British Journal of Canadian Studies

Diplomacy disturbed: NATO, conservative morality and the unfixing of a middle power

British Journal of Canadian Studies (2015), 28, (1), 43–69.

Abstract

This article aims to explain the evolution of Canada’s relationship with NATO during the tenure of the Conservative governments of Stephen Harper (2006–14). A long-standing pillar of the country’s international policy, engagement with NATO has been noticeably weakened as Canada withdrew from joint Alliance programmes, ended participation in its operations, and paid less attention to relationships with NATO partners. Based on analysis of primary sources and interviews conducted among Canadian and NATO policy-makers, we argue that the loosening attachment to NATO has two sources, both underpinned by a particular interpretation of morality shaping the Conservative approach to foreign policy. One source is Canadian foreign policy becoming ‘unfixed’ from what was broadly termed its ‘middle power’ identity; the second, the experience of the ISAF mission in Afghanistan (2006–11), which made NATO as an institution seem incompatible with the Conservatives’ approach to foreign policy.

Access Token
£25.00
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Angus Reid, 2007, ‘Few Canadians Want Afghan Mission Extended’, Angus Reid Strategic Monitor, 17 July. Available from: http://angusreid.org/three_in_five_canadians_oppose_afghan_mission/ (accessed 22 March 2015). Google Scholar

Appel Molot, Maureen, 2007, ‘Where Do We, Should We, or Can We Sit? A Review of Canadian Foreign Policy Literature’, in Duane Bratt and Christopher J. Kukucha (eds), Readings in Canadian Foreign Policy: Classic Debates and New Ideas (Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press), pp. 62–75. Where Do We, Should We, or Can We Sit? A Review of Canadian Foreign Policy Literature Readings in Canadian Foreign Policy: Classic Debates and New Ideas 62 75 Google Scholar

Boucher, Jean-Christophe, 2013, ‘The Responsibility to Think Clearly about Interests: Stephen Harper’s Realist Internationalism, 2006–2011’, in Heather A. Smith and Claire Turenne Sjolander (eds), Canada in the World: Internationalism in Canadian Foreign Policy (Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press), pp. 53–70. The Responsibility to Think Clearly about Interests: Stephen Harper’s Realist Internationalism, 2006–2011 Canada in the World: Internationalism in Canadian Foreign Policy 53 70 Google Scholar

Brewster, Murray, 2011, The Savage War: The Untold Battles of Afghanistan (Mississauga, ON: John Wiley and Sons). The Savage War: The Untold Battles of Afghanistan Google Scholar

Campion-Smith, Bruce, 2014, ‘Armed Canadian Fighter Jets Move to Russia’s Doorstep’, 29 August. Available from: http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2014/08/29/armed_canadian_fighter_jets_move_to_russias_doorstep.html (accessed 30 August 2014). Google Scholar

Chapnick, Adam, 2000, ‘The Canadian Middle Power Myth’, International Journal, 55:2, 188–206. The Canadian Middle Power Myth International Journal 55 188 206 Google Scholar

Chapnick, Adam, 2013, ‘Middle Power No More? Canada in World Affairs since 2006’, Seton Hall Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations, 14:2, 102–11. Middle Power No More? Canada in World Affairs since 2006 Seton Hall Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations 14 102 11 Google Scholar

Clark, Campbell, 2010, ‘Part 2: Canadians pick peacekeeping over combat’, The Globe and Mail, 25 October. Available from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/time-to-lead/part-2-canadians-pick-peacekeeping-over-combat/article1215629 (accessed 15 July 2014). Google Scholar

Clement, Tony, 2004, ‘The United Nations is beyond redemption’, National Post (2 October), A17. The United Nations is beyond redemption National Post Google Scholar

Cohen, Andrew, 2004, While Canada Slept: How We Lost Our Place in the World (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart). While Canada Slept: How We Lost Our Place in the World Google Scholar

Coletta, Damon, and Sten Rynning, 2012, ‘NATO from Kabul to Earth orbit: can the alliance cope?’, Journal of Transatlantic Studies, 10:1, 26–44. NATO from Kabul to Earth orbit: can the alliance cope? Journal of Transatlantic Studies 10 26 44 Google Scholar

