Music, Sound, and the Moving Image

The Soundscape of the Cinema Theatre

Acoustical Design, Embodiment, and Film Theatres as Vehicles for Aural Absorption

Music, Sound, and the Moving Image (2016), 10, (2), 135–165.

Abstract

This article explores the history of the cinema auditorium’s acoustics and its role in the construction of dominant models of cinematic listening from the 1930s through the present. Focusing on how contemplation was achieved and noise was reduced via the development of acoustical engineering and its later application to the cinema context, it argues that these acoustical treatments and designs worked to cultivate a dominant form of listening that favoured aesthetic absorption. Analysing the more creative and prominent methods of acoustical design that were active in cinema theatres from the rise of amplified sound in film through the emergence of THX, it also traces models of aural absorption that were encouraged by these technologies. Drawing upon evidence from art history and the history of previous public entertainments that then appear powerfully in cinema, it argues that the acoustical engineering of the cinema auditorium has always worked to encourage absorption through the reduction of noise and the de-emphasis of the surrounding social context of cinema. It ends with an analysis of how certain sounds – specifically, those of the spectator’s body and breath – emerge in accounts of the moviegoing experience and dispel the carefully cultivated myth of perfect absorption.

Access Token
£25.00
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Abel, Richard, & Altman, Rick (eds) (2001) The Sounds of Early Cinema. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. The Sounds of Early Cinema Google Scholar

Allen, Robert C. (1979) ‘Motion Picture Exhibition in Manhattan 1906–1912: Beyond the Nickelodeon’, Cinema Journal, 18 (2), pp.2–15. Motion Picture Exhibition in Manhattan 1906–1912: Beyond the Nickelodeon Cinema Journal 18 2 15 Google Scholar

Altman, Rick (1999) ‘Film Sound – All Of It’, Iris, 27, pp.31–48. Film Sound – All Of It Iris 27 31 48 Google Scholar

Altman, Rick (2004) Silent Film Sound. New York: Columbia University Press. Silent Film Sound Google Scholar

Anderson, Tim (1997) ‘Reforming “Jackass Music”: The Problematic Aesthetics of Early American Film Music Accompaniment’, Cinema Journal, 37 (1), pp.3–22. Reforming “Jackass Music”: The Problematic Aesthetics of Early American Film Music Accompaniment Cinema Journal 37 3 22 Google Scholar

Aronson, Arnold (1981) ‘Theatres of the Future’, Theatre Journal, 33 (4), pp.489–503. Theatres of the Future Theatre Journal 33 489 503 Google Scholar

Barron, Michael (2009) Auditorium Acoustics and Architectural Design. New York: Routledge. Auditorium Acoustics and Architectural Design Google Scholar

Baudry, Jean-Louis (1986a) ‘Ideological Effects of the Basic Cinema Apparatus’. In: Rosen, Philip (ed.). Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology. New York: Columbia University Press, pp.286–298. Ideological Effects of the Basic Cinema Apparatus Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology 286 298 Google Scholar

Baudry, Jean-Louis (1986b) ‘The Apparatus: Metapsychological Approaches to the Impression of Reality in Cinema’. In: Rosen, Philip (ed.). Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology: A Film Theory Reader. New York: Columbia University Press, pp.299–318. The Apparatus: Metapsychological Approaches to the Impression of Reality in Cinema Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology: A Film Theory Reader 299 318 Google Scholar

Baudry, Jean-Louis & Williams, Alan (1974) ‘Ideological Effects of the Basic Cinematographic Apparatus’, Film Quarterly, 28 (2), pp.39–47. Ideological Effects of the Basic Cinematographic Apparatus Film Quarterly 28 39 47 Google Scholar

Beck, Jay S. (2003) A Quiet Revolution: Changes in American Film Sound Practices, 1967–1979. PhD thesis, University of Iowa. Google Scholar

Beranek, Leo (2008) ‘Concert Hall Acoustics’, The Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, 64 (7), pp.1–39 Concert Hall Acoustics The Journal of the Audio Engineering Society Google Scholar

Bowman, Ned A. (1966) ‘Investing a Theatrical Ideal: Wagner’s Bayreuth Festspielhaus’, Educational Theatre Journal, 18 (4), pp.429–438. Investing a Theatrical Ideal: Wagner’s Bayreuth Festspielhaus Educational Theatre Journal 18 429 438 Google Scholar

