European Journal of Language Policy

Trilingual education for ethnic minority groups in China with special reference to trilingual CLIL education in Europe: an Exploratory Study

European Journal of Language Policy (2017), 9, (2), 203–226.

Abstract

China has long been a multiethnic and multilingual country, and the language of instruction at schools has always been of significance among all the issues concerning education for ethnic minorities. Members of each ethnic minority have to learn their minority language to maintain their culture identity, to learn the national language, Chinese, to set into the mainstream modern society and also to learn English to compete on the international stage. During last decades, the issue of trilingual education for ethnic minorities has gradually attracted the attention of policy-makers, researchers, and practitioners in China. Meanwhile, many issues and problems come along with the current implementation of trilingual education. It is suggested that it would be beneficial to find implications and solutions through the analysis of experienced and successful trilingual education system. Thus, this article aims at taking a case study of Uyghur minority trilingual education, analysing its issues and problems and generating the corresponding implications with reference to the successful minority trilingual education featured with the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) approach in the European Union.

La Chine est depuis longtemps un pays multiethnique et multilingue, et la langue d’enseignement dans les écoles a toujours été significative parmi toutes les questions concernant l’éducation pour les minorités ethniques. Les membres de chaque minorité ethnique doivent apprendre leur langue minoritaire pour maintenir leur identité culturelle, apprendre la langue nationale, le chinois, s’installer dans la société moderne et aussi apprendre l’anglais pour participer à la scène internationale. Au cours des dernières décennies, la question de l’éducation trilingue pour les minorités ethniques a progressivement attiré l’attention des décideurs, des chercheurs et des praticiens en Chine. Pendant ce temps, de nombreux problèmes se présentent avec la mise en œuvre actuelle de l’éducation trilingue. Il est suggéré qu’il serait bénéfique de trouver des implications et des solutions grâce à l’analyse d’un système d’éducation trilingue expérimenté et réussi. Ainsi, cet article vise à faire une étude de cas de l’éducation trilingue minoritaire Ouïghour, à analyser ses problèmes et à générer les implications correspondantes en référence à l’éducation trilingue minoritaire réussie présentée dans l’approche Apprentissage intégré du contenu et du langage (CLIL) dans l’Union européenne.

Access Token
£25.00
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Adamson, B. and Feng, A.W. (2009) ‘A Comparison of Trilingual Education Policies for Ethnic Minorities in China’, Compare 39(3): 321–33. A Comparison of Trilingual Education Policies for Ethnic Minorities in China Compare 39 321 33 Google Scholar

Adamson, B. and Feng, A.W. (2014) ‘Models for Trilingual Education in the People’s Republic of China’, in D. Gorter, V. Zenotz and J. Cenoz (eds), Minority Languages and Multilingual Education. Dordrecht: Springer, 25–44. Models for Trilingual Education in the People’s Republic of China Minority Languages and Multilingual Education 25 44 Google Scholar

Aliaga, R. (2002) ‘Introduccion temprana de la lengua inglesa en las escuelas publicas del Paıs Vasco’, in F. Etxeberria and U. Ruiz Bikandi (eds), Trilingues a los 4 anos. San Sebastian: Ibaeta-Pedagogia, 85–104. Introduccion temprana de la lengua inglesa en las escuelas publicas del Paıs Vasco Trilingues a los 4 anos 85 104 Google Scholar

Aomubassil, J. (2004) ‘Sanyujiaoyu gaigeshiyan yanjiuketi de lilungousi yu shijiankuangjia’ [Theoretical conception and practice frame for trilingual education reform and experiment research], Yuyanjiaoyuyanjiu 1: 76–92. Sanyujiaoyu gaigeshiyan yanjiuketi de lilungousi yu shijiankuangjia Yuyanjiaoyuyanjiu 1 76 92 Google Scholar

Beetsma, D., ed. (2002) Trilingual Primary Education in Euope: Inventory of the Provisions for Trilingual Primary Education in Minority Language Communities of the European Union. Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy. Trilingual Primary Education in Euope: Inventory of the Provisions for Trilingual Primary Education in Minority Language Communities of the European Union Google Scholar

Björklund, S. (2002) ‘A Trilingual School in Vaasa, Finland’, in D. Beetsma (ed.), Trilingual Primary Education in Europe: Inventory of the Provisions for Trilingual Primary Education in Minority Language Communities of the European Union. Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy, 15–33. A Trilingual School in Vaasa, Finland Trilingual Primary Education in Europe: Inventory of the Provisions for Trilingual Primary Education in Minority Language Communities of the European Union 15 33 Google Scholar

