproximación a 2666 de Roberto Bolaño’, in Dal Mediterraneo L’America. Storia, Religione, Cultura, ed. Clara Camplani and Patrizia Spinato Bruschi (Rome: Bulzoni), pp. 173–211. Una primera aproximación a 2666 de Roberto Bolaño Dal Mediterraneo L’America. Storia, Religione, Cultura 173 211 Google Scholar

Sternberg, Meir, 1981. ‘Polylingualism as Reality and Translation as Mimesis’, Poetics Today, 2.4: 221–39. Polylingualism as Reality and Translation as Mimesis Poetics Today 2.4 221 39 Google Scholar

Taylor-Batty, Juliette, 2013. Multilingualism in Modernist Fiction (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan). Multilingualism in Modernist Fiction Google Scholar

Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 1953. Philosophical Investigations, trans. G. E. M. Anscombe (Oxford: Basil Blackwell). Philosophical Investigations Google Scholar

Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 1973. Tractatus logico-philosophicus, trans. Enrique Tierno Galván (Madrid: Alianza). Tractatus logico-philosophicus Google Scholar

Zurita, Raúl, 2008. ‘2666 de Roberto Bolaño. Un asunto irresuelto’, Carajo 9. [Online – reproduced in Proyecto Patrimonio. Archivo de autores. Escritores y poetas en español.] Available at: >http://www.letras.mysite.com/rb100208.html> [accessed 1 December 2017]. Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 1996. La literatura nazi en América (Barcelona: Seix Barral). La literatura nazi en América Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 1998. Los detectives salvajes (Barcelona: Anagrama). Los detectives salvajes Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 2004a. 2666 (Barcelona: Anagrama). 2666 Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 2004b. Entre paréntesis. Ensayos, artículos y discursos (1998–2003), ed. Ignacio Echevarría (Barcelona: Anagrama). Entre paréntesis. Ensayos, artículos y discursos Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 2006. Bolaño por sí mismo. Entrevistas escogidas, selección y edición de Andrés Braithwaite (Santiago de Chile: Ediciones Universidad Diego Portales). Bolaño por sí mismo. Entrevistas escogidas Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 2008. 2666, traduit de l’espagnol (Chili) par Robert Amutio (Paris: Gallimard). 2666 Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 2010. El Tercer Reich (Barcelona: Anagrama). El Tercer Reich Google Scholar

Cercas, Javier, 2007. ‘Print the Legend!’, El País, 14 April. Available at: >http://elpais.com/diario/2007/04/14/babelia/1176507550_850215.html> [accessed 1 December 2017]. Google Scholar

Cuevas Guerrero, Carlos, 2006. ‘Escritura e hipérbole. Lectura de 2666 de Roberto Bolaño’, Espéculo. Revista de Estudios Literarios, 12.34. Available at: >http://www.ucm.es/info/especulo/numero34/hiperbol.html> [accessed 1 December 2017]. Google Scholar

Deckard, Sharae, 2012. ‘Peripheral Realism, Millennial Capitalism, and Roberto Bolaño’s 2666’, Modern Language Quarterly, 73.3: 351–72. Peripheral Realism, Millennial Capitalism, and Roberto Bolaño’s 2666 Modern Language Quarterly 73.3 351 72 Google Scholar

Dwyer, Tessa, 2005. ‘Universally Speaking. Lost in Translation and Polyglot Cinema’, Linguistica Antverpensia, 4: 295–310. Universally Speaking. Lost in Translation and Polyglot Cinema Linguistica Antverpensia 4 295 310 Google Scholar

Echevarría, Ignacio, 2004. ‘Nota a la primera edición’, in 2666 by Roberto Bolaño (Barcelona: Anagrama), pp. 1121–25. Nota a la primera edición 2666 1121 25 Google Scholar

Ercolino, Stefano, 2014. The Maximalist Novel. From Thomas Pynchon’s Gravity’s Rainbow to Roberto Bolaño’s 2666 (New York: Bloomsbury). The Maximalist Novel. From Thomas Pynchon’s Google Scholar

European Commission, 2012. Special Eurobarometer, 386 (Europeans and their Languages). (Brussels: European Commission, Directorate-General for Communication), June. Available at: >http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_386_en.pdf> [accessed 1 December 2017]. Google Scholar

Ishiguro, Hidé, 2001. ‘The So-called Picture Theory. Language and the World in Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus’, in Wittgenstein: A Critical Reader, ed. Hans-Johann Glock (Oxford: Blackwell), pp. 26–46. The So-called Picture Theory. Language and the World in Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus Wittgenstein: A Critical Reader 26 46 Google Scholar

