Town Planning Review

Local democracy in large municipalities: co-creating democracy and rural development through multi-level participation structures and local development plans

Town Planning Review (2017), 88, (3), 327–348.

Abstract

Municipal amalgamations in Denmark in 2007 led to concern for local rural democracy, as the number of politicians from rural areas dropped after the reform. To preserve rural democracy, local councils at the village level were established in some municipalities, and they have begun to prepare local development plans. Based on a concrete study of plan development by two sub-municipal local councils in two Danish municipalities, drawing upon insights from outcome-oriented deliberate democratic theory, this article provides recommendations for a potential structure for sub-municipal democracy in large municipalities.

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HEALEY, P. (2012), ‘Re-enchanting democracy as a mode of governance’, Critical Policy Studies, 6, 19–39. Re-enchanting democracy as a mode of governance Critical Policy Studies 6 19 39 Google Scholar

ISM (2006), The Local Government Reform: In Brief, Copenhagen, Ministry of the Interior and Health. Google Scholar

ISM (2009), Statusrapport om kommunernes arbejde med nærdemokrati, Copenhagen, Ministry of the Interior and Health. Google Scholar

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DAHLER-LARSEN, P. (2010), At Fremstille Kvalitative Data, Odense, Syddansk Universitetsforlag. At Fremstille Kvalitative Data Google Scholar

LEGACY, C., CURTIS, C. and NEUMAN, M. (2014), ‘Adopting the deliberative democracy “template” for planning practice’, Town Planning Review, 85, 319–40. Adopting the deliberative democracy “template” for planning practice Town Planning Review 85 319 40 Google Scholar

AGGER, A., LÖFGREN, K. and TORFING, J. (2010), Nærdemokrati Efter Kommunalreformen – Erfaringer Med Netværksbaseret Borgerinddragelse, Frederiksberg, Roskilde Universitetsforlag. Nærdemokrati Efter Kommunalreformen – Erfaringer Med Netværksbaseret Borgerinddragelse Google Scholar

CHRISTIANSEN, P. M. and KLITGAARD, M. B. (2010), ‘Behind the veil of vagueness: success and failure in institutional reforms’, Journal of Public Policy, 30, 183–200. Behind the veil of vagueness: success and failure in institutional reforms Journal of Public Policy 30 183 200 Google Scholar

LGDK (LOCAL GOVERNMENT DENMARKS CONSULTANCY) (2015), Den Kommunale Model for Burger- og Medarbejderdreven Innovation, http://klk.kl.dk/Ydelser/Organisation/Innovation/Model-for-bruger--og-medarbejderdreven-innovation (accessed 5 June 2015). Google Scholar

DAVOUDI, S. and MADANIPOUR, A. (2013), ‘Localism and neo-liberal governmentality’, Town Planning Review, 84, 551–61. Localism and neo-liberal governmentality Town Planning Review 84 551 61 Google Scholar

COOLS, M., GNEST, H. and FÜRST, D. (2002), ‘Parametric governance: a new steering model for spatial planning?’, Raumforschung und Raumordnung, 60, 219–31. Parametric governance: a new steering model for spatial planning? Raumforschung und Raumordnung 60 219 31 Google Scholar

MARCH, J. G. and OLSEN, J. P. (1989), Rediscovering Institutions: The Organizational Basis of Politics, New York, The Free Press. Rediscovering Institutions: The Organizational Basis of Politics Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES and LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2008), Communities in Control: Real People, Real Power, London, Department of Communities and Local Government. Google Scholar

DAHLER-LARSEN, P. (2010), At Fremstille Kvalitative Data, Odense, Syddansk Universitetsforlag. At Fremstille Kvalitative Data Google Scholar

DENTERS, B., GOLDSMITH, M., LADNER, A., MOURITZEN, P. E. and ROSE, L. E. (2014), Size and Local Democracy, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing. Size and Local Democracy Google Scholar

MOSELEY, M. J. (2002), ‘Bottom-up “village action plans”: some recent experience in rural England’, Planning Practice & Research, 17, 387–405. Bottom-up “village action plans”: some recent experience in rural England Planning Practice & Research 17 387 405 Google Scholar

