Town Planning Review

Toward a classification of world metropolitan spatial strategies: a comparative analysis of ten plans

Town Planning Review (2016), 87, (6), 655–680.

Abstract

The content of main strategy maps of ten worldwide metropolitan strategies is analysed to identify similarities and differences leading to a classification of the strategies. Their structure is compared via traditional cartographic elements of point, line and area, and ‘relational’ elements such as mesh, attraction and territorial dynamics. The type of each map is then compared via the level of abstraction of map content. Type and structure are jointly considered to assess the ‘relationality’ in each map. Planning context of the Vancouver, South East Queensland and London strategies are analysed to identify reasons for differences in map structure and type.

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ABBOTT, J. (2012), ‘Planning for complex metropolitan regions: a better future or a more certain one?’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 28, 503–7. Planning for complex metropolitan regions: a better future or a more certain one? Journal of Planning Education and Research 28 503 7 Google Scholar

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HEALEY, P. (2010), Introduction, in P. Healey and R. Upton (eds). Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practice, Abingdon, Routledge. Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practice Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. and UPTON, R. (eds) (2010), Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practice, Abingdon, Routledge. Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practice Google Scholar

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HODGE, G. (1994), ‘Regional planning: the Cinderella discipline’, Plan Canada, 34, 35–39. Regional planning: the Cinderella discipline Plan Canada 34 35 39 Google Scholar

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JENSEN, O. B. and RICHARDSON, T. (2001), ‘Nested visions: new rationalities of space in European spatial planning’, Regional Studies, 35, 703–17. Nested visions: new rationalities of space in European spatial planning Regional Studies 35 703 17 Google Scholar

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KNAAP, G.-J., NEDOVIĆ-BUDIĆ, Z. and CARBONELL, A. (2015), Planning for States and Nation-States in the US and Europe, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Planning for States and Nation-States in the US and Europe Google Scholar

KRAAK, M. J. and ORMELING, F. (2003), Cartography: Visualization of Geospatial Data, 2nd edn, Harlow, Pearson Education. Cartography: Visualization of Geospatial Data Google Scholar

LEO, C. and ANDERSON, K. (2006), ‘Being realistic about urban growth’, in T. Bunting and P. Filion (eds), Canadian Cities in Transition, 3rd edn, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 393–497. Being realistic about urban growth Canadian Cities in Transition 393 497 Google Scholar

MASSEY, D. (2005), For Space, London, Sage. For Space Google Scholar

MCCANN, E.J. (2010), ‘Urban policy mobilities and global circuits of knowledge: toward a research agenda’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 101, 107–30. Urban policy mobilities and global circuits of knowledge: toward a research agenda Annals of the Association of American Geographers 101 107 30 Google Scholar

METRO VANCOUVER (2011), Metro Vancouver 2040: Shaping Our Future, Vancouver, Metro Vancouver. Metro Vancouver 2040: Shaping Our Future Google Scholar

MOISIO, S. and LUUKKONEN, J. (2015), ‘European spatial planning as governmentality: an inquiry into rationalities, techniques, and manifestations’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 33, 828–45. European spatial planning as governmentality: an inquiry into rationalities, techniques, and manifestations Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 33 828 45 Google Scholar

MUNICIPALITY OF TEL AVIV-YAFO (2004), ‘CITY’ – the Strategic Plan for Tel Aviv-Yafo (translated version), Tel Aviv, Municipality of Tel Aviv-Yafo. Google Scholar

NEW SOUTH WALES GOVERNMENT (2010), Metropolitan Plan for Sydney 2036, Sydney, New South Wales Government. Google Scholar

NEWMAN, P. and THORNLEY, A. (2005), Planning World Cities: Globalization and Urban Politics, London, Palgrave Macmillan. Planning World Cities: Globalization and Urban Politics Google Scholar

NHF (NATIONAL HOUSING FEDERATION) (2012), ‘Housing crisis will force our kids out of London, say parents’, http://www.housing.org.uk/press/press-releases/housing-crisiswill-force-our-kids-out-of-london-say-parents/ (accessed 17 May 2015). Google Scholar

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ORMELING, F. J. (1992), ‘Brunet and the revival of French geography and cartography’, Cartographic Journal, 29, 20–24. Brunet and the revival of French geography and cartography Cartographic Journal 29 20 24 Google Scholar