Browne, Nick (1975) ‘The Spectator-in-the-Text: The Rhetoric of Stagecoach’, Film Quarterly 29 (2), pp.26–38. The Spectator-in-the-Text: The Rhetoric of Stagecoach Film Quarterly 29 26 38 Google Scholar

Bush, W. Stephen (1911) ‘Facing an Audience’, Moving Picture World, 9 (10), p.774. Facing an Audience Moving Picture World 9 774 Google Scholar

Butsch, Richard (2001) ‘American movie audiences of the 1930s’, International Labor and Working-Class History, 59, pp.106–120. American movie audiences of the 1930s International Labor and Working-Class History 59 106 120 Google Scholar

Carlson, Marvin (1989) Places of Performance: The Semiotics of Theatre Architecture. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Places of Performance: The Semiotics of Theatre Architecture Google Scholar

Carson, J. (1956) ‘Practical Acoustics in Cinema Auditoria’, British Kinematography, 29 (6), pp.186–196. Practical Acoustics in Cinema Auditoria British Kinematography 29 186 196 Google Scholar

Case, Judd A. (2013) ‘Logistical Media: Fragments from Radar’s Prehistory’, Canadian Journal of Communication, 38 (3), pp.379–395. Logistical Media: Fragments from Radar’s Prehistory Canadian Journal of Communication 38 379 395 Google Scholar

Cavanaugh, William, & Wilkes, Joseph A. (1999) Architectural Acoustics: Principles and Practice. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Architectural Acoustics: Principles and Practice Google Scholar

Chadbourne, Leroy (1943a) ‘Contestants Tackle Crackling and Popping Noises in Sound Systems’, International Projectionist, 18 (5), pp.10–11, 26. Contestants Tackle Crackling and Popping Noises in Sound Systems International Projectionist 18 10 26 Google Scholar

Chadbourne, Leroy (1943b) ‘Technical Analysis of a Sound System for Small Theaters’, International Projectionist, 18 (6), pp.9–11. Technical Analysis of a Sound System for Small Theaters International Projectionist 18 9 11 Google Scholar

Chadbourne, Leroy (1943c) ‘Quality Essential in P.A. Systems’, International Projectionist, 18 (7), pp.7–8, 20. Quality Essential in P.A. Systems International Projectionist 18 7 20 Google Scholar

Comolli, Jean-Louis (1986) ‘Technique and Ideology: Camera, Perspective, and Depth of field’. In: Rosen, Philip (ed). Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology: A Film Theory Reader. New York: Columbia University Press, pp.421–443. Technique and Ideology: Camera, Perspective, and Depth of field Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology: A Film Theory Reader 421 443 Google Scholar

Crafton, Donald (1999) The Talkies: American Cinema’s Transition to Sound, 1926–1931. Berkeley: University of California Press. The Talkies: American Cinema’s Transition to Sound, 1926–1931 Google Scholar

Crary, Jonathan (2001) Suspensions of Perception: Attention, Spectacle, and Modern Culture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Suspensions of Perception: Attention, Spectacle, and Modern Culture Google Scholar

Decherney, Peter (2006) Hollywood and the Culture Elite: How the Movies Became American. New York: Columbia University Press. Hollywood and the Culture Elite: How the Movies Became American Google Scholar

Dienstfrey, Eric (2015) ‘Prints and the New Power Regulations: New Data on the 1938 Academy Curve’, paper presented to the Society for Cinema and Media Studies, Montreal, Canada, 26 March 2015. Prints and the New Power Regulations: New Data on the 1938 Academy Curve Google Scholar

Douglas, J. Yellowlees, & Hargadon, Andrew (2001) ‘The pleasures of immersion and engagement: Schemas, scripts and the fifth business’, Digital Creativity, 12 (3), pp.153–166. The pleasures of immersion and engagement: Schemas, scripts and the fifth business Digital Creativity 12 153 166 Google Scholar

Downes, Stephen (2003) ‘Musical Pleasures and Amorous Passions: Stendhal, the Crystallization Process, and Listening to Rossini and Beethoven’, 19th Century Music, 26 (3), pp.235–257. Musical Pleasures and Amorous Passions: Stendhal, the Crystallization Process, and Listening to Rossini and Beethoven 19th Century Music 26 235 257 Google Scholar

Fischer, Ole (2015) ‘“The Treachery of Images”: Architecture, Immersion, and the Digital Realm’, Studies in Intermediality, 9, pp.301–318. “The Treachery of Images”: Architecture, Immersion, and the Digital Realm Studies in Intermediality 9 301 318 Google Scholar