DAVOUDI, S. and MADANIPOUR, A. (2013), ‘Localism and neo-liberal governmentality’, Town Planning Review, 84, 551–61. Localism and neo-liberal governmentality Town Planning Review 84 551 61 Google Scholar

DRYZEK, J. (2010), Foundations and Frontiers of Deliberative Governance, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Foundations and Frontiers of Deliberative Governance Google Scholar

PARKER, G. (2008), ‘Parish and community-led planning, local empowerment and local evidence bases: an examination of “good practice”’, Town Planning Review, 79, 61–85. Parish and community-led planning, local empowerment and local evidence bases: an examination of “good practice” Town Planning Review 79 61 85 Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES and LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2008), Communities in Control: Real People, Real Power, London, Department of Communities and Local Government. Google Scholar

EUV (EKSPERTUDVALG) (2014), Kriterier for god kommunestruktur, Slutrapport fra Ekspertudvalg, www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/8f7e292dbeb24230beb2e58592f4949e/kriterier_for_god_kommunestruktur_sluttrepport.pdf (accessed 22 June 2016.) Google Scholar

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DENTERS, B., GOLDSMITH, M., LADNER, A., MOURITZEN, P. E. and ROSE, L. E. (2014), Size and Local Democracy, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing. Size and Local Democracy Google Scholar

FUNG, A. and WRIGHT, E. O. (2001), ‘Deepening democracy: innovations in empowered participatory governance’, Politics & Society, 29, 5–41. Deepening democracy: innovations in empowered participatory governance Politics & Society 29 5 41 Google Scholar

PARKER, G. and MURRAY, C. (2012), ‘Beyond tokenism? Community-led planning and rational choices: findings from participants in local agenda-setting at the neighbourhood scale in England’, Town Planning Review, 83, 1–28. Beyond tokenism? Community-led planning and rational choices: findings from participants in local agenda-setting at the neighbourhood scale in England Town Planning Review 83 1 28 Google Scholar

DRYZEK, J. (2010), Foundations and Frontiers of Deliberative Governance, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Foundations and Frontiers of Deliberative Governance Google Scholar

EUV (EKSPERTUDVALG) (2014), Kriterier for god kommunestruktur, Slutrapport fra Ekspertudvalg, www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/8f7e292dbeb24230beb2e58592f4949e/kriterier_for_god_kommunestruktur_sluttrepport.pdf (accessed 22 June 2016.) Google Scholar

FUNG, A. and WRIGHT, E. O. (2003), Deepening Democracy: Institutional Innovations in Empowered Participatory Governance, London, Verso. Deepening Democracy: Institutional Innovations in Empowered Participatory Governance Google Scholar

PATEMAN, C. (1970), Participation and Democratic Theory, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Participation and Democratic Theory Google Scholar

FUNG, A. and WRIGHT, E. O. (2001), ‘Deepening democracy: innovations in empowered participatory governance’, Politics & Society, 29, 5–41. Deepening democracy: innovations in empowered participatory governance Politics & Society 29 5 41 Google Scholar

GALLENT, N. (2013), ‘Re-connecting “people and planning”: parish plans and the English localism agenda’, Town Planning Review, 84, 371–96. Re-connecting “people and planning”: parish plans and the English localism agenda Town Planning Review 84 371 96 Google Scholar

RAZIN, E. and HAZAN, A. (2014), ‘Attitudes of European local councillors towards local governance reforms: a north–south divide?’, Local Government Studies, 40, 264–91. Attitudes of European local councillors towards local governance reforms: a north–south divide? Local Government Studies 40 264 91 Google Scholar

FUNG, A. and WRIGHT, E. O. (2003), Deepening Democracy: Institutional Innovations in Empowered Participatory Governance, London, Verso. Deepening Democracy: Institutional Innovations in Empowered Participatory Governance Google Scholar