Cooper, Andrew F., and Dane Rowlands, 2006, ‘Positioning Policy Priorities in a Minority Context: Prospects for the Harper Government’, in Andrew F. Cooper and Dane Rowlands (eds), Minorities and Priorities: Canada among Nations 2006 (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press), pp. 3–24. Positioning Policy Priorities in a Minority Context: Prospects for the Harper Government Minorities and Priorities: Canada among Nations 2006 3 24 Google Scholar

CTV News, 2014, ‘Stephen Harper: No big defence spending spike, despite NATO’s request’, 3 September. Available from: http://www.ctvnews.ca/politics/stephen-harper-no-big-defence-spending-spike-despite-nato-request-1.1988698 (accessed 25 November 2014). Google Scholar

Dennis, Patrick, 2008, ‘NATO AWACS: Alliance Keystone for Out-of-Area Operations’, Canadian Military Journal, 8:4, 22–31. NATO AWACS: Alliance Keystone for Out-of-Area Operations Canadian Military Journal 8 22 31 Google Scholar

DFAIT (Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade), 2011a, ‘Canada’s position on Middle East resolutions at the United Nations’, 10 November. Available from: http://www.international.gc.ca/media/aff/newscommuniques/2011/342.aspx?lang =eng&view=d (accessed 3 February 2013). Google Scholar

DFAIT (Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade), 2011b, ‘Standing Up for Canadian Values on the World Stage: Canada Boycotts UN Conference on Disarmament under North Korea’s Presidency’, 11 July. Available from: http://www.international.gc.ca/media/aff/news-communiques/2011/198.aspx? lang=eng (accessed 3 February 2013). Google Scholar

DFAIT (Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade), 2011c, ‘Punching Above Its Weight: 1939–1968’, 9 September. Available from: http://www.international.gc.ca/history-histoire/photos/punchingjouer.aspx?menu_id=39&view=d (accessed 30 March 2014). Google Scholar

Donaghy, Greg, 2003, ‘All God’s Children: Lloyd Axworthy, Human Security and Canadian Foreign Policy, 1996–2000’, Canadian Foreign Policy Journal, 10:2, 39–58. All God’s Children: Lloyd Axworthy, Human Security and Canadian Foreign Policy, 1996–2000 Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 10 39 58 Google Scholar

Eayrs, James, 1965, In Defence of Canada: Growing Up Allied, Vol. 4 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press). In Defence of Canada: Growing Up Allied 4 Google Scholar

Fortmann, Michel, and Martin Larose, 2004, ‘An Emerging Strategic Counterculture? Pierre Elliott Trudeau, Canadian Intellectuals and the Revision of Liberal Defence Policy Concerning NATO (1968–1969)’, International Journal, 59:3, 537–56. An Emerging Strategic Counterculture? Pierre Elliott Trudeau, Canadian Intellectuals and the Revision of Liberal Defence Policy Concerning NATO (1968–1969) International Journal 59 537 56 Google Scholar

Gagnon, Lysiane, 2003, ‘The battle for Baghdad, er, Quebec’, The Globe and Mail, 31 March, A15. The battle for Baghdad, er, Quebec The Globe and Mail Google Scholar

Gagnon, Lysiane, 2004, ‘Why Quebeckers back Kerry’, The Globe and Mail, 1 November, A13. Why Quebeckers back Kerry The Globe and Mail Google Scholar

Gecelovsky, Paul, 2013, ‘The Prime Minister and the Parable: Stephen Harper and Personal Responsibility Internationalism’, in Heather A. Smith and Claire Turenne Sjolander (eds), Canada in the World: Internationalism in Canadian Foreign Policy (Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press 2013), pp. 108–24. The Prime Minister and the Parable: Stephen Harper and Personal Responsibility Internationalism Canada in the World: Internationalism in Canadian Foreign Policy 108 24 Google Scholar

Gee, Marcus, 2007a, ‘Where Are Our Allies? Where Is Germany?’, The Globe and Mail, 14 September, A25. Where Are Our Allies? Where Is Germany? The Globe and Mail Google Scholar

Gee, Marcus, 2007b, ‘Is this the same alliance that won the Cold War?’, The Globe and Mail, 26 October, A25. Is this the same alliance that won the Cold War? The Globe and Mail Google Scholar

Goodman, Lee-Anne, 2012, ‘Harper skips the United Nations, but meets with leaders on route to award’, The Globe and Mail, 27 September. Available from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/harper-skips-united-nations-but-meets-with-leaders-en-route-to-award/article4572183 (accessed 3 August 2013). Google Scholar