Jaramillo, Darío, 2007. ‘Mago de un solo truco’, El País, 14 April. Available at: >http://elpais.com/diario/2007/04/14/babelia/1176507557_850215.html> [accessed 1 December 2017]. Google Scholar

Lainck, Arndt, 2014. Las figuras del mal en 2666 de Roberto Bolaño (Berlin: Lit). Las figuras del mal en 2666 de Roberto Bolaño Google Scholar

Levinson, Brett, 2009. ‘Case Closed: Madness and Dissociation in 2666’, Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies, 18.2–3: 177–91. Case Closed: Madness and Dissociation in 2666 Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies 18.2–3 177 91 Google Scholar

Medina, Alberto, 2009. ‘Arts of Homelessness. Roberto Bolaño or the Commodification of Exile’, Novel: A Forum on Fiction, 42.3: 546–54. Arts of Homelessness. Roberto Bolaño or the Commodification of Exile Novel: A Forum on Fiction 42.3 546 54 Google Scholar

Meneses, Juan, 2014. ‘“Like in the Gringo Movies”. Translatorese and the Global in Roberto Bolaño’s 2666’, in The Paradox of Authenticity in a Globalized World, ed. Russell Cobb (New York: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 175–85. “Like in the Gringo Movies”. Translatorese and the Global in Roberto Bolaño’s 2666 The Paradox of Authenticity in a Globalized World 175 85 Google Scholar

Patterson, Annabel, 2014. ‘Roberto Bolaño, 2666. Apocalypse in a Border Town’, in The International Novel (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press), pp. 205–21. Roberto Bolaño, 2666. Apocalypse in a Border Town The International Novel 205 21 Google Scholar

Pollack, Sarah, 2013. ‘After Bolaño. Rethinking the Politics of Latin American Literature in Translation’, PMLA, 128.3: 660–67. After Bolaño. Rethinking the Politics of Latin American Literature in Translation PMLA 128.3 660 67 Google Scholar

Pope, Randolph D., 2011. ‘A Writer for a Globalized Age. Roberto Bolaño and 2666’, in Old Margins and New Centers. The European Literary Heritage in an Age of Globalization, ed. Marc Maufort and Caroline De Wagter (Brussels: P.I.E. Peter Lang), pp. 157–66. A Writer for a Globalized Age. Roberto Bolaño and 2666 Old Margins and New Centers. The European Literary Heritage in an Age of Globalization 157 66 Google Scholar

Rodríguez de Arce, Ignacio, 2006. ‘Una primera aproximación a 2666 de Roberto Bolaño’, in Dal Mediterraneo L’America. Storia, Religione, Cultura, ed. Clara Camplani and Patrizia Spinato Bruschi (Rome: Bulzoni), pp. 173–211. Una primera aproximación a 2666 de Roberto Bolaño Dal Mediterraneo L’America. Storia, Religione, Cultura 173 211 Google Scholar

Sternberg, Meir, 1981. ‘Polylingualism as Reality and Translation as Mimesis’, Poetics Today, 2.4: 221–39. Polylingualism as Reality and Translation as Mimesis Poetics Today 2.4 221 39 Google Scholar

Taylor-Batty, Juliette, 2013. Multilingualism in Modernist Fiction (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan). Multilingualism in Modernist Fiction Google Scholar

Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 1953. Philosophical Investigations, trans. G. E. M. Anscombe (Oxford: Basil Blackwell). Philosophical Investigations Google Scholar

Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 1973. Tractatus logico-philosophicus, trans. Enrique Tierno Galván (Madrid: Alianza). Tractatus logico-philosophicus Google Scholar

Zurita, Raúl, 2008. ‘2666 de Roberto Bolaño. Un asunto irresuelto’, Carajo 9. [Online – reproduced in Proyecto Patrimonio. Archivo de autores. Escritores y poetas en español.] Available at: >http://www.letras.mysite.com/rb100208.html> [accessed 1 December 2017]. Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 1996. La literatura nazi en América (Barcelona: Seix Barral). La literatura nazi en América Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 1998. Los detectives salvajes (Barcelona: Anagrama). Los detectives salvajes Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 2004a. 2666 (Barcelona: Anagrama). 2666 Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 2004b. Entre paréntesis. Ensayos, artículos y discursos (1998–2003), ed. Ignacio Echevarría (Barcelona: Anagrama). Entre paréntesis. Ensayos, artículos y discursos Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 2006. Bolaño por sí mismo. Entrevistas escogidas, selección y edición de Andrés Braithwaite (Santiago de Chile: Ediciones Universidad Diego Portales). Bolaño por sí mismo. Entrevistas escogidas Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 2008. 2666, traduit de l’espagnol (Chili) par Robert Amutio (Paris: Gallimard). 2666 Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 2010. El Tercer Reich (Barcelona: Anagrama). El Tercer Reich Google Scholar