Björklund, S. (2011) ‘Swedish Immersion as a Way to Promote Early Multilingualism in Finland’, in I. Bangma, C. van der Meer and A. Riemersma (eds), Trilingual Primary Education in Europe: Some Developments with Regard to the Provisions of Trilingual Primary Education in Minority Language Communities of the European Union. Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy, 13–31. Swedish Immersion as a Way to Promote Early Multilingualism in Finland Trilingual Primary Education in Europe: Some Developments with Regard to the Provisions of Trilingual Primary Education in Minority Language Communities of the European Union 13 31 Google Scholar

Cenoz, J. (1997) ‘L’acquisition de la troisième langue: Bilinguisme et plurilinguisme au Pays Basque’, AILE 10: 159–80. L’acquisition de la troisième langue: Bilinguisme et plurilinguisme au Pays Basque AILE 10 159 80 Google Scholar

Cenoz, J. (1998) ‘Multilingual Education in the Basque Country’, in J. Cenoz and F. Genesee (eds), Beyond Bilingualism: Multilingualism and Multilingual Education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 175–91. Multilingual Education in the Basque Country Beyond Bilingualism: Multilingualism and Multilingual Education 175 91 Google Scholar

Cenoz, J. (2002) ‘Trilingual Education in the Basque Country’, in D. Beetsma (ed.), Trilingual Primary Education in Europe: Inventory of the Provisions for Trilingual Primary Education in Minority Language Communities of the European Union. Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy, 34–42. Trilingual Education in the Basque Country Trilingual Primary Education in Europe: Inventory of the Provisions for Trilingual Primary Education in Minority Language Communities of the European Union 34 42 Google Scholar

Cenoz, J. (2005) ‘English in Bilingual Programs in the Basque Country’, International Journal of the Sociology of Language 171: 41–56. English in Bilingual Programs in the Basque Country International Journal of the Sociology of Language 171 41 56 Google Scholar

Cenoz, J. (2009) Towards Multilingual Education: Basque Educational Research in International Perspective. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Towards Multilingual Education: Basque Educational Research in International Perspective Google Scholar

Cenoz, J. and Etxague, X. (2011) ‘Third Language Learning and Trilingual Education in the Basque Country’, in I. Bangma, C. van der Meer and A. Riemersma (eds), Trilingual Primary Education in Europe: Some Developments with Regard to the Provisions of Trilingual Primary Education in Minority Language Communities of the European Union. Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy, 32–45. Third Language Learning and Trilingual Education in the Basque Country Trilingual Primary Education in Europe: Some Developments with Regard to the Provisions of Trilingual Primary Education in Minority Language Communities of the European Union 32 45 Google Scholar

Chen, H.T. (1990) Zhongguo minzujiaoyu fazhanfangfa tantao [A Discussion of the Methods in Developing Minority Education in China]. Beijing: Zhongyang minzu xueyuan chubanshe. Zhongguo minzujiaoyu fazhanfangfa tantao Google Scholar

Coyle, D., Hood, P. and Marsh, D. (2010) Content and Language Integrated Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Content and Language Integrated Learning Google Scholar

Dai, Q.X. (2009) ‘Hongwei zhuangli weimin zaofu’ [Magnificence and Benefit for People], Yuyan wenzi yingyong 37(2): 61–76. Hongwei zhuangli weimin zaofu Yuyan wenzi yingyong 37 61 76 Google Scholar

European Commission (1995) White Paper on Education and Learning: Teaching and Learning. Towards the Learning Society. Brussels: European Commission. Google Scholar

Eurydice Report (2006) Content and Language Learning (CLIL) at Schools in Europe. Brussels: European Commission. Google Scholar

Extra, G. and Yagmur, K. (2012) Language Rich Europe: Trends in Policies and Practices for Multilingualism in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Language Rich Europe: Trends in Policies and Practices for Multilingualism in Europe Google Scholar

Feng, A.W. and Adamson, B., eds (2015) Trilingualism in Education in China: Models and Challenges. Dordrecht: Springer. Trilingualism in Education in China: Models and Challenges Google Scholar

Feng, A.W. and Sunuodula, M. (2009) ‘Analysing Language Education Policy for China’s Minority Groups in its Entirety’, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 12(6): 685–704. Analysing Language Education Policy for China’s Minority Groups in its Entirety International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 12 685 704 Google Scholar

Frigols-Martin, M.J. (2008) ‘CLIL Implementation in Spain: An Approach to Different Models’, in C.M. Coonan (ed.), CLIL e l’apprendimento delle lingue: Le sfide del nuovo ambiente di apprendimento. Venice: Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina, 221–32. CLIL Implementation in Spain: An Approach to Different Models CLIL e l’apprendimento delle lingue: Le sfide del nuovo ambiente di apprendimento 221 32 Google Scholar