Fleming, N (1943) ‘Acoustics in the Motion Picture Theatre and Studio.’ Journal of the British Kinematograph Society, 6 (2), pp.48–62. Acoustics in the Motion Picture Theatre and Studio. Journal of the British Kinematograph Society 6 48 62 Google Scholar

Fried, Michael (1988) Absorption and Theatricality: Painting and Beholder in the Age of Diderot. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Absorption and Theatricality: Painting and Beholder in the Age of Diderot Google Scholar

Fried, Michael (1998) Art and Objecthood: Essays and Reviews. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Art and Objecthood: Essays and Reviews Google Scholar

Galloway, Lindsey (2012) ‘The Quietest Place on Earth’, The Guardian, 23 October. Available from: http://www.bbc.com/travel/story/20121022-thequietest-place-on-earth (Accessed: 10 October 2015). Google Scholar

Gay, Peter (1996) The Naked Heart: Bourgeois Experiences, IV: Victoria to Freud. New York: W.W. Norton and Co. The Naked Heart: Bourgeois Experiences, IV: Victoria to Freud Google Scholar

Gomery, Douglas (1990) ‘Thinking about motion picture exhibition’, The Velvet Light Trap, 25, p.3. Thinking about motion picture exhibition The Velvet Light Trap 25 3 Google Scholar

Gomery, Douglas (2005a) The Coming of Sound: A History. New York: Routledge. The Coming of Sound: A History Google Scholar

Gomery, Douglas (2005b) ‘The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry’. In: Utterson, Andrew (ed.). Technology and Culture: the Film Reader. New York: Routledge, pp.53–67. The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry Technology and Culture: the Film Reader 53 67 Google Scholar

Grainge, Paul (2008) ‘Selling Spectacular Sound: Dolby and the Unheard History of Technical Trademarks’. In: Beck, Jay, & Grajeda, Tony (eds). Lowering the Boom: Critical Studies in Film Sound. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, pp.251–268. Selling Spectacular Sound: Dolby and the Unheard History of Technical Trademarks Lowering the Boom: Critical Studies in Film Sound 251 268 Google Scholar

Grau, Oliver (2003) Virtual Art: From Illusion to Immersion. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Virtual Art: From Illusion to Immersion Google Scholar

Gunning, Tom (1990) ‘The Cinema of Attractions: Early Film, Its Spectator and the Avant-Garde’. In: Elsaesser, Thomas, & Barker, Adam (eds). Early Cinema: Space, Frame, Narrative. London: British Film Institute, pp.52–62. The Cinema of Attractions: Early Film, Its Spectator and the Avant-Garde Early Cinema: Space, Frame, Narrative 52 62 Google Scholar

Hansen, Miriam (1994) Babel and Babylon. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Babel and Babylon Google Scholar

Heath, Stephen (1981) ‘On Suture’. In: Questions of Cinema. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp.76–112. On Suture Questions of Cinema 76 112 Google Scholar

Heath, Stephen (1986) ‘Narrative Space’. In: Rosen, Philip (ed.). Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology. New York: Columbia University Press, pp.379–420. Narrative Space Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology 379 420 Google Scholar

Hendy, David (2000) Radio in the Global Age. Cambridge: Polity. Radio in the Global Age Google Scholar

Higashi, Sumiko (1995) ‘Manhattan’s Nickelodeons. Sumiko Higashi on Ben Singer’s “Manhattan Nickelodeons: New Data on Audiences and Exhibitors”’, Cinema Journal, 34 (3), pp.72–74. Manhattan’s Nickelodeons. Sumiko Higashi on Ben Singer’s “Manhattan Nickelodeons: New Data on Audiences and Exhibitors” Cinema Journal 34 72 74 Google Scholar

Hilmes, Michele (2005) ‘Is there a field called sound culture studies? And does it matter?’ American Quarterly, 57 (1), pp.249–259. Is there a field called sound culture studies? And does it matter? American Quarterly 57 249 259 Google Scholar

Holman, Tomlinson (1991) ‘New Factors in Sound for Cinema and Television’, The Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, 39 (7/8), pp.529–539. New Factors in Sound for Cinema and Television The Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 39 529 539 Google Scholar

Kaye, Lewis (2012) ‘The Silenced Listener: Architectural Acoustics, the Concert Hall and the Conditions of Audience’, Leonardo Music Journal, 22, pp.63–65. The Silenced Listener: Architectural Acoustics, the Concert Hall and the Conditions of Audience Leonardo Music Journal 22 63 65 Google Scholar