Government of Canada, 2008, ‘Report of the Independent Panel on Canada’s Future Role in Afghanistan’. Ottawa: The Minister of Public Works and Government Services. Available from: http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2008/dfait-maeci/FR5-20-1-2008E.pdf (accessed 22 March 2015). Google Scholar

Granatstein, Jack L., 2007, Whose War is It? How Canada Can Survive in the Post-9/11 World (Toronto: HarperCollins). Whose War is It? How Canada Can Survive in the Post-9/11 World Google Scholar

Haglund, David G., 2000, The North Atlantic Triangle Revisited: Canadian Grand Strategy at Century’s End (Toronto: Irwin). The North Atlantic Triangle Revisited: Canadian Grand Strategy at Century’s End Google Scholar

Hampson, Fen Osler, and Dean F. Oliver, 1998, ‘Pulpit Diplomacy: A Critical Assessment of the Axworthy Doctrine’, International Journal, 53:3, 379–406. Pulpit Diplomacy: A Critical Assessment of the Axworthy Doctrine International Journal 53 379 406 Google Scholar

Hansard’s Parliamentary Debates (House of Commons), 2001a, Vol. 137, no. 79, 17 September, cols 1205–20. 137 1205 20 Google Scholar

Hansard’s Parliamentary Debates (House of Commons), 2001b, Vol. 137, no. 94, 15 October, col. 1130. 137 Google Scholar

Hansard’s Parliamentary Debates (House of Commons), 2001c, Vol. 137, no. 94, 15 October, col. 1135. 137 1135 Google Scholar

Hansard’s Parliamentary Debates (House of Commons), 2002, Vol. 137, no. 193, 28 May, cols 1320–35. 137 1320 35 Google Scholar

Hansard’s Parliamentary Debates (House of Commons), 2006, Vol. 141, no. 48, 19 September, col. 1430. 141 1430 Google Scholar

Hansard’s Parliamentary Debates (House of Commons), 2007a, Vol. 141, no. 141, 16 April, cols 1140–5. 141 1140 5 Google Scholar

Hansard’s Parliamentary Debates (House of Commons), 2007b, Vol. 141, no. 136, 19 April, 1235, cols 1330–45, 1545, 1645. 141 1330 45 Google Scholar

Hansard’s Parliamentary Debates (House of Commons), 2008, Vol. 142, no. 53, 25 February, cols 1305–20. 142 1305 20 Google Scholar

Harper, Stephen, 2006a, ‘Address by the Prime Minister to the Canadian Forces in Afghanistan’, 13 March. Available from: http://pm.gc.ca/eng/media.asp?id=1056 (accessed 20 February 2012). Google Scholar

Harper, Stephen, 2006b, ‘Address by the Prime Minister at the Canada-UK Chamber of Commerce’, 14 July. Available from: http://www.pm.gc.ca/eng/media.asp?id=1247 (accessed 13 January 2013). Google Scholar

Harper, Stephen, 2006c, ‘Reviving Canadian leadership in the world’. Address at the Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars, 5 October. Available from: http://www.pm.gc.ca/eng/media.asp?category=2&pageId=46&id=1343 (accessed 1 February 2013). Google Scholar

Harper, Stephen, and Stockwell Day, 2003, ‘Canadians Stand with You’, The Wall Street Journal (28 March). Available from: http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB104881540524220000 (accessed 30 March 2014). Google Scholar

Hillmer, Norman, and Adam Chapnick, 2001, ‘The Axworthy Revolution’, in Fen Osler Hampson, Norman Hillmer, and Maureen Appel Molot (eds), Canada among Nations 2001: The Axworthy Legacy (Toronto: Oxford University Press), pp. 65–88. The Axworthy Revolution Canada among Nations 2001: The Axworthy Legacy 65 88 Google Scholar

Holbraad, Carsten, 1984, Middle Powers in International Politics (London: Macmillan Press). Middle Powers in International Politics Google Scholar

Holmes, John W., 1970, The Better Part of Valour: Essays on Canadian Diplomacy (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart). The Better Part of Valour: Essays on Canadian Diplomacy Google Scholar

