Town Planning Review

Enforcing planning regulations in areas of high immigration: a case study of London

Town Planning Review (2017), 88, (5), 499–529.

Abstract

This paper explores the interface between immigration and compliance with planning regulations using data from interviews and a focus group with senior planning enforcement officers in London. The data reveal distinctive issues that arise for immigrants’ compliance with planning regulations; specific types of residential, commercial and cultural breach that occur with immigration; and operational issues that arise when investigating and resolving planning breaches involving immigrant communities, including gender sensitivities and language barriers. The paper concludes that despite difficulty distinguishing immigration from ethnicity, faith or religious affiliation, there are important normative and principled aspects of immigrants’ compliance with planning regulations.

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AZMAT, F. (2010), ‘Exploring social responsibility of immigrant entrepreneurs: do home country contextual factors play a role?’, European Management Journal, 28, 377–86. Exploring social responsibility of immigrant entrepreneurs: do home country contextual factors play a role? European Management Journal 28 377 86 Google Scholar

BELL, B. and MACHIN, S. (2011), The Impact of Migration on Crime and Victimisation: A Report for the Migration Advisory Committee, London, London School of Economics. The Impact of Migration on Crime and Victimisation: A Report for the Migration Advisory Committee Google Scholar

BELL, B. and MACHIN, S. (2013), ‘Immigrant enclaves and crime’, Journal of Regional Science, 53, 118–41. Immigrant enclaves and crime Journal of Regional Science 53 118 41 Google Scholar

BERRY, J. W. (1997), ‘Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation’, Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46, 6–68. Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation Applied Psychology: An International Review 46 6 68 Google Scholar

BLOM, M. and JENNISSEN, R. (2014), ‘The involvement of different ethnic groups in various types of crime in the Netherlands’, European Journal of Criminal Policy Research, 20, 51–72. The involvement of different ethnic groups in various types of crime in the Netherlands European Journal of Criminal Policy Research 20 51 72 Google Scholar

BURBY R. J. and PATERSON, R. G. (1993), ‘Improving compliance with state environmental regulations’, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 12, 753–72. Improving compliance with state environmental regulations Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 12 753 72 Google Scholar

BURBY, R. J., MAY, P. J. and PATERSON, R. G. (1998), ‘Improving compliance with regulations: choices and outcomes for local government’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 64, 324–34. Improving compliance with regulations: choices and outcomes for local government Journal of the American Planning Association 64 324 34 Google Scholar

DAVIS, R. C. and HENDERSON, N. J. (2003), ‘Willingness to report crimes: the role of ethnic group membership and community efficacy’, Crime and Delinquency, 49, 564–80. Willingness to report crimes: the role of ethnic group membership and community efficacy Crime and Delinquency 49 564 80 Google Scholar

DOE (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT) (1995), Attitudes to Town and Country Planning, London, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. Google Scholar

FEENAN, D. (ed.) (2013), Exploring the ‘Socio’ of Socio-legal Studies, London, Palgrave Macmillan. Exploring the ‘Socio’ of Socio-legal Studies Google Scholar

GALE, R. (2008), ‘Locating religion in urban planning: beyond “race” and ethnicity?’, Planning Practice and Research, 23, 19–39. Locating religion in urban planning: beyond “race” and ethnicity? Planning Practice and Research 23 19 39 Google Scholar

GALE, R. and NAYLOR, S. (2002), ‘Religion, planning and the city: the spatial politics of ethnic minority expression in British cities and towns’, Ethnicities, 2, 387–409. Religion, planning and the city: the spatial politics of ethnic minority expression in British cities and towns Ethnicities 2 387 409 Google Scholar

GHUMAN, P. A. S. (1980), ‘Bhattra Sikhs in Cardiff: family and kinship organisation’, New Community, 8, 303–16. Bhattra Sikhs in Cardiff: family and kinship organisation New Community 8 303 16 Google Scholar

HARRIS, N. (2010), ‘Discretion and expediency in the enforcement of planning controls’, Town Planning Review, 81, 675–700. Discretion and expediency in the enforcement of planning controls Town Planning Review 81 675 700 Google Scholar