Keil, Charlie (2001) Early American Cinema in Transition: Story, Style, and Filmmaking, 1907–1913. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Early American Cinema in Transition: Story, Style, and Filmmaking, 1907–1913 Google Scholar

Kerins, Mark (2011) Beyond Dolby (Stereo): Cinema in the Digital Sound Age. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Beyond Dolby (Stereo): Cinema in the Digital Sound Age Google Scholar

Klinger, Barbara (2006) Beyond the Multiplex: Cinema, New Technologies, and the Home. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Beyond the Multiplex: Cinema, New Technologies, and the Home Google Scholar

Koss, Juliet (2006) ‘On the Limits of Empathy’, The Art Bulletin, 88 (1), pp.139–157. On the Limits of Empathy The Art Bulletin 88 139 157 Google Scholar

Kubelka, Peter (1974) ‘The Invisible Cinema’, Design Quarterly, 93, pp.32–36. The Invisible Cinema Design Quarterly 93 32 36 Google Scholar

Lacey, Kate (2013) Listening Publics: The Politics and Experience of Listening in the Media Age. Cambridge: Polity Press. Listening Publics: The Politics and Experience of Listening in the Media Age Google Scholar

Lastra, James (2008) ‘Film and the Wagnerian Aspiration: Thoughts on Sound Design and the History of the Senses’. In: Beck, Jay & Grajeda, Tony (eds). Lowering the Boom: Critical Studies in Film Sound. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, pp.123–140. Film and the Wagnerian Aspiration: Thoughts on Sound Design and the History of the Senses Lowering the Boom: Critical Studies in Film Sound 123 140 Google Scholar

Leonard, Anne (2007) ‘Picturing Listening in the Late Nineteenth Century’, The Art Bulletin, 89 (2), pp.266–286. Picturing Listening in the Late Nineteenth Century The Art Bulletin 89 266 286 Google Scholar

McGuire, Laura M. (2007) ‘A Movie House in Space and Time: Frederick Kiesler’s Film Arts Guild Cinema, New York, 1929’, Studies in the Decorative Arts, 14 (2), pp.45–78. A Movie House in Space and Time: Frederick Kiesler’s Film Arts Guild Cinema, New York, 1929 Studies in the Decorative Arts 14 45 78 Google Scholar

McMahan, Alison (2003) ‘Immersion, Engagement and Presence’. In: Wolf, Mark J., & Perron, Bernard (eds). The Video Game Theory Reader. New York: Routledge, pp.67–86. Immersion, Engagement and Presence The Video Game Theory Reader 67 86 Google Scholar

Mason, C.A., & Moir, James (1941) ‘Acoustics of Cinema Auditoria’, Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, 88 (2), pp.93–96. Acoustics of Cinema Auditoria Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers 88 93 96 Google Scholar

Mehta, Medan, Johnson, James, & Rocafort, Jorge (1999) Architectural Acoustics: Principles and Design. New York: Prentice Hall. Architectural Acoustics: Principles and Design Google Scholar

Merritt, Russell (1976) ‘Nickelodeon Theatres, 1905–1914: Building an Audience for the Movies’. In: Tino Balio (ed.). The American Film Industry. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, pp.83–102. Nickelodeon Theatres, 1905–1914: Building an Audience for the Movies The American Film Industry 83 102 Google Scholar

The Moving Picture World (1907–1912) In: Ward, Meredith. ‘Chatter, Reverberation, and the Static in the System: Noise in American Motion Picture Culture’, PhD thesis, Northwestern University, 2015. Google Scholar

Michelson, Annette (1998) ‘Gnosis and Iconoclasm: A Case Study in Cinephilia’, October, 83, pp.3–18. Gnosis and Iconoclasm: A Case Study in Cinephilia October 83 3 18 Google Scholar

Nechvatal, Joseph (2001) ‘Towards an immersive intelligence’, Leonardo, 34 (5), pp.417–422. Towards an immersive intelligence Leonardo 34 417 422 Google Scholar

Pine, B. Joseph & Gilmore, James H. (1998) ‘Welcome to the experience economy’, Harvard Business Review, 76 (4), pp.97–105. Welcome to the experience economy Harvard Business Review 76 97 105 Google Scholar