Fu, M.J. and Sun, Z. (1990) ‘Guanyu shiyong he fazhan minzu yuyan wenzi de wenti’ [The use and the development of spoken and written languages of national minorities], Minzu Yanjiu 64(2): 1–10. Guanyu shiyong he fazhan minzu yuyan wenzi de wenti Minzu Yanjiu 64 1 10 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Huang, J. and Wang, H. (2012) ‘Guoneiwai minzu diqu sanyujiaoyu zhi bijiao’ [The summary and prospects of the trilingual education in China], Guizhou minzu yanjiu 33(5): 191–5. Guoneiwai minzu diqu sanyujiaoyu zhi bijiao Guizhou minzu yanjiu 33 191 5 Google Scholar

Jiensi, A. (2004) ‘Sanyu jiaoyu he shuangyu jiaoyu’ [Trilingual Education and Bilingual Education], Gansu jiaoyu (4): 10–15. Sanyu jiaoyu he shuangyu jiaoyu Gansu jiaoyu 10 15 Google Scholar

Juan-Garau, M. and Pérez-Vidal, C. (2011) ‘Trilingual Primary Education in the Valencian Community’, in I. Bangma, C. van der Meer and A. Riemersma (eds), Trilingual Primary Education in Europe: Some Developments with Regard to the Provisions of Trilingual Primary Education in Minority Language Communities of the European Union. Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy, 173–81. Trilingual Primary Education in the Valencian Community Trilingual Primary Education in Europe: Some Developments with Regard to the Provisions of Trilingual Primary Education in Minority Language Communities of the European Union 173 81 Google Scholar

Kaskela-Nortamo, B. (1995) ‘An Overview of Teaching Practices in Swedish Immersion in Finland’, in M. Buss and C. Laurén (eds), Language Immersion: Teaching and Second Language Acquisition. Vaasa: University of Vaasa, 47–9. An Overview of Teaching Practices in Swedish Immersion in Finland Language Immersion: Teaching and Second Language Acquisition 47 9 Google Scholar

Kramsch, C. (2000) Language and Culture. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press. Language and Culture Google Scholar

Larsen-Freeman, D. and Long, M.H. (1991) Introducción al estudio de la adquisición de segundas lenguas. Madrid: Editorial Gredos. Introducción al estudio de la adquisición de segundas lenguas Google Scholar

Lenneberg, E.H. (1967) An Introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research. London: Longman. An Introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research Google Scholar

Liu, L.L. and Zhang, H.Y. (2013) ‘Guonei sanyujiaoyu yanjiu xiangguan wenxianzongshu’ [Trilingual education research on related literature review], Hunan gongye zhiyejishu xueyuan xuebao 13(3): 98–100. Guonei sanyujiaoyu yanjiu xiangguan wenxianzongshu Hunan gongye zhiyejishu xueyuan xuebao 13 98 100 Google Scholar

Liu, M.Q. and You, X.L. (2013) ‘Duoyuan wenhua yujiangxia xinjiang gaoxiao shaoshuminzu xuesheng sanyu xide zhangai guiyin fenxi’ [Attribution analysis of the third language acquisition barriers of minority college students in Xinjiang under the multicultural context], Fengkuang yingyu jiaoshiban 4: 73–6. Duoyuan wenhua yujiangxia xinjiang gaoxiao shaoshuminzu xuesheng sanyu xide zhangai guiyin fenxi Fengkuang yingyu jiaoshiban 4 73 6 Google Scholar

Ma, R. (2009) ‘The Development of Minority Education and the Practice of Bilingual Education in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region’, Front Education China 4(2): 188–251. The Development of Minority Education and the Practice of Bilingual Education in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Front Education China 4 188 251 Google Scholar

Marsh, D. (2002) CLIL/EMILE: The European Dimension – Actions, Trends and Foresight Potential. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä. CLIL/EMILE: The European Dimension – Actions, Trends and Foresight Potential Google Scholar

Martinez, O. (2002) ‘Trilingual Primary Education in the Valencian Community’, in D. Beetsma (ed.), Trilingual Primary Education in Europe: Inventory of the Provisions for Trilingual Primary Education in Minority Language Communities of the European Union. Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy, 82–8. Trilingual Primary Education in the Valencian Community Trilingual Primary Education in Europe: Inventory of the Provisions for Trilingual Primary Education in Minority Language Communities of the European Union 82 8 Google Scholar

Ministry of Education (2001) Guoyu jijituijin xiaoxue kaishe yingyukecheng de zhidaoyijian [Guiding principles for the promotion of English curriculum in primary schools]. Beijing: Ministry of Education. Google Scholar