HAWKINS, K. (1984), Environment and Enforcement: Regulation and the Social Definition of Pollution, Oxford, Clarendon Press. Environment and Enforcement: Regulation and the Social Definition of Pollution Google Scholar

HAWKINS, K. and HUTTER, B. M. (1993), ‘The response of business to social regulation in England and Wales: an enforcement perspective’, Law and Policy, 15, 199–217. The response of business to social regulation in England and Wales: an enforcement perspective Law and Policy 15 199 217 Google Scholar

HE, X. (2005), ‘Why do they not comply with the law? Illegality and semi-legality among rural– urban migrant entrepreneurs in Beijing’, Law and Society Review, 39, 527–62. Why do they not comply with the law? Illegality and semi-legality among rural– urban migrant entrepreneurs in Beijing Law and Society Review 39 527 62 Google Scholar

HORENCZYK, G. (1997), ‘Immigrants’ perceptions of host attitudes and their reconstruction of cultural groups’, Applied Psychology, 46, 34–38. Immigrants’ perceptions of host attitudes and their reconstruction of cultural groups Applied Psychology 46 34 38 Google Scholar

HUTTER, B. M. (1988), The Reasonable Arm of the Law? The Law Enforcement Procedures of Environmental Health Officers, Oxford, Clarendon Press. The Reasonable Arm of the Law? The Law Enforcement Procedures of Environmental Health Officers Google Scholar

HUTTER, B. M. and SORENSEN, P. C. (1993), ‘Editors’ introduction’, Law and Policy, 15, 169–77. Editors’ introduction Law and Policy 15 169 77 Google Scholar

JAITMAN, L. and MACHIN, S. (2013), ‘Crime and immigration: new evidence from England and Wales’, Journal of Migration, 2, 1–23. Crime and immigration: new evidence from England and Wales Journal of Migration 2 1 23 Google Scholar

KELMAN, S. (1984), ‘Enforcement of occupational safety and health regulations: comparison of Swedish and American practices’, in K. Hawkins and J. M. Thomas (eds), Enforcing Regulations, Boston, Kluwer-Nijhoff, 97–119. Enforcement of occupational safety and health regulations: comparison of Swedish and American practices Enforcing Regulations 97 119 Google Scholar

KRAUSOVA, A. and VARGAS-SILVA, C. (2013), Briefing. London: Census Profile, Oxford, University of Oxford Migration Observatory. Briefing. London: Census Profile Google Scholar

LOFTMAN, P. and BEAZLEY, M. (1998), Race Equality and Planning: Technical Survey Report, Birmingham, University of Central England. Race Equality and Planning: Technical Survey Report Google Scholar

MCKAY, S. and ELLIS, G. (2005), ‘Reparation or retribution: an investigation into regulatory compliance in planning’, Environment and Planning A, 37, 1249–62. Reparation or retribution: an investigation into regulatory compliance in planning Environment and Planning A 37 1249 62 Google Scholar

MCKAY, S., MURRAY, M. and MACINTYRE, S. (2015), ‘Pitfalls in protection: how theory can enrich our understanding of regulatory compliance problems in planning practice’, International Planning Studies, 20, 270–91. Pitfalls in protection: how theory can enrich our understanding of regulatory compliance problems in planning practice International Planning Studies 20 270 91 Google Scholar

MARTINEZ, R. and LEE, M. T. (2000), ‘On immigration and crime’, in G. Lafree (ed.), Criminal Justice 2000: The Nature of Crime: Continuity and Change, Volume 1. Washington, National Institute of Justice, 485–524. On immigration and crime Criminal Justice 2000: The Nature of Crime: Continuity and Change, Volume 1 485 524 Google Scholar

MENSKI, W. F. (1993), ‘Asians in Britain and the question or adaptation to a new legal order: Asian laws in Britain?’, in M. Israel and N. K. Wagle (eds), Ethnicity, Identity, Migration: The South Asian Context, Toronto, University of Toronto Centre for South Asian Studies, 238–68. Asians in Britain and the question or adaptation to a new legal order: Asian laws in Britain? Ethnicity, Identity, Migration: The South Asian Context 238 68 Google Scholar