Potwin, C.C. (1940) ‘The Control of Sound in Theaters and Preview Rooms’, Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 35 (8), pp.111–125. The Control of Sound in Theaters and Preview Rooms Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers 35 111 125 Google Scholar

Potwin, C.C., & Maxfield, J.P. (1939) ‘A Modern Concept of Acoustical Design’, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 11, pp.48–55. A Modern Concept of Acoustical Design Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 11 48 55 Google Scholar

Potwin, C.C., & Schlanger, B. (1939) ‘Coordinating Acoustics and Architecture in the Design of the Motion Picture Theater’, Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 32 (2), pp.156–167. Coordinating Acoustics and Architecture in the Design of the Motion Picture Theater Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers 32 156 167 Google Scholar

Reason, Matthew, Jola, Corinne, Kay, Rosie, Reynolds, Dee, Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka, Grobras, Marie-Helene, Tohka, Jussi, & Pollick, Frank E. (2016) ‘Spectators’ aesthetic experience of sound and movement in dance performance: A transdisciplinary investigation’, Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 10 (1), pp.42–55. Spectators’ aesthetic experience of sound and movement in dance performance: A transdisciplinary investigation Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts 10 42 55 Google Scholar

Rose, B., & Sittel, E. (1971) ‘Where to Go to Learn to Look at Movies: New York’s Anthology Film Archives’, Vogue, November, p.70. Where to Go to Learn to Look at Movies: New York’s Anthology Film Archives Vogue 70 Google Scholar

Schafer, R. Murray (1977) The Tuning of the World. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. The Tuning of the World Google Scholar

Schivelbusch, Wolfgang (1988) Disenchanted Night: The Industrialization of Light in the Nineteenth Century. Trans. Angela Davies. Berkeley: University of California Press. Disenchanted Night: The Industrialization of Light in the Nineteenth Century Google Scholar

Schlanger, Ben (1948) ‘Advancement of Motion Picture Theater Design’, Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 50, pp.303–313. Advancement of Motion Picture Theater Design Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers 50 303 313 Google Scholar

Schopenhauer, Arthur (1977) The World as Will and Idea. Trans. R.B. Haldane and J. Kemp. New York: AMS Press. The World as Will and Idea Google Scholar

Sennett, Richard (1992) The Fall of Public Man. New York: W.W. Norton and Co. The Fall of Public Man Google Scholar

Sergi, Gianluca (2001) ‘The Sonic Playground: Hollywood Cinema and Its Listeners’. In: Maltby, Richard, & Stokes, Melvyn (eds). Hollywood Spectatorship: Changing Perceptions of Cinema Audiences. London: British Film Institute, pp.121–151. The Sonic Playground: Hollywood Cinema and Its Listeners Hollywood Spectatorship: Changing Perceptions of Cinema Audiences 121 151 Google Scholar

Sergi, Gianluca (2004) The Dolby Era: Film Sound in Contemporary Hollywood. Manchester: Manchester University Press. The Dolby Era: Film Sound in Contemporary Hollywood Google Scholar

Silverman, Kaja (1983) The Subject of Semiotics. New York: Oxford University Press. The Subject of Semiotics Google Scholar

Singer, Ben (1995) ‘Manhattan Nickelodeons: New Data on Audiences and Exhibitors’, Cinema Journal, 34 (3), pp.5–35. Manhattan Nickelodeons: New Data on Audiences and Exhibitors Cinema Journal 34 5 35 Google Scholar

Singer, Ben (1996) ‘New York: Just Like I Pictured It’, Cinema Journal, 35 (3), p.104. New York: Just Like I Pictured It Cinema Journal 35 104 Google Scholar

Sitney, Sky (2005) ‘The Search for the Invisible Cinema’, Grey Room, 19, pp.102–113. The Search for the Invisible Cinema Grey Room 19 102 113 Google Scholar

Smith, Jacob (2011) Spoken Word: Postwar American Phonograph Cultures. Berkeley: University of California Press. Spoken Word: Postwar American Phonograph Cultures Google Scholar

Stern, Seymour (1998) ‘An Aesthetic of the Cinema House: A Statement of the Principles Which Constitute the Philosophy and the Format of the Ideal Film Theatre’, The National Board of Review Magazine, 2.5 (May 1927); rpt. In Spectator 18 (2), pp.26–32. An Aesthetic of the Cinema House: A Statement of the Principles Which Constitute the Philosophy and the Format of the Ideal Film Theatre The National Board of Review Magazine, 2.5 (May 1927); rpt. In Spectator 18 26 32 Google Scholar

