Music, Sound, and the Moving Image

Variable Areas

The Transition to Sound and the Birth of the Robot Voice

Music, Sound, and the Moving Image (2018), 12, (2), 259–267.

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Anon. (1931a) ‘Synthetic Speech Demonstrated in London: Engineer Creates Voice Which Never Existed’, New York Times, 16 February, p.2. Google Scholar

Anon. (1931b) ‘“Talkies” in the Home: Film, Wireless, and Gramophone in One’, Illustrated London News, 26 September, p.467. Google Scholar

Armagnac, Alden D. (1939) ‘“Pedro” – The First Machine That Really Talks’, Popular Science, April, pp.72–73. ‘“Pedro” – The First Machine That Really Talks’ Popular Science 72 73 Google Scholar

Elsaesser, Thomas (2006) ‘Early Film History and Multi-Media: An Archaeology of Possible Futures?’. In: Chun, Wendy Hui Kyong & Keenan, Thomas (eds). New Media, Old Media: A History and Theory Reader. London: Routledge. ‘Early Film History and Multi-Media: An Archaeology of Possible Futures?’ New Media, Old Media: A History and Theory Reader Google Scholar

Levin, Thomas Y. (2003) ‘“Tones from out of Nowhere”: Rudolph Pfenninger and the Archaeology of Synthetic Sound’, Grey Room, 12, pp.32–79. ‘“Tones from out of Nowhere”: Rudolph Pfenninger and the Archaeology of Synthetic Sound’ Grey Room 12 32 79 Google Scholar

Pelletier, Jean-Marc (2009) ‘The Birth of the Synthetic Voice’, International Computer Music Conference. Available from: http://jmpelletier.com/the-birth-of-the-synthetic-voice/ (Accessed: December 2017). Google Scholar

Schrage, W.E. (1936) ‘ Phono-Film Reel: A Very Efficient and Cheap New Method of Sound Reproduction’, Mechanics and Handicraft, September, pp.31 & 106–107. ‘ Phono-Film Reel: A Very Efficient and Cheap New Method of Sound Reproduction’ Mechanics and Handicraft 106 107 Google Scholar

Schwartz, Daniel (2018) ‘Sounding the Inaudible: Rethinking the Musical Analogy in the City Symphonies of Walter Ruttmann and Dziga Vertov’, Music, Sound, and the Moving Image, 12 (1) (Spring), pp.1–31. ‘Sounding the Inaudible: Rethinking the Musical Analogy in the City Symphonies of Walter Ruttmann and Dziga Vertov’ Music, Sound, and the Moving Image 12 1 31 Google Scholar

Thompson, Cecil (1931) ‘Artificial Voices Made in a Film Studio’, Daily Express, 16 February, pp.1–2. ‘Artificial Voices Made in a Film Studio’ Daily Express 1 2 Google Scholar

Anon. (1931a) ‘Synthetic Speech Demonstrated in London: Engineer Creates Voice Which Never Existed’, New York Times, 16 February, p.2. Google Scholar

Anon. (1931b) ‘“Talkies” in the Home: Film, Wireless, and Gramophone in One’, Illustrated London News, 26 September, p.467. Google Scholar

Armagnac, Alden D. (1939) ‘“Pedro” – The First Machine That Really Talks’, Popular Science, April, pp.72–73. ‘“Pedro” – The First Machine That Really Talks’ Popular Science 72 73 Google Scholar

Elsaesser, Thomas (2006) ‘Early Film History and Multi-Media: An Archaeology of Possible Futures?’. In: Chun, Wendy Hui Kyong & Keenan, Thomas (eds). New Media, Old Media: A History and Theory Reader. London: Routledge. ‘Early Film History and Multi-Media: An Archaeology of Possible Futures?’ New Media, Old Media: A History and Theory Reader Google Scholar

Levin, Thomas Y. (2003) ‘“Tones from out of Nowhere”: Rudolph Pfenninger and the Archaeology of Synthetic Sound’, Grey Room, 12, pp.32–79. ‘“Tones from out of Nowhere”: Rudolph Pfenninger and the Archaeology of Synthetic Sound’ Grey Room 12 32 79 Google Scholar

Pelletier, Jean-Marc (2009) ‘The Birth of the Synthetic Voice’, International Computer Music Conference. Available from: http://jmpelletier.com/the-birth-of-the-synthetic-voice/ (Accessed: December 2017). Google Scholar

Schrage, W.E. (1936) ‘ Phono-Film Reel: A Very Efficient and Cheap New Method of Sound Reproduction’, Mechanics and Handicraft, September, pp.31 & 106–107. ‘ Phono-Film Reel: A Very Efficient and Cheap New Method of Sound Reproduction’ Mechanics and Handicraft 106 107 Google Scholar

Schwartz, Daniel (2018) ‘Sounding the Inaudible: Rethinking the Musical Analogy in the City Symphonies of Walter Ruttmann and Dziga Vertov’, Music, Sound, and the Moving Image, 12 (1) (Spring), pp.1–31. ‘Sounding the Inaudible: Rethinking the Musical Analogy in the City Symphonies of Walter Ruttmann and Dziga Vertov’ Music, Sound, and the Moving Image 12 1 31 Google Scholar

Thompson, Cecil (1931) ‘Artificial Voices Made in a Film Studio’, Daily Express, 16 February, pp.1–2. ‘Artificial Voices Made in a Film Studio’ Daily Express 1 2 Google Scholar

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Dixon, Bryony