OUM (OFFICE OF URBAN MANAGEMENT) (2005), South East Queensland Regional Plan, 2005–2026, Brisbane, Department of Local Government, Planning, Sport and Recreation, Queensland Government. Google Scholar

PICKERING, T. and MINNERY, J. (2012), ‘Scales and public participation: issues in metropolitan regional planning’, Planning Practice and Research, 27, 249–62. Scales and public participation: issues in metropolitan regional planning Planning Practice and Research 27 249 62 Google Scholar

PORTLAND CITY COUNCIL (2012), The Portland Plan 2012, Portland, Portland City Council. Google Scholar

PRAVDA, J. (1993), ‘Map language’, Cartographica, 30, 12–14. Map language Cartographica 30 12 14 Google Scholar

RTPI (ROYAL TOWN PLANNING INSTITUTE) (2012), The Planning System in the UK: An Introduction, London, Planning Aid. Google Scholar

RYDIN, Y. (2010), ‘Planning and the technological society: discussing the London Plan’, Urban and Regional Research, 32, 243–59. Planning and the technological society: discussing the London Plan Urban and Regional Research 32 243 59 Google Scholar

SEARLE, G. (2013), ‘“Relational” planning and recent Sydney metropolitan and city strategies’, Urban Policy and Research, 31, 367–78. “Relational” planning and recent Sydney metropolitan and city strategies Urban Policy and Research 31 367 78 Google Scholar

SEARLE, G. and BUNKER, R. (2010), ‘Metropolitan strategic planning: an Australian paradigm?’, Planning Theory, 9, 163–80. Metropolitan strategic planning: an Australian paradigm? Planning Theory 9 163 80 Google Scholar

SÖDERSTRÖM, O. (1996), ‘Paper cities: visual thinking in urban planning’, Eucemene, 3, 249–81. Paper cities: visual thinking in urban planning Eucemene 3 249 81 Google Scholar

SPEARRITT, P. (2010), ‘The 200-kilometre city’, in B. Gleeson and W. Steele (eds), A Climate for Growth: Planning South-East Queensland, Brisbane, University of Queensland Press, 39–58. The 200-kilometre city A Climate for Growth: Planning South-East Queensland 39 58 Google Scholar

TAVERNOR, R. (2010), ‘Introduction to the London Plan 2000–2010: a decade of transformation’, City, Culture and Society, 1, 45–46. Introduction to the London Plan 2000–2010: a decade of transformation City, Culture and Society 1 45 46 Google Scholar

TAYLOR, P. (2006), Review of P. Newman and A. Thornley, Planning World Cities, European Planning Studies, 14, 1163–64. Review of P. Newman and A. Thornley Planning World Cities, European Planning Studies 14 1163 64 Google Scholar

TEWDWR-JONES, M. (2012), Spatial Planning and Governance: Understanding UK Planning, New York, Palgrave Macmillan. Spatial Planning and Governance: Understanding UK Planning Google Scholar

TEWDWR-JONES, M. (2015), ‘National planning in the United Kingdom’, in G. J. Knaap, Z. Nedović-Budićand A. Carbonell (eds), Planning for States and Nation States in the US and Europe, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 419–46. National planning in the United Kingdom Planning for States and Nation States in the US and Europe 419 46 Google Scholar

YIN, R. (2014), Case Study Research: Design and Methods, 5th edn, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. Case Study Research: Design and Methods Google Scholar

ABBOTT, J. (2012), ‘Planning for complex metropolitan regions: a better future or a more certain one?’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 28, 503–7. Planning for complex metropolitan regions: a better future or a more certain one? Journal of Planning Education and Research 28 503 7 Google Scholar

ALBRECHTS, L., HEALEY, P. and KUNZMANN, K. (2003), ‘Strategic spatial planning and regional governance in Europe’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 69, 113–29. Strategic spatial planning and regional governance in Europe Journal of the American Planning Association 69 113 29 Google Scholar

ALLMENDINGER, P. (2009), Planning Theory, 2nd edn, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Planning Theory Google Scholar