Stockbridge, Frank Parker (1930) ‘How Far Off is that German Gun? How sixty-three German guns were located by sound waves alone in a single day’, Popular Science, 39, p.88. How Far Off is that German Gun? How sixty-three German guns were located by sound waves alone in a single day Popular Science 39 88 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Taylor, Marisa (2008) ‘What Does Silence Really Sound Like?’ Alternet, 18 July. Available from: http://www.alternet.org/story/91472/what_does_silence_really_sound_like (Accessed: 10 October 2015). Google Scholar

Thompson, Emily (2004) The Soundscape of Modernity: Architectural Acoustics and the Culture of Listening in America, 1900–1933. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. The Soundscape of Modernity: Architectural Acoustics and the Culture of Listening in America, 1900–1933 Google Scholar

THX (n.d. a) ‘THX Certified Cinemas: Auditorium Isolation’, THX. Available from: http://www.thx.com/professional/cinema-certification/thx-auditorium-isolation/ (Accessed: 15 August 2013). Google Scholar

THX (n.d. b) ‘THX Certified Cinemas: Speaker Layout and Baffle Wall’, THX. Available from: http://www.thx.com/professional/cinema-certification/speaker-layout-and-baffle-wall/ (Accessed: 15 August 2013). Google Scholar

THX (n.d. c) ‘THX Certified Cinemas’, THX. Available from: http://www.thx.com/professional/cinema-certification/ (Accessed: 15 August 2013). Google Scholar

Uricchio, William, & Pearson, Roberta (1997) ‘Manhattan’s Nickelodeons New York? New York! William Uricchio and Roberta E. Pearson Comment on the Singer-Allen Exchange’, Cinema Journal, 36 (4), pp.98–102. Manhattan’s Nickelodeons New York? New York! William Uricchio and Roberta E. Pearson Comment on the Singer-Allen Exchange Cinema Journal 36 98 102 Google Scholar

Valentine, Maggie (1996) The Show Starts on the Sidewalk: An Architectural History of the Movie Theatre, Starring S. Charles Lee. New Haven: Yale University Press. The Show Starts on the Sidewalk: An Architectural History of the Movie Theatre, Starring S. Charles Lee Google Scholar

Wagner, Richard (1904) Art, Life, and Theories of Richard Wagner, selected from his writings. Trans. Edward L. Burlingame. New York: Henry Holt and Co. Art, Life, and Theories of Richard Wagner, selected from his writings Google Scholar

Ward, Meredith C. (2010) ‘Song of the Sonic Body: Noise, the Audience, and Early American Moving Picture Culture’. In: Bolton, Kingsley, & Olsson, Jan (eds). Media, Popular Culture, and the American Century. Stockholm: National Library of Sweden, pp.101–124. Song of the Sonic Body: Noise, the Audience, and Early American Moving Picture Culture Media, Popular Culture, and the American Century 101 124 Google Scholar

Weber, William (1997) ‘Did People Listen in the 18th Century?’ Early Music, 25 (4), 25th Anniversary Issue, Listening Practice, pp.678–691. Did People Listen in the 18th Century? Early Music 678 691 Google Scholar

White, Rob (2007) ‘Velvet Boxes and Reliquaries’, Film Quarterly, 61 (1), pp.92–93. Velvet Boxes and Reliquaries Film Quarterly 61 92 93 Google Scholar

Wilinsky, Barbara (2001) Sure Seaters: The Emergence of Art House Cinema. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Sure Seaters: The Emergence of Art House Cinema Google Scholar

Wolf, S.K. Theatre Acoustics Engineer, Electrical Research Products, Inc. (1929) ‘Theatre Acoustics for Reproduced Sound, Also: Reproduction in the Theatre’. A reprint from the Academy Technical Digest of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (Los Angeles), Reprint no. 6, p.82. Theatre Acoustics for Reproduced Sound, Also: Reproduction in the Theatre Academy Technical Digest of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences 82 Google Scholar

The ‘World Reviewer’ (1911) ‘The Picture the Audience Likes’, Moving Picture World, 8 (6), p.310. Google Scholar

Wyss, Beat, & Bratton, Denise (1990) ‘Ragnarök of Illusion: Richard Wagner’s “Mystical Abyss” at Bayreuth’, October, 54, pp.57–78. Ragnarök of Illusion: Richard Wagner’s “Mystical Abyss” at Bayreuth October 54 57 78 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Ward, Meredith C.