Holmes, John W., 2007, ‘Most Safely in the Middle’, in Duane Bratt and Christopher J. Kukucha (eds), Readings in Canadian Foreign Policy: Classic Debates and New Ideas (Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press), pp. 9–21. Most Safely in the Middle Readings in Canadian Foreign Policy: Classic Debates and New Ideas 9 21 Google Scholar

House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, 2012, Evidence, 40, 15 May. Evidence Google Scholar

Ibbitson, John, 2011, ‘The Harper Doctrine: Conservative Foreign Policy in Black and White’, The Globe and Mail, 12 June. Available from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/ottawa-notebook/the-harper-doctrine-conservative-foreign-policy-in-black-and-white/article2057886/ (accessed 12 May 2012). Google Scholar

Ibbitson, John, 2014, ‘The Big Break: The Conservative Transformation of Canada’s Foreign Policy’, CIGI Papers 29, Centre for International Governance Innovation. Available from: http://www.cigionline.org/publications/big-break-conservative-transformation-of-canadas-foreign-policy (accessed 20 October 2014). Google Scholar

ISAF, 2014, ‘Canadian Armed Forces complete mission in Afghanistan’, ISAF News, 12 March. Available from: http://www.isaf.nato.int/article/isaf-news/canadian-armed-forces-complete-mission-in-afghanistan.html (accessed 24 March 2014). Google Scholar

Jockel, Joseph T., 1994, Canada and International Peacekeeping (Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies). Canada and International Peacekeeping Google Scholar

Keating, 2002, Canada and World Order: The Multilateralist Tradition in Canadian Foreign Policy (Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press). Canada and World Order: The Multilateralist Tradition in Canadian Foreign Policy Google Scholar

Lang, Eugene, 2009, ‘Happy 60th, NATO – we still need you’, The Globe and Mail, 8 April, A19. Happy 60th, NATO – we still need you The Globe and Mail Google Scholar

Lebow, Richard Ned, 2014, Constructing Cause in International Relations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Constructing Cause in International Relations Google Scholar

MacKay, Peter, 2009a, ‘Verbatim: Peter MacKay on the future of Afghanistan’, Speech at the Munich Conference on Security, 6–8 February. Available from: http://www2.macleans.ca/2009/02/09/verbatim-peter-mackay-on-the-future-of-afghanistan (accessed 2 April 2013). Google Scholar

MacKay, Peter, 2009b, ‘NATO in Afghanistan: Transatlantic Security and Canadian Defence Strategy’, Speech at the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House), 16 February. NATO in Afghanistan: Transatlantic Security and Canadian Defence Strategy Speech at the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House) Google Scholar

Manning, Preston, 2005, ‘Restless in Flanders fields’, The Globe and Mail, 19 March, A19. Restless in Flanders fields The Globe and Mail Google Scholar

Martin, Paul, 2005, ‘Foreword from the Prime Minister’, in Canada’s International Policy Statement: A Role of Pride and Influence in the World (Ottawa: Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade), pp. iii–vii. Foreword from the Prime Minister Canada’s International Policy Statement: A Role of Pride and Influence in the World iii vii Google Scholar

Martin, Pierre, and Michel Fortmann, 1995, ‘Canadian Public Opinion and Peacekeeping in a Turbulent World’, International Journal, 50:2, 370–400. Canadian Public Opinion and Peacekeeping in a Turbulent World International Journal 50 370 400 Google Scholar

Martin, Pierre, and Michel Fortmann, 2001, ‘Public Opinion: Obstacle, Partner, or Scapegoat?’, Policy Options (January– February), 66–72. Public Opinion: Obstacle, Partner, or Scapegoat? Policy Options 66 72 Google Scholar

Massie, Justin, and Stéphane Roussel, 2013, ‘The Twilight of Internationalism? Neo-continentalism as an Emerging Dominant Idea in Canadian Foreign Policy’, in Heather A. Smith and Claire Turenne Sjolander (eds), Canada in the World: Internationalism in Canadian Foreign Policy (Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press), pp. 36–52. The Twilight of Internationalism? Neo-continentalism as an Emerging Dominant Idea in Canadian Foreign Policy Canada in the World: Internationalism in Canadian Foreign Policy 36 52 Google Scholar

Morin, David, and Stéphane Roussel, 2014, ‘Autopsie de la politique étrangère de Stephen Harper: un examen préliminaire’, Canadian Foreign Policy Journal, 20:1, 1– 8. Autopsie de la politique étrangère de Stephen Harper: un examen préliminaire Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 20 1 8 Google Scholar