ALLMENDINGER, P. and HAUGHTON, G. (2007), ‘The fluid scales and scope of UK spatial planning’, Environment and Planning A, 39, 1478–96. The fluid scales and scope of UK spatial planning Environment and Planning A 39 1478 96 Google Scholar

ALLMENDINGER, P. and HAUGHTON, G. (2012), ‘Post-political spatial planning in England: a crisis of consensus’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 37, 89–103. Post-political spatial planning in England: a crisis of consensus Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 37 89 103 Google Scholar

ALLMENDINGER, P., HAUGHTON, G., KNIELING, J. and OTHENGRAFEN, F. (2015), Soft Spaces in Europe: Re-negotiating Governance, Boundaries and Borders, Abingdon, Routledge. Soft Spaces in Europe: Re-negotiating Governance, Boundaries and Borders Google Scholar

AUCKLAND COUNCIL (2012), The Auckland Plan, Auckland, Auckland Council. Google Scholar

BRUNET, R. (1987), ‘La carte-modèle et les chorèmes’, Mappe Monde, 86, 2–6. La carte-modèle et les chorèmes Mappe Monde 86 2 6 Google Scholar

BRUNET, R. (1993), ‘Building models for spatial analysis’, Espace géographique. Espaces, modes d’emploi. Two decades of l’Espace géographique, an anthology. Special issue in English, 1, 109–23. Building models for spatial analysis Espace géographique 1 109 23 Google Scholar

BRYCHTOVA, A. and COLTEKIN, A. (2015), ‘Discriminating classes of sequential and qualitative colour schemes’, International Journal of Cartography, 1, 62–78. Discriminating classes of sequential and qualitative colour schemes International Journal of Cartography 1 62 78 Google Scholar

CITY OF CAPE TOWN (2012), Cape Town Spatial Development Framework, Cape Town, City of Cape Town. Google Scholar

CITY OF HELSINKI PLANNING DEPARTMENT (2009), From City to City-Region: City of Helsinki Strategic Spatial Plan, Helsinki, City of Helsinki Planning Department. Google Scholar

CITY OF NEW YORK (2011), PLANYC: A Greener, Greater New York, New York, City of New York. Google Scholar

DIP (DEPARTMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND PLANNING) (2009), South East Queensland Regional Plan, Brisbane, Queensland Government. Google Scholar

DÜHR, S. (2007), The Visual Language of Spatial Planning: Exploring Cartographic Representations for Spatial Planning in Europe, New York, Routledge. The Visual Language of Spatial Planning: Exploring Cartographic Representations for Spatial Planning in Europe Google Scholar

FALUDI, A. (2009), ‘A turning point in the development of European spatial planning? The “Territorial Agenda of the European Union” and the First Action Programme’, Progress in Planning, 71, 1–42. A turning point in the development of European spatial planning? The “Territorial Agenda of the European Union” and the First Action Programme Progress in Planning 71 1 42 Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (1989), Planning in the Face of Power, Berkeley, University of California Press. Planning in the Face of Power Google Scholar

FOUCAULT, M. (1991), ‘Governmentality’, in G. Burchell, C. Gordon and P. Miller (eds), The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, Chicago, Chicago University Press, 87–104. Governmentality The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality 87 104 Google Scholar

FRIEDMANN, J. (2010) in P. Healey and R. Upton (eds). Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practice, Abingdon, Routledge. Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practice Google Scholar

GILLEN, M. (2006), ‘The challenge of attaining a sustainable urban morphology for South East Queensland’, Planning Practice and Research, 21, 291–308. The challenge of attaining a sustainable urban morphology for South East Queensland Planning Practice and Research 21 291 308 Google Scholar

GLA (GREATER LONDON AUTHORITY) (2011), The London Plan: Spatial Development Strategy for Greater London, London, Greater London Authority. Google Scholar

GORDON, I. R. and TRAVERS, T. (2010), ‘London: planning the ungovernable city’, City, Culture and Society, 1, 49–55. London: planning the ungovernable city City, Culture and Society 1 49 55 Google Scholar

HABERMAS, J. (1984), The Theory of Communicative Action, vol. 1: Reason and Rationalization of Society, Boston, MA, Beacon Press. The Theory of Communicative Action Google Scholar

