Labour History Review

Labour and improvement: agricultural change in East Anglia, circa 1750-1870

Labour History Review (1997), 62, (3), 275–295.

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J.V Beckett, The Agricultural Revolution, 1990, p. 55. Google Scholar

Lord Ernle, English Farming Past and Present, 1961; J. D. Chambers and G. E. Mingay, The Agricultural Revolution 1750-1880, 1966. Google Scholar

P. O'Brien, ‘Agriculture and the home market 1660-1820’, English Historical Review, vol. 50, 1985, p. 779. ‘Agriculture and the home market 1660-1820’ English Historical Review 50 779 Google Scholar

R. Allen, ‘Agriculture during the Industrial Revolution’, in R. Floud and D. McCloskey (eds.), The Economic History of Britain Since 1700, 2nd edition, 1994, vol. 1, pp. 96-112, 113. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

S. Wade Martins and T. Williamson (eds), The Farming Journal of Randall Burroughes, Norwich, 1995, pp. 25-32. The Farming Journal of Randall Burroughes 25 32 Google Scholar

M. Overton, Agricultural Revolutions in England, 1996, p. 74; M. Overton and B. M. S. Campbell, ‘Productivity change in European agricultural development’, in B. M. S. Campbell and M. Overton (eds.), Land, Labour and Livestock, Manchester, 1991, pp. 1-50. An acre is 4,480 square yards (0.405 hectares). Google Scholar

Beckett, Agricultural Revolution, p. 60. Google Scholar

A. Howkins, ‘Peasants, servants, and labourers: the marginal workforce in British agriculture, c. 1870-1914’, Agricultural History Review, vol. 42, 1994, pp. 49-62. ‘Peasants, servants, and labourers: the marginal workforce in British agriculture, c. 1870-1914’ Agricultural History Review 42 49 62 Google Scholar

Wade Martins and Williamson, Burroughes, pp. 32-8. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Norfolk Record Office, MFRO 10; R. N. Bacon, The Agriculture of Norfolk, 1844. Google Scholar

In W. Rham, Dictionary of the Farm, 1853, p. 471. Google Scholar

Norfolk News, 13 October 1866. Google Scholar

R. Glyde, Suffolk in the Nineteenth Century, 1856, pp. 330-34. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Wade Martins and Williamson, Burroughes, p. 35; East Suffolk Record Office, HA 24 50/19/325. Google Scholar

Rev. Forby, Annals of Agriculture, vol. 26, 1796, p. 140. Annals of Agriculture 26 140 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Glyde, Suffolk, p. 350. A bushel is 8 gallons (36.4 litres). Google Scholar

P. King, ‘Farmers and the failure of legal sanctions, 1750-1850’, Past and Present, vol. 125, 1989, pp. 116-50. ‘Farmers and the failure of legal sanctions, 1750-1850’ Past and Present 125 116 50 Google Scholar

E. H. Hunt, ‘Industrialisation and regional inequality: wages in Britain 1700-1914’, Journal of Economic History, vol. 46, 4, 1986, p. 943. ‘Industrialisation and regional inequality: wages in Britain 1700-1914’ Journal of Economic History 46 943 Google Scholar

A. Young, General View of the Agriculture of Norfolk, 1804, p. 483. Google Scholar

N. Kent, Agricultural Survey of Norfolk, 1813, p. 165. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

W. Marshall, Rural Economy of Norfolk, 2 vols, 1787, vol. I, p. 41. Rural Economy of Norfolk 2 41 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

W. and H. Raynbird, The Agriculture of Suffolk, 1849, p. 72. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Wade Martins and Williamson, Burroughes, pp. 32-8. Google Scholar

H. Raynbird, ‘On measured work’, Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England [JRASE], vol. 7, 1846, pp. 115-40. ‘On measured work’ Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England 7 115 40 Google Scholar

Wade Martins and Williamson, Burroughes, pp. 34-6. A rod (also pole or perch) is five and a half yards (5.029 metres); it can also denote the linear measure squared. Google Scholar

Marshall, Norfolk, vol. I, p. 184. Norfolk I 184 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Forby, Annals, p. 140. Google Scholar