NESDALE, D. and MAK, A. S. (2000), ‘Immigrant acculturation attitudes and host country identification’, Journal of Community and Applied Social Pyschology, 10, 483–95. Immigrant acculturation attitudes and host country identification Journal of Community and Applied Social Pyschology 10 483 95 Google Scholar

OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS (2012), International Migrants in England and Wales 2011, London, Office for National Statistics. Google Scholar

OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS (2013), Language in England and Wales, 2011, London, Office for National Statistics. Google Scholar

OUSEY, G. C. and KUBRIN, C. E. (2009), ‘Exploring the connection between immigration and violent crime rates in US cities’, Social Problems, 56, 447–73. Exploring the connection between immigration and violent crime rates in US cities Social Problems 56 447 73 Google Scholar

PEACH, C. and GALE, R. (2003), ‘Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs in the new religious landscape of England’, Geographical Review, 93, 469–90. Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs in the new religious landscape of England Geographical Review 93 469 90 Google Scholar

POULTER, S. M. (1986), English Law and Ethnic Minority Customs, London, Butterworths. English Law and Ethnic Minority Customs Google Scholar

QADEER, M. (1994), ‘Urban planning and multiculturalism in Ontario, Canada’, in H. Thomas and V. Krishnarayan (eds), Race Equality and Planning, Aldershot, Avebury, 187–200. Urban planning and multiculturalism in Ontario, Canada Race Equality and Planning 187 200 Google Scholar

ROYAL TOWN PLANNING INSTITUTE (1993), Ethnic Minorities and the Planning System, London, Royal Town Planning Institute. Google Scholar

ROYAL TOWN PLANNING INSTITUTE AND COMMISSION FOR RACIAL EQUALITY (1983), Planning for a Multi-racial Britain, London, Commission for Racial Equality. Google Scholar

SANDERCOCK, L. (1997), Towards Cosmopolis: Planning for Multicultural Cities, London, Wiley. Towards Cosmopolis: Planning for Multicultural Cities Google Scholar

SEARS, D. O. (1983), ‘The persistence of early political predispositions: the roles of attitude object and life stage’, in L. Wheeler, and P. Shaver (eds), Review of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 4, Beverly Hills, CA, Sage, 79–116. The persistence of early political predispositions: the roles of attitude object and life stage Review of Personality and Social Psychology 79 116 Google Scholar

SONG, J. H. (1992), ‘Attitudes of Chinese immigrants and Vietnamese refugees toward law enforcement in the United States’, Justice Quarterly, 9, 703–19. Attitudes of Chinese immigrants and Vietnamese refugees toward law enforcement in the United States Justice Quarterly 9 703 19 Google Scholar

THOMAS,H.(1994), ‘Hot food take-aways, ethnic minorities and planning control’, in H. Thomas and V. Krishnarayan (eds), Race Equality and Planning, Aldershot, Avebury, 101–10. Hot food take-aways, ethnic minorities and planning control Race Equality and Planning 101 10 Google Scholar

THOMAS, H. (2000), Race and Planning: The UK Experience, London, UCL Press. Race and Planning: The UK Experience Google Scholar

THOMAS, H. and KRISHNARAYAN, V. (1994), ‘Introduction: securing a fair planning system for Britain’s ethnic minorities’, in H. Thomas and V. Krishnarayan (eds), 1–25. Introduction: securing a fair planning system for Britain’s ethnic minorities 1 25 Google Scholar

TYLER, T. R. (1990), Why People Obey the Law, London, Yale University Press. Why People Obey the Law Google Scholar

VAUGHN, M. G., SALAS-WRIGHT, C. P., DELISI, M. and MAYNARD, B. R. (2014), ‘The immigrant paradox: immigrants are less antisocial than native-born Americans’, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49, 1129–37. The immigrant paradox: immigrants are less antisocial than native-born Americans Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 49 1129 37 Google Scholar

WOULDS, E. (1994), ‘Development control and Asian communities: a case study’, in H. Thomas and V. Krishnarayan (eds), 128–51. Development control and Asian communities: a case study 128 51 Google Scholar