HAUGHTON, G., ALLMENDINGER, P., COUNSELL, D. and VIGAR, G. (2010), The New Spatial Planning: Territorial Management with Soft Spaces and Fuzzy Boundaries, Abington, Routledge. The New Spatial Planning: Territorial Management with Soft Spaces and Fuzzy Boundaries Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2007), Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies: Towards a Relational Planning for Our Times, New York, Routledge. Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies: Towards a Relational Planning for Our Times Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2010), Introduction, in P. Healey and R. Upton (eds). Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practice, Abingdon, Routledge. Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practice Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. and UPTON, R. (eds) (2010), Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practice, Abingdon, Routledge. Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practice Google Scholar

HELEY, J. (2013), ‘Soft spaces, fuzzy boundaries and spatial governance in post-devolution Wales’, Urban and Regional Research, 37, 1325–48. Soft spaces, fuzzy boundaries and spatial governance in post-devolution Wales Urban and Regional Research 37 1325 48 Google Scholar

HILLIER, J. (2007), Stretching beyond the Horizon: A Multiplanar Theory of Spatial Planning and Governance, Aldershot, Ashgate. Stretching beyond the Horizon: A Multiplanar Theory of Spatial Planning and Governance Google Scholar

HODGE, G. (1994), ‘Regional planning: the Cinderella discipline’, Plan Canada, 34, 35–39. Regional planning: the Cinderella discipline Plan Canada 34 35 39 Google Scholar

JACOBS, J. M. (2012), ‘Urban geographies I: still thinking cities relationally’, Progress in Human Geography, 36, 412–22. Urban geographies I: still thinking cities relationally Progress in Human Geography 36 412 22 Google Scholar

JENSEN, O. B. and RICHARDSON, T. (2001), ‘Nested visions: new rationalities of space in European spatial planning’, Regional Studies, 35, 703–17. Nested visions: new rationalities of space in European spatial planning Regional Studies 35 703 17 Google Scholar

KELLAS, H. (2010), Inclusion, Collaboration and Urban Governance: Brazilian and Canadian Experiences, Vancouver, University of British Columbia. Inclusion, Collaboration and Urban Governance: Brazilian and Canadian Experiences Google Scholar

KNAAP, G.-J., NEDOVIĆ-BUDIĆ, Z. and CARBONELL, A. (2015), Planning for States and Nation-States in the US and Europe, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Planning for States and Nation-States in the US and Europe Google Scholar

KRAAK, M. J. and ORMELING, F. (2003), Cartography: Visualization of Geospatial Data, 2nd edn, Harlow, Pearson Education. Cartography: Visualization of Geospatial Data Google Scholar

LEO, C. and ANDERSON, K. (2006), ‘Being realistic about urban growth’, in T. Bunting and P. Filion (eds), Canadian Cities in Transition, 3rd edn, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 393–497. Being realistic about urban growth Canadian Cities in Transition 393 497 Google Scholar

MASSEY, D. (2005), For Space, London, Sage. For Space Google Scholar

MCCANN, E.J. (2010), ‘Urban policy mobilities and global circuits of knowledge: toward a research agenda’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 101, 107–30. Urban policy mobilities and global circuits of knowledge: toward a research agenda Annals of the Association of American Geographers 101 107 30 Google Scholar

METRO VANCOUVER (2011), Metro Vancouver 2040: Shaping Our Future, Vancouver, Metro Vancouver. Metro Vancouver 2040: Shaping Our Future Google Scholar

MOISIO, S. and LUUKKONEN, J. (2015), ‘European spatial planning as governmentality: an inquiry into rationalities, techniques, and manifestations’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 33, 828–45. European spatial planning as governmentality: an inquiry into rationalities, techniques, and manifestations Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 33 828 45 Google Scholar

MUNICIPALITY OF TEL AVIV-YAFO (2004), ‘CITY’ – the Strategic Plan for Tel Aviv-Yafo (translated version), Tel Aviv, Municipality of Tel Aviv-Yafo. Google Scholar

NEW SOUTH WALES GOVERNMENT (2010), Metropolitan Plan for Sydney 2036, Sydney, New South Wales Government. Google Scholar

NEWMAN, P. and THORNLEY, A. (2005), Planning World Cities: Globalization and Urban Politics, London, Palgrave Macmillan. Planning World Cities: Globalization and Urban Politics Google Scholar