Munton, Don, and Tom Keating, 2001, ‘Internationalism and the Canadian Public’, Canadian Journal of Political Science, 34:3, 517–49. Internationalism and the Canadian Public Canadian Journal of Political Science 34 517 49 Google Scholar

Neufeld, Mark, 1995, ‘Hegemony and Foreign Policy Analysis: The Case of Canada as Middle Power’, Studies in Political Economy, 48 (Autumn), 7–29. Hegemony and Foreign Policy Analysis: The Case of Canada as Middle Power Studies in Political Economy 7 29 Google Scholar

Neufeld, Mark, 2007, ‘Hegemony and Foreign Policy Analysis: The Case of Canada as Middle Power’, in Duane Bratt and Christopher J. Kukucha (eds), Readings in Canadian Foreign Policy: Classic Debates and New Ideas (Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press), pp. 94–107. Hegemony and Foreign Policy Analysis: The Case of Canada as Middle Power Readings in Canadian Foreign Policy: Classic Debates and New Ideas 94 107 Google Scholar

Noetzel, Timo, and Benjamin Schreer, 2009, ‘Does a Multi-tier NATO Matter? The Atlantic Alliance and the Process of Strategic Change’, International Affairs, 85:2, 211–26. Does a Multi-tier NATO Matter? The Atlantic Alliance and the Process of Strategic Change International Affairs 85 211 26 Google Scholar

Nossal, Kim Richard, 1999, ‘Pinchpenny Diplomacy. The Decline of “Good International Citizenship” in Canadian Foreign Policy’, International Journal, 54:1, 88–105. Pinchpenny Diplomacy. The Decline of “Good International Citizenship” in Canadian Foreign Policy International Journal 54 88 105 Google Scholar

Nossal, Kim Richard, 2013, ‘The Liberal Past in the Conservative Present: Internationalism in the Harper Era’, in Heather A. Smith and Claire Turenne Sjolander (eds), Canada in the World: Internationalism in Canadian Foreign Policy (Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press), pp. 21–35. The Liberal Past in the Conservative Present: Internationalism in the Harper Era Canada in the World: Internationalism in Canadian Foreign Policy 21 35 Google Scholar

Ottawa Citizen, 2007, ‘Canada’s back, Harper tells U.S.’, 26 September. Available from: http://www.canada.com/ottawacitizen/news/story.html?id=1aaf3f06-0814-4021-9b03-d84716544d47 (accessed 2 February 2013). Google Scholar

Paris, Roland, 2014, ‘Are Canadians Still Liberal Internationalists? Foreign Policy and Public Opinion in the Harper Era’, International Journal, 69:3, 274–307. Are Canadians Still Liberal Internationalists? Foreign Policy and Public Opinion in the Harper Era International Journal 69 274 307 Google Scholar

Pentland, Charles, 2003, ‘Odd Man In: Canada and the Transatlantic Crisis’, International Journal, 59:1, 145–66. Odd Man In: Canada and the Transatlantic Crisis International Journal 59 145 66 Google Scholar

Prime Minister of Canada, 2014, ‘PM concludes visit to Ukraine’, 22 March. Available from: http://www.pm.gc.ca/eng/news/2014/03/22/pm-concludes-visit-ukraine (accessed 30 August 2014). Google Scholar

Ringsmose, Jens, 2010, ‘NATO Burden-Sharing Redux: Continuity and Change after the Cold War’, Contemporary Security Policy, 31:2, 319 –38. NATO Burden-Sharing Redux: Continuity and Change after the Cold War Contemporary Security Policy 31 319 38 Google Scholar

Roussel, Stéphane, 2007, ‘Introduction: La culture stratégique d’un “paisible royaume”?’, in Stéphane Roussel (ed.), Culture stratégique et politique de défense. L’expérience canadienne (Outremont: Athéna Éditions), pp. 1–12. Introduction: La culture stratégique d’un “paisible royaume”? Culture stratégique et politique de défense. L’expérience canadienne 1 12 Google Scholar

Rovinsky, David J., February 1998, ‘The Ascendancy of Western Canada in Canadian Policy Making’, Policy Papers on the Americas, 9:2 (Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies Americas Programme). Available from: http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/pp0902.pdf (accessed 22 March 2015). Google Scholar