ZATZ, M. S. and SMITH, H. (2012), ‘Immigration, crime and victimization: rhetoric and reality’, Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 8, 141–59. Immigration, crime and victimization: rhetoric and reality Annual Review of Law and Social Science 8 141 59 Google Scholar

AZMAT, F. (2010), ‘Exploring social responsibility of immigrant entrepreneurs: do home country contextual factors play a role?’, European Management Journal, 28, 377–86. Exploring social responsibility of immigrant entrepreneurs: do home country contextual factors play a role? European Management Journal 28 377 86 Google Scholar

BELL, B. and MACHIN, S. (2011), The Impact of Migration on Crime and Victimisation: A Report for the Migration Advisory Committee, London, London School of Economics. The Impact of Migration on Crime and Victimisation: A Report for the Migration Advisory Committee Google Scholar

BELL, B. and MACHIN, S. (2013), ‘Immigrant enclaves and crime’, Journal of Regional Science, 53, 118–41. Immigrant enclaves and crime Journal of Regional Science 53 118 41 Google Scholar

BERRY, J. W. (1997), ‘Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation’, Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46, 6–68. Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation Applied Psychology: An International Review 46 6 68 Google Scholar

BLOM, M. and JENNISSEN, R. (2014), ‘The involvement of different ethnic groups in various types of crime in the Netherlands’, European Journal of Criminal Policy Research, 20, 51–72. The involvement of different ethnic groups in various types of crime in the Netherlands European Journal of Criminal Policy Research 20 51 72 Google Scholar

BURBY R. J. and PATERSON, R. G. (1993), ‘Improving compliance with state environmental regulations’, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 12, 753–72. Improving compliance with state environmental regulations Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 12 753 72 Google Scholar

BURBY, R. J., MAY, P. J. and PATERSON, R. G. (1998), ‘Improving compliance with regulations: choices and outcomes for local government’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 64, 324–34. Improving compliance with regulations: choices and outcomes for local government Journal of the American Planning Association 64 324 34 Google Scholar

DAVIS, R. C. and HENDERSON, N. J. (2003), ‘Willingness to report crimes: the role of ethnic group membership and community efficacy’, Crime and Delinquency, 49, 564–80. Willingness to report crimes: the role of ethnic group membership and community efficacy Crime and Delinquency 49 564 80 Google Scholar

DOE (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT) (1995), Attitudes to Town and Country Planning, London, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. Google Scholar

FEENAN, D. (ed.) (2013), Exploring the ‘Socio’ of Socio-legal Studies, London, Palgrave Macmillan. Exploring the ‘Socio’ of Socio-legal Studies Google Scholar

GALE, R. (2008), ‘Locating religion in urban planning: beyond “race” and ethnicity?’, Planning Practice and Research, 23, 19–39. Locating religion in urban planning: beyond “race” and ethnicity? Planning Practice and Research 23 19 39 Google Scholar

GALE, R. and NAYLOR, S. (2002), ‘Religion, planning and the city: the spatial politics of ethnic minority expression in British cities and towns’, Ethnicities, 2, 387–409. Religion, planning and the city: the spatial politics of ethnic minority expression in British cities and towns Ethnicities 2 387 409 Google Scholar

GHUMAN, P. A. S. (1980), ‘Bhattra Sikhs in Cardiff: family and kinship organisation’, New Community, 8, 303–16. Bhattra Sikhs in Cardiff: family and kinship organisation New Community 8 303 16 Google Scholar

HARRIS, N. (2010), ‘Discretion and expediency in the enforcement of planning controls’, Town Planning Review, 81, 675–700. Discretion and expediency in the enforcement of planning controls Town Planning Review 81 675 700 Google Scholar

HAWKINS, K. (1984), Environment and Enforcement: Regulation and the Social Definition of Pollution, Oxford, Clarendon Press. Environment and Enforcement: Regulation and the Social Definition of Pollution Google Scholar