NHF (NATIONAL HOUSING FEDERATION) (2012), ‘Housing crisis will force our kids out of London, say parents’, http://www.housing.org.uk/press/press-releases/housing-crisiswill-force-our-kids-out-of-london-say-parents/ (accessed 17 May 2015). Google Scholar

OLESEN, K. (2014), ‘The neoliberalisation of strategic spatial planning’, Planning Theory, 13, 288–303. The neoliberalisation of strategic spatial planning Planning Theory 13 288 303 Google Scholar

ORMELING, F. J. (1992), ‘Brunet and the revival of French geography and cartography’, Cartographic Journal, 29, 20–24. Brunet and the revival of French geography and cartography Cartographic Journal 29 20 24 Google Scholar

OUM (OFFICE OF URBAN MANAGEMENT) (2005), South East Queensland Regional Plan, 2005–2026, Brisbane, Department of Local Government, Planning, Sport and Recreation, Queensland Government. Google Scholar

PICKERING, T. and MINNERY, J. (2012), ‘Scales and public participation: issues in metropolitan regional planning’, Planning Practice and Research, 27, 249–62. Scales and public participation: issues in metropolitan regional planning Planning Practice and Research 27 249 62 Google Scholar

PORTLAND CITY COUNCIL (2012), The Portland Plan 2012, Portland, Portland City Council. Google Scholar

PRAVDA, J. (1993), ‘Map language’, Cartographica, 30, 12–14. Map language Cartographica 30 12 14 Google Scholar

RTPI (ROYAL TOWN PLANNING INSTITUTE) (2012), The Planning System in the UK: An Introduction, London, Planning Aid. Google Scholar

RYDIN, Y. (2010), ‘Planning and the technological society: discussing the London Plan’, Urban and Regional Research, 32, 243–59. Planning and the technological society: discussing the London Plan Urban and Regional Research 32 243 59 Google Scholar

SEARLE, G. (2013), ‘“Relational” planning and recent Sydney metropolitan and city strategies’, Urban Policy and Research, 31, 367–78. “Relational” planning and recent Sydney metropolitan and city strategies Urban Policy and Research 31 367 78 Google Scholar

SEARLE, G. and BUNKER, R. (2010), ‘Metropolitan strategic planning: an Australian paradigm?’, Planning Theory, 9, 163–80. Metropolitan strategic planning: an Australian paradigm? Planning Theory 9 163 80 Google Scholar

SÖDERSTRÖM, O. (1996), ‘Paper cities: visual thinking in urban planning’, Eucemene, 3, 249–81. Paper cities: visual thinking in urban planning Eucemene 3 249 81 Google Scholar

SPEARRITT, P. (2010), ‘The 200-kilometre city’, in B. Gleeson and W. Steele (eds), A Climate for Growth: Planning South-East Queensland, Brisbane, University of Queensland Press, 39–58. The 200-kilometre city A Climate for Growth: Planning South-East Queensland 39 58 Google Scholar

TAVERNOR, R. (2010), ‘Introduction to the London Plan 2000–2010: a decade of transformation’, City, Culture and Society, 1, 45–46. Introduction to the London Plan 2000–2010: a decade of transformation City, Culture and Society 1 45 46 Google Scholar

TAYLOR, P. (2006), Review of P. Newman and A. Thornley, Planning World Cities, European Planning Studies, 14, 1163–64. Review of P. Newman and A. Thornley Planning World Cities, European Planning Studies 14 1163 64 Google Scholar

TEWDWR-JONES, M. (2012), Spatial Planning and Governance: Understanding UK Planning, New York, Palgrave Macmillan. Spatial Planning and Governance: Understanding UK Planning Google Scholar

TEWDWR-JONES, M. (2015), ‘National planning in the United Kingdom’, in G. J. Knaap, Z. Nedović-Budićand A. Carbonell (eds), Planning for States and Nation States in the US and Europe, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 419–46. National planning in the United Kingdom Planning for States and Nation States in the US and Europe 419 46 Google Scholar

YIN, R. (2014), Case Study Research: Design and Methods, 5th edn, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. Case Study Research: Design and Methods Google Scholar

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McCosker, Anthony

Searle, Glen