Schmitz, Gerald R., 2010, Canadian Policy toward Afghanistan to 2011 and Beyond: Issues, Prospects, Options, Publication No. 2010-26-E, Ottawa: Library of Parliament. Canadian Policy toward Afghanistan to 2011 and Beyond: Issues, Prospects, Options Google Scholar

Segal, Hugh, 2006, ‘Compassion, Realism, Engagement, and Focus: A Conservative Foreign Policy Thematic’, in Andrew F. Cooper and Dane Rowlands (eds), Minorities and Priorities: Canada among Nations 2006 (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press), pp. 27–33. Compassion, Realism, Engagement, and Focus: A Conservative Foreign Policy Thematic Minorities and Priorities: Canada among Nations 2006 27 33 Google Scholar

Segal, Hugh, 2011, ‘Hugh Segal’s Conservative Foreign Policy’, Open Canada, 15 September. Available from: http://opencanada.org/author/hughsegal (accessed 25 November 2014). Google Scholar

Senate Standing Committee on National Security and Defence, 2010, Evidence, 3, 26 April. Evidence Google Scholar

Senate Standing Committee on National Security and Defence, 2012, Evidence, 5, 23 April. Evidence Google Scholar

Smith, Heather A., and Claire Turenne Sjolander, 2013a, ‘Introduction: Conversations without Consensus – Internationalism under the Harper Government’, in Heather A. Smith and Claire Turenne Sjolander (eds), Canada in the World: Internationalism in Canadian Foreign Policy (Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press), pp. xiii–xxvii. Introduction: Conversations without Consensus – Internationalism under the Harper Government Canada in the World: Internationalism in Canadian Foreign Policy xiii xxvii Google Scholar

Smith, Heather A., and Claire Turenne Sjolander (eds), 2013b, Canada in the World: Internationalism in Canadian Foreign Policy (Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press). Canada in the World: Internationalism in Canadian Foreign Policy Google Scholar

SCONDVA (Standing Committee on National Defence and Veterans’ Affairs), 2001, ‘State of Readiness of the Canadian Forces: Response to the Terrorist Threat. Interim Report’ (Ottawa: Government of Canada). Available from: http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=1032011&Language=E&Mode=1&Parl=3 7&Ses=1&File=12 (accessed 22 March 2015). Google Scholar

Standing Senate Committee on National Security and Defence, 2004, Chapter 4: ‘Canadian Forces’, in Canadian Security Guide Book 2005: An Update of Security Problems in Search of Solutions (Ottawa: Government of Canada). Available from: http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/SEN/Committee/381/defe/rep/rep03nov04part2-e.htm#_Toc89252253 (accessed 30 August 2014). Google Scholar

Steele, Brent J., 2010, Defacing Power: The Aesthetics of Insecurity in Global Politics (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press). Defacing Power: The Aesthetics of Insecurity in Global Politics Google Scholar

The Globe and Mail, 2007, ‘Cheering from the sidelines’, 8 September, A24. Cheering from the sidelines A24 Google Scholar

Toronto Star, 2006, ‘NATO’s Wavering Gives Taliban Hope’, 1 December, A26. NATO’s Wavering Gives Taliban Hope A26 Google Scholar

Toronto Star, 2007, ‘NATO’s Cringe Reflex’, 26 October, A6. NATO’s Cringe Reflex A6 Google Scholar

Walkom, Thomas, 2014, ‘Why Stephen Harper Talks So Tough on Ukraine’, Toronto Star, 18 March. Available from: http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2014/03/18/why_stephen_harper_talks_so_tough_on_ukraine_walkom.html (accessed 30 August 2014). Google Scholar

Wells, Paul, 2011, ‘Harper on Process vs. Policy’, Maclean’s (30 March). Available from: http://www2.macleans.ca/tag/civitas-speech (accessed 3 November 2012). Google Scholar

Wells, Paul, and John Geddes, 2011, ‘What You Don’t Know about Stephen Harper’, Maclean’s, 7 February, p. 14. What You Don’t Know about Stephen Harper Maclean’s 14 Google Scholar

Welsh, Jennifer, 2004, At Home in the World: Canada’s Global Vision for the 21st Century (Toronto: HarperCollins). At Home in the World: Canada’s Global Vision for the 21st Century Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Maclachlan, Karolina

Wolfraim, Zachary