Cercas, Javier, 2007. ‘Print the Legend!’, El País, 14 April. Available at: >http://elpais.com/diario/2007/04/14/babelia/1176507550_850215.html> [accessed 1 December 2017]. Google Scholar

Cuevas Guerrero, Carlos, 2006. ‘Escritura e hipérbole. Lectura de 2666 de Roberto Bolaño’, Espéculo. Revista de Estudios Literarios, 12.34. Available at: >http://www.ucm.es/info/especulo/numero34/hiperbol.html> [accessed 1 December 2017]. Google Scholar

Deckard, Sharae, 2012. ‘Peripheral Realism, Millennial Capitalism, and Roberto Bolaño’s 2666’, Modern Language Quarterly, 73.3: 351–72. Peripheral Realism, Millennial Capitalism, and Roberto Bolaño’s 2666 Modern Language Quarterly 73.3 351 72 Google Scholar

Dwyer, Tessa, 2005. ‘Universally Speaking. Lost in Translation and Polyglot Cinema’, Linguistica Antverpensia, 4: 295–310. Universally Speaking. Lost in Translation and Polyglot Cinema Linguistica Antverpensia 4 295 310 Google Scholar

Echevarría, Ignacio, 2004. ‘Nota a la primera edición’, in 2666 by Roberto Bolaño (Barcelona: Anagrama), pp. 1121–25. Nota a la primera edición 2666 1121 25 Google Scholar

Ercolino, Stefano, 2014. The Maximalist Novel. From Thomas Pynchon’s Gravity’s Rainbow to Roberto Bolaño’s 2666 (New York: Bloomsbury). The Maximalist Novel. From Thomas Pynchon’s Google Scholar

European Commission, 2012. Special Eurobarometer, 386 (Europeans and their Languages). (Brussels: European Commission, Directorate-General for Communication), June. Available at: >http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_386_en.pdf> [accessed 1 December 2017]. Google Scholar

Ishiguro, Hidé, 2001. ‘The So-called Picture Theory. Language and the World in Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus’, in Wittgenstein: A Critical Reader, ed. Hans-Johann Glock (Oxford: Blackwell), pp. 26–46. The So-called Picture Theory. Language and the World in Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus Wittgenstein: A Critical Reader 26 46 Google Scholar

Jaramillo, Darío, 2007. ‘Mago de un solo truco’, El País, 14 April. Available at: >http://elpais.com/diario/2007/04/14/babelia/1176507557_850215.html> [accessed 1 December 2017]. Google Scholar

Lainck, Arndt, 2014. Las figuras del mal en 2666 de Roberto Bolaño (Berlin: Lit). Las figuras del mal en 2666 de Roberto Bolaño Google Scholar

Levinson, Brett, 2009. ‘Case Closed: Madness and Dissociation in 2666’, Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies, 18.2–3: 177–91. Case Closed: Madness and Dissociation in 2666 Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies 18.2–3 177 91 Google Scholar

Medina, Alberto, 2009. ‘Arts of Homelessness. Roberto Bolaño or the Commodification of Exile’, Novel: A Forum on Fiction, 42.3: 546–54. Arts of Homelessness. Roberto Bolaño or the Commodification of Exile Novel: A Forum on Fiction 42.3 546 54 Google Scholar

Meneses, Juan, 2014. ‘“Like in the Gringo Movies”. Translatorese and the Global in Roberto Bolaño’s 2666’, in The Paradox of Authenticity in a Globalized World, ed. Russell Cobb (New York: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 175–85. “Like in the Gringo Movies”. Translatorese and the Global in Roberto Bolaño’s 2666 The Paradox of Authenticity in a Globalized World 175 85 Google Scholar

Patterson, Annabel, 2014. ‘Roberto Bolaño, 2666. Apocalypse in a Border Town’, in The International Novel (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press), pp. 205–21. Roberto Bolaño, 2666. Apocalypse in a Border Town The International Novel 205 21 Google Scholar

Pollack, Sarah, 2013. ‘After Bolaño. Rethinking the Politics of Latin American Literature in Translation’, PMLA, 128.3: 660–67. After Bolaño. Rethinking the Politics of Latin American Literature in Translation PMLA 128.3 660 67 Google Scholar