Nikula, T. and Marsh, D. (1997) Vieraskielinen opetus peruskouluissa ja lukioissa: tavoitteista toteutustapoihin. Helsinki: Opetushallitus. Vieraskielinen opetus peruskouluissa ja lukioissa: tavoitteista toteutustapoihin Google Scholar

Shi, M.Y. and Xiao, X. (2009) ‘Xizang sanyujiaoxue de jiazhiquxiang ji moshitanxi’ [Value orientation and mode of Tibetan trilingual teaching], Minzu jiaoyu yanjiu 6: 77–8. Xizang sanyujiaoxue de jiazhiquxiang ji moshitanxi Minzu jiaoyu yanjiu 6 77 8 Google Scholar

Spolsky, B. (1980) ‘Forward’, in E. Glyn Lewis (ed.), Bilingualism and Bilingaual Education: A Comparative Study. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, xiii–xv. Forward Bilingualism and Bilingaual Education: A Comparative Study xiii xv Google Scholar

State Council (2002) Guowuyuan guanyu shenhuagaige jiakuaifazhan minzujiaoyu de jueding [State Council’s decision to further enhance and speed up the reform of minority education]. Beijing: State Council. Google Scholar

Sunuodula, M. and Feng, A.W. (2011) ‘Learning a Third Language by Uyghur Students in Xinjiang: A Blessing in Disguise?’, in A.W. Feng (ed.), English Language in Education and Societies across Greater China. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 260–83. Learning a Third Language by Uyghur Students in Xinjiang: A Blessing in Disguise? English Language in Education and Societies across Greater China 260 83 Google Scholar

Tuohuti, G.N. (2013) ‘Qiantan xinjiang shaoshuminzu shuangyujiaoyu zhong de sanyujiaoxue’ [A brief analysis of trilingual teaching in minority bilingual education in Xinjiang], Yuwen xuekan 12: 110–14. Qiantan xinjiang shaoshuminzu shuangyujiaoyu zhong de sanyujiaoxue Yuwen xuekan 12 110 14 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Vila i Moreno, F.X. (2008) ‘Language-in-education policies in the Catalan language area’, AILA Review, 21: 31–48. Language-in-education policies in the Catalan language area AILA Review 21 31 48 Google Scholar

Wei, J.H. (2005) ‘Zhongguo shaoshuminzu sanyujiaoxue xingshijianxi’ [Brief analysis of ethnic minority trilingual education in China], Shihezi daxue xuebao 19(4): 83–4. Zhongguo shaoshuminzu sanyujiaoxue xingshijianxi Shihezi daxue xuebao 19 83 4 Google Scholar

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Bureau of Statistics (2006) Xinjiang tongji nianjian [Statistical Yearbook of Xinjiang]. Beijing: Zhongguo tongji chubanshe. Google Scholar

Zhang, H. (2009) ‘Xinjiang shaoshuminzu sanyujiaoyu jianxi’ [A brief discussion on trilingual education in Xingjiang minority areas], Bianjiang jingji yu wenhua 12: 125–6. Xinjiang shaoshuminzu sanyujiaoyu jianxi Bianjiang jingji yu wenhua 12 125 6 Google Scholar

Zhou, M. and Zhang, J.K. (2014) ‘Lun CLIL de xingqi jinzhan ji dui woguo minzudiqu shuangyu jiaoyu de qishi’ [The rise and progress of CLIL and the inspiration for bilingual education for ethnic regions], Qinghai minzu yanjiu 25(2): 96–100. Lun CLIL de xingqi jinzhan ji dui woguo minzudiqu shuangyu jiaoyu de qishi Qinghai minzu yanjiu 25 96 100 Google Scholar

Zhou, X.M. (2009) ‘Oumeng dui quyuxing ji shaoshuminzu yuyan de yuanzhufenxi’ [EU’s Support on Regional and Minority Languages], Guizhou minzu yanjiu 29: 167–73. Oumeng dui quyuxing ji shaoshuminzu yuyan de yuanzhufenxi’ [EU’s Support on Regional and Minority Languages] Guizhou minzu yanjiu 29 167 73 Google Scholar

Zhou, X.M. (2012) ‘Oumeng yuyan duoyuanhua zhanlue dui zhongguo shaoshuminzu yuyanjiaoyu de qishi’ [Inspiration of the European multilingual strategies on Chinese minority language education], Guizhou minzu yanjiu 33: 174–9. Oumeng yuyan duoyuanhua zhanlue dui zhongguo shaoshuminzu yuyanjiaoyu de qishi Guizhou minzu yanjiu 33 174 9 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Wu, Ruilin