A. Young, General View of the Agriculture of Suffolk, 1813, p. 223. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

In Rham, Dictionary, p. 471. Google Scholar

C. S. Read, ‘Recent improvements in Norfolk farming’, JRASE, vol. 29, 1858, p. 292. ‘Recent improvements in Norfolk farming’ JRASE 29 292 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Glyde, Suffolk, p. 354. Google Scholar

E. H. Hunt, ‘Labour productivity in English agriculture 1850-1912’, Economic History Review, Second Series, vol. 20, 1967, pp. 280-92. ‘Labour productivity in English agriculture 1850-1912’ Economic History Review 20 280 92 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Raynbird, Agriculture of Suffolk, p. 126. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Marshall, Norfolk, p. 167. Google Scholar

A. Young, General View of the Agriculture of Norfolk, 1804, pp. 33-6. Google Scholar

In Rham, Dictionary, p. 431. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Young, Norfolk, p. 65. A coomb is four bushels (145.6 litres). Google Scholar

Young, Suffolk, p. 34. Google Scholar

Young, Norfolk, p. 73. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Raynbird, Agriculture of Suffolk, p. 197. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Bacon, Agriculture of Norfolk. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

C. P. Timmer, ‘The turnip, the new husbandry, and the English agricultural revolution’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 83, 1969, pp. 375-95. ‘The turnip, the new husbandry, and the English agricultural revolution’ Quarterly Journal of Economics 83 375 95 Google Scholar

‘Tillage crops’ in J. A. Hanley, Progressive Farming, 4 vols, 1949, vol. I, p. 139. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Bacon, Agriculture of Norfolk, p. 214. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The Gentleman's Magazine, vol. XII, 1752, p. 502. Google Scholar

Marshall, Norfolk, vol. 2, pp. 99, 190, 363, 364. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Chambers and Mingay, Agricultural Revolution, p. 65. Google Scholar

Young, Norfolk, p. 390. Google Scholar

Nigel Harvey, The Industrial Archaeology of Farming in England and Wales, 1980, p. 72. Google Scholar

Raynbird, Agriculture of Norfolk, p. 116. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Glyde, Suffolk, p. 338. Google Scholar

Wade Martins and Williamson, Burroughes, pp. 27-8. Google Scholar

H. Evans, ‘Norfolk draining’, JRASE, vol. 4, 1845, pp. 43-4. ‘Norfolk draining’ JRASE 4 43 4 Google Scholar

Raynbird, Agricultural Norfolk, p. 127. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Overton, Agricultural Revolutions, p. 128. Google Scholar

J.V Beckett, The Agricultural Revolution, 1990, p. 55. Google Scholar

Lord Ernle, English Farming Past and Present, 1961; J. D. Chambers and G. E. Mingay, The Agricultural Revolution 1750-1880, 1966. Google Scholar

P. O'Brien, ‘Agriculture and the home market 1660-1820’, English Historical Review, vol. 50, 1985, p. 779. ‘Agriculture and the home market 1660-1820’ English Historical Review 50 779 Google Scholar

R. Allen, ‘Agriculture during the Industrial Revolution’, in R. Floud and D. McCloskey (eds.), The Economic History of Britain Since 1700, 2nd edition, 1994, vol. 1, pp. 96-112, 113. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

S. Wade Martins and T. Williamson (eds), The Farming Journal of Randall Burroughes, Norwich, 1995, pp. 25-32. The Farming Journal of Randall Burroughes 25 32 Google Scholar

M. Overton, Agricultural Revolutions in England, 1996, p. 74; M. Overton and B. M. S. Campbell, ‘Productivity change in European agricultural development’, in B. M. S. Campbell and M. Overton (eds.), Land, Labour and Livestock, Manchester, 1991, pp. 1-50. An acre is 4,480 square yards (0.405 hectares). Google Scholar

Beckett, Agricultural Revolution, p. 60. Google Scholar

A. Howkins, ‘Peasants, servants, and labourers: the marginal workforce in British agriculture, c. 1870-1914’, Agricultural History Review, vol. 42, 1994, pp. 49-62. ‘Peasants, servants, and labourers: the marginal workforce in British agriculture, c. 1870-1914’ Agricultural History Review 42 49 62 Google Scholar