RETSINFORMATION (2012), LBK nr 885 af 29/08/2012 Historisk (Kommunestyrelsesloven) Offentliggørelsesdato, 31 August 2012, www.retsinformation.dk/pdfPrint.aspx?id=142754 (accessed 24 September 2015), Økonomi- og Indenrigsministeriet (Ministry for Economic Affairs and the Interior). Google Scholar

GALLENT, N., MORPHET, J. and TEWDWR-JONES, M. (2008), ‘Parish plans and the spatial planning approach in England’, Town Planning Review, 79, 1–29. Parish plans and the spatial planning approach in England Town Planning Review 79 1 29 Google Scholar

GUNN, S., BROOKS, E. and VIGAR, G. (2015), ‘The community’s capacity to plan: the disproportionate requirements of the New English neighbourhood planning initiative’, in S. Davoudi and A. Madanipour (eds), Reconsidering Localism, New York, Routledge, 147–67. The community’s capacity to plan: the disproportionate requirements of the New English neighbourhood planning initiative Reconsidering Localism 147 67 Google Scholar

GALLENT, N. (2013), ‘Re-connecting “people and planning”: parish plans and the English localism agenda’, Town Planning Review, 84, 371–96. Re-connecting “people and planning”: parish plans and the English localism agenda Town Planning Review 84 371 96 Google Scholar

RHODES, R. A. W. (1996), ‘The new governance: governing without government’, Political Studies, 44, 652–67. The new governance: governing without government Political Studies 44 652 67 Google Scholar

HANSEN, K. M. (2010), Borgerinddragelse: et Studie af Borgerinddragelsen i Regioner og Kommuner, Odense, Syddansk Universitetsforlag. Borgerinddragelse: et Studie af Borgerinddragelsen i Regioner og Kommuner Google Scholar

SCHARPF, F. W. (1994), ‘Games real actors could play: positive and negative coordination in embedded negotiations’, Journal of Theoretical Politics, 6, 27–53. Games real actors could play: positive and negative coordination in embedded negotiations Journal of Theoretical Politics 6 27 53 Google Scholar

GALLENT, N., MORPHET, J. and TEWDWR-JONES, M. (2008), ‘Parish plans and the spatial planning approach in England’, Town Planning Review, 79, 1–29. Parish plans and the spatial planning approach in England Town Planning Review 79 1 29 Google Scholar

SØRENSEN, E. (2006), ‘Metagovernance: the changing role of politicians in processes of democratic governance’, American Review of Public Administration, 36, 98–114. Metagovernance: the changing role of politicians in processes of democratic governance American Review of Public Administration 36 98 114 Google Scholar

HARBOE, T. (2013), Metode og Projektskrivning: en Introduktion, Frederiksberg, Samfundslitteratur. Metode og Projektskrivning: en Introduktion Google Scholar

GUNN, S., BROOKS, E. and VIGAR, G. (2015), ‘The community’s capacity to plan: the disproportionate requirements of the New English neighbourhood planning initiative’, in S. Davoudi and A. Madanipour (eds), Reconsidering Localism, New York, Routledge, 147–67. The community’s capacity to plan: the disproportionate requirements of the New English neighbourhood planning initiative Reconsidering Localism 147 67 Google Scholar

HANSEN, K. M. (2010), Borgerinddragelse: et Studie af Borgerinddragelsen i Regioner og Kommuner, Odense, Syddansk Universitetsforlag. Borgerinddragelse: et Studie af Borgerinddragelsen i Regioner og Kommuner Google Scholar

SØRENSEN, E. and TORFING, J. (2005), ‘Network governance and post-liberal democracy’, Administrative Theory and Praxis, 27, 197–237. Network governance and post-liberal democracy Administrative Theory and Praxis 27 197 237 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2012), ‘Re-enchanting democracy as a mode of governance’, Critical Policy Studies, 6, 19–39. Re-enchanting democracy as a mode of governance Critical Policy Studies 6 19 39 Google Scholar

SØRENSEN, L. M. (2009), ‘Politikerne er langt væk’, Politiken, 18 October, 3. Politikerne er langt væk Politiken Google Scholar

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Thuesen, Annette Aagaard