HAWKINS, K. and HUTTER, B. M. (1993), ‘The response of business to social regulation in England and Wales: an enforcement perspective’, Law and Policy, 15, 199–217. The response of business to social regulation in England and Wales: an enforcement perspective Law and Policy 15 199 217 Google Scholar

HE, X. (2005), ‘Why do they not comply with the law? Illegality and semi-legality among rural– urban migrant entrepreneurs in Beijing’, Law and Society Review, 39, 527–62. Why do they not comply with the law? Illegality and semi-legality among rural– urban migrant entrepreneurs in Beijing Law and Society Review 39 527 62 Google Scholar

HORENCZYK, G. (1997), ‘Immigrants’ perceptions of host attitudes and their reconstruction of cultural groups’, Applied Psychology, 46, 34–38. Immigrants’ perceptions of host attitudes and their reconstruction of cultural groups Applied Psychology 46 34 38 Google Scholar

HUTTER, B. M. (1988), The Reasonable Arm of the Law? The Law Enforcement Procedures of Environmental Health Officers, Oxford, Clarendon Press. The Reasonable Arm of the Law? The Law Enforcement Procedures of Environmental Health Officers Google Scholar

HUTTER, B. M. and SORENSEN, P. C. (1993), ‘Editors’ introduction’, Law and Policy, 15, 169–77. Editors’ introduction Law and Policy 15 169 77 Google Scholar

JAITMAN, L. and MACHIN, S. (2013), ‘Crime and immigration: new evidence from England and Wales’, Journal of Migration, 2, 1–23. Crime and immigration: new evidence from England and Wales Journal of Migration 2 1 23 Google Scholar

KELMAN, S. (1984), ‘Enforcement of occupational safety and health regulations: comparison of Swedish and American practices’, in K. Hawkins and J. M. Thomas (eds), Enforcing Regulations, Boston, Kluwer-Nijhoff, 97–119. Enforcement of occupational safety and health regulations: comparison of Swedish and American practices Enforcing Regulations 97 119 Google Scholar

KRAUSOVA, A. and VARGAS-SILVA, C. (2013), Briefing. London: Census Profile, Oxford, University of Oxford Migration Observatory. Briefing. London: Census Profile Google Scholar

LOFTMAN, P. and BEAZLEY, M. (1998), Race Equality and Planning: Technical Survey Report, Birmingham, University of Central England. Race Equality and Planning: Technical Survey Report Google Scholar

MCKAY, S. and ELLIS, G. (2005), ‘Reparation or retribution: an investigation into regulatory compliance in planning’, Environment and Planning A, 37, 1249–62. Reparation or retribution: an investigation into regulatory compliance in planning Environment and Planning A 37 1249 62 Google Scholar

MCKAY, S., MURRAY, M. and MACINTYRE, S. (2015), ‘Pitfalls in protection: how theory can enrich our understanding of regulatory compliance problems in planning practice’, International Planning Studies, 20, 270–91. Pitfalls in protection: how theory can enrich our understanding of regulatory compliance problems in planning practice International Planning Studies 20 270 91 Google Scholar

MARTINEZ, R. and LEE, M. T. (2000), ‘On immigration and crime’, in G. Lafree (ed.), Criminal Justice 2000: The Nature of Crime: Continuity and Change, Volume 1. Washington, National Institute of Justice, 485–524. On immigration and crime Criminal Justice 2000: The Nature of Crime: Continuity and Change, Volume 1 485 524 Google Scholar

MENSKI, W. F. (1993), ‘Asians in Britain and the question or adaptation to a new legal order: Asian laws in Britain?’, in M. Israel and N. K. Wagle (eds), Ethnicity, Identity, Migration: The South Asian Context, Toronto, University of Toronto Centre for South Asian Studies, 238–68. Asians in Britain and the question or adaptation to a new legal order: Asian laws in Britain? Ethnicity, Identity, Migration: The South Asian Context 238 68 Google Scholar

NESDALE, D. and MAK, A. S. (2000), ‘Immigrant acculturation attitudes and host country identification’, Journal of Community and Applied Social Pyschology, 10, 483–95. Immigrant acculturation attitudes and host country identification Journal of Community and Applied Social Pyschology 10 483 95 Google Scholar

OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS (2012), International Migrants in England and Wales 2011, London, Office for National Statistics. Google Scholar

OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS (2013), Language in England and Wales, 2011, London, Office for National Statistics. Google Scholar

OUSEY, G. C. and KUBRIN, C. E. (2009), ‘Exploring the connection between immigration and violent crime rates in US cities’, Social Problems, 56, 447–73. Exploring the connection between immigration and violent crime rates in US cities Social Problems 56 447 73 Google Scholar

PEACH, C. and GALE, R. (2003), ‘Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs in the new religious landscape of England’, Geographical Review, 93, 469–90. Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs in the new religious landscape of England Geographical Review 93 469 90 Google Scholar

POULTER, S. M. (1986), English Law and Ethnic Minority Customs, London, Butterworths. English Law and Ethnic Minority Customs Google Scholar

QADEER, M. (1994), ‘Urban planning and multiculturalism in Ontario, Canada’, in H. Thomas and V. Krishnarayan (eds), Race Equality and Planning, Aldershot, Avebury, 187–200. Urban planning and multiculturalism in Ontario, Canada Race Equality and Planning 187 200 Google Scholar

ROYAL TOWN PLANNING INSTITUTE (1993), Ethnic Minorities and the Planning System, London, Royal Town Planning Institute. Google Scholar

ROYAL TOWN PLANNING INSTITUTE AND COMMISSION FOR RACIAL EQUALITY (1983), Planning for a Multi-racial Britain, London, Commission for Racial Equality. Google Scholar

SANDERCOCK, L. (1997), Towards Cosmopolis: Planning for Multicultural Cities, London, Wiley. Towards Cosmopolis: Planning for Multicultural Cities Google Scholar

SEARS, D. O. (1983), ‘The persistence of early political predispositions: the roles of attitude object and life stage’, in L. Wheeler, and P. Shaver (eds), Review of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 4, Beverly Hills, CA, Sage, 79–116. The persistence of early political predispositions: the roles of attitude object and life stage Review of Personality and Social Psychology 79 116 Google Scholar

SONG, J. H. (1992), ‘Attitudes of Chinese immigrants and Vietnamese refugees toward law enforcement in the United States’, Justice Quarterly, 9, 703–19. Attitudes of Chinese immigrants and Vietnamese refugees toward law enforcement in the United States Justice Quarterly 9 703 19 Google Scholar

THOMAS,H.(1994), ‘Hot food take-aways, ethnic minorities and planning control’, in H. Thomas and V. Krishnarayan (eds), Race Equality and Planning, Aldershot, Avebury, 101–10. Hot food take-aways, ethnic minorities and planning control Race Equality and Planning 101 10 Google Scholar

THOMAS, H. (2000), Race and Planning: The UK Experience, London, UCL Press. Race and Planning: The UK Experience Google Scholar

THOMAS, H. and KRISHNARAYAN, V. (1994), ‘Introduction: securing a fair planning system for Britain’s ethnic minorities’, in H. Thomas and V. Krishnarayan (eds), 1–25. Introduction: securing a fair planning system for Britain’s ethnic minorities 1 25 Google Scholar

TYLER, T. R. (1990), Why People Obey the Law, London, Yale University Press. Why People Obey the Law Google Scholar

VAUGHN, M. G., SALAS-WRIGHT, C. P., DELISI, M. and MAYNARD, B. R. (2014), ‘The immigrant paradox: immigrants are less antisocial than native-born Americans’, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49, 1129–37. The immigrant paradox: immigrants are less antisocial than native-born Americans Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 49 1129 37 Google Scholar

WOULDS, E. (1994), ‘Development control and Asian communities: a case study’, in H. Thomas and V. Krishnarayan (eds), 128–51. Development control and Asian communities: a case study 128 51 Google Scholar

ZATZ, M. S. and SMITH, H. (2012), ‘Immigration, crime and victimization: rhetoric and reality’, Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 8, 141–59. Immigration, crime and victimization: rhetoric and reality Annual Review of Law and Social Science 8 141 59 Google Scholar

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Harris, Neil