Pope, Randolph D., 2011. ‘A Writer for a Globalized Age. Roberto Bolaño and 2666’, in Old Margins and New Centers. The European Literary Heritage in an Age of Globalization, ed. Marc Maufort and Caroline De Wagter (Brussels: P.I.E. Peter Lang), pp. 157–66. A Writer for a Globalized Age. Roberto Bolaño and 2666 Old Margins and New Centers. The European Literary Heritage in an Age of Globalization 157 66 Google Scholar

Rodríguez de Arce, Ignacio, 2006. ‘Una primera aproximación a 2666 de Roberto Bolaño’, in Dal Mediterraneo L’America. Storia, Religione, Cultura, ed. Clara Camplani and Patrizia Spinato Bruschi (Rome: Bulzoni), pp. 173–211. Una primera aproximación a 2666 de Roberto Bolaño Dal Mediterraneo L’America. Storia, Religione, Cultura 173 211 Google Scholar

Sternberg, Meir, 1981. ‘Polylingualism as Reality and Translation as Mimesis’, Poetics Today, 2.4: 221–39. Polylingualism as Reality and Translation as Mimesis Poetics Today 2.4 221 39 Google Scholar

Taylor-Batty, Juliette, 2013. Multilingualism in Modernist Fiction (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan). Multilingualism in Modernist Fiction Google Scholar

Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 1953. Philosophical Investigations, trans. G. E. M. Anscombe (Oxford: Basil Blackwell). Philosophical Investigations Google Scholar

Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 1973. Tractatus logico-philosophicus, trans. Enrique Tierno Galván (Madrid: Alianza). Tractatus logico-philosophicus Google Scholar

Zurita, Raúl, 2008. ‘2666 de Roberto Bolaño. Un asunto irresuelto’, Carajo 9. [Online – reproduced in Proyecto Patrimonio. Archivo de autores. Escritores y poetas en español.] Available at: >http://www.letras.mysite.com/rb100208.html> [accessed 1 December 2017]. Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 1996. La literatura nazi en América (Barcelona: Seix Barral). La literatura nazi en América Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 1998. Los detectives salvajes (Barcelona: Anagrama). Los detectives salvajes Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 2004a. 2666 (Barcelona: Anagrama). 2666 Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 2004b. Entre paréntesis. Ensayos, artículos y discursos (1998–2003), ed. Ignacio Echevarría (Barcelona: Anagrama). Entre paréntesis. Ensayos, artículos y discursos Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 2006. Bolaño por sí mismo. Entrevistas escogidas, selección y edición de Andrés Braithwaite (Santiago de Chile: Ediciones Universidad Diego Portales). Bolaño por sí mismo. Entrevistas escogidas Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 2008. 2666, traduit de l’espagnol (Chili) par Robert Amutio (Paris: Gallimard). 2666 Google Scholar

Bolaño, Roberto, 2010. El Tercer Reich (Barcelona: Anagrama). El Tercer Reich Google Scholar

Cercas, Javier, 2007. ‘Print the Legend!’, El País, 14 April. Available at: >http://elpais.com/diario/2007/04/14/babelia/1176507550_850215.html> [accessed 1 December 2017]. Google Scholar

Cuevas Guerrero, Carlos, 2006. ‘Escritura e hipérbole. Lectura de 2666 de Roberto Bolaño’, Espéculo. Revista de Estudios Literarios, 12.34. Available at: >http://www.ucm.es/info/especulo/numero34/hiperbol.html> [accessed 1 December 2017]. Google Scholar

Deckard, Sharae, 2012. ‘Peripheral Realism, Millennial Capitalism, and Roberto Bolaño’s 2666’, Modern Language Quarterly, 73.3: 351–72. Peripheral Realism, Millennial Capitalism, and Roberto Bolaño’s 2666 Modern Language Quarterly 73.3 351 72 Google Scholar

Dwyer, Tessa, 2005. ‘Universally Speaking. Lost in Translation and Polyglot Cinema’, Linguistica Antverpensia, 4: 295–310. Universally Speaking. Lost in Translation and Polyglot Cinema Linguistica Antverpensia 4 295 310 Google Scholar

Echevarría, Ignacio, 2004. ‘Nota a la primera edición’, in 2666 by Roberto Bolaño (Barcelona: Anagrama), pp. 1121–25. Nota a la primera edición 2666 1121 25 Google Scholar

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Altenberg, Tilmann