Wade Martins and Williamson, Burroughes, pp. 32-8. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Norfolk Record Office, MFRO 10; R. N. Bacon, The Agriculture of Norfolk, 1844. Google Scholar

In W. Rham, Dictionary of the Farm, 1853, p. 471. Google Scholar

Norfolk News, 13 October 1866. Google Scholar

R. Glyde, Suffolk in the Nineteenth Century, 1856, pp. 330-34. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Wade Martins and Williamson, Burroughes, p. 35; East Suffolk Record Office, HA 24 50/19/325. Google Scholar

Rev. Forby, Annals of Agriculture, vol. 26, 1796, p. 140. Annals of Agriculture 26 140 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Glyde, Suffolk, p. 350. A bushel is 8 gallons (36.4 litres). Google Scholar

P. King, ‘Farmers and the failure of legal sanctions, 1750-1850’, Past and Present, vol. 125, 1989, pp. 116-50. ‘Farmers and the failure of legal sanctions, 1750-1850’ Past and Present 125 116 50 Google Scholar

E. H. Hunt, ‘Industrialisation and regional inequality: wages in Britain 1700-1914’, Journal of Economic History, vol. 46, 4, 1986, p. 943. ‘Industrialisation and regional inequality: wages in Britain 1700-1914’ Journal of Economic History 46 943 Google Scholar

A. Young, General View of the Agriculture of Norfolk, 1804, p. 483. Google Scholar

N. Kent, Agricultural Survey of Norfolk, 1813, p. 165. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

W. Marshall, Rural Economy of Norfolk, 2 vols, 1787, vol. I, p. 41. Rural Economy of Norfolk 2 41 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

W. and H. Raynbird, The Agriculture of Suffolk, 1849, p. 72. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Wade Martins and Williamson, Burroughes, pp. 32-8. Google Scholar

H. Raynbird, ‘On measured work’, Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England [JRASE], vol. 7, 1846, pp. 115-40. ‘On measured work’ Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England 7 115 40 Google Scholar

Wade Martins and Williamson, Burroughes, pp. 34-6. A rod (also pole or perch) is five and a half yards (5.029 metres); it can also denote the linear measure squared. Google Scholar

Marshall, Norfolk, vol. I, p. 184. Norfolk I 184 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Forby, Annals, p. 140. Google Scholar

A. Young, General View of the Agriculture of Suffolk, 1813, p. 223. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

In Rham, Dictionary, p. 471. Google Scholar

C. S. Read, ‘Recent improvements in Norfolk farming’, JRASE, vol. 29, 1858, p. 292. ‘Recent improvements in Norfolk farming’ JRASE 29 292 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Glyde, Suffolk, p. 354. Google Scholar

E. H. Hunt, ‘Labour productivity in English agriculture 1850-1912’, Economic History Review, Second Series, vol. 20, 1967, pp. 280-92. ‘Labour productivity in English agriculture 1850-1912’ Economic History Review 20 280 92 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Raynbird, Agriculture of Suffolk, p. 126. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Marshall, Norfolk, p. 167. Google Scholar

A. Young, General View of the Agriculture of Norfolk, 1804, pp. 33-6. Google Scholar

In Rham, Dictionary, p. 431. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Young, Norfolk, p. 65. A coomb is four bushels (145.6 litres). Google Scholar

Young, Suffolk, p. 34. Google Scholar

Young, Norfolk, p. 73. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Raynbird, Agriculture of Suffolk, p. 197. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Bacon, Agriculture of Norfolk. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

C. P. Timmer, ‘The turnip, the new husbandry, and the English agricultural revolution’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 83, 1969, pp. 375-95. ‘The turnip, the new husbandry, and the English agricultural revolution’ Quarterly Journal of Economics 83 375 95 Google Scholar

‘Tillage crops’ in J. A. Hanley, Progressive Farming, 4 vols, 1949, vol. I, p. 139. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Bacon, Agriculture of Norfolk, p. 214. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The Gentleman's Magazine, vol. XII, 1752, p. 502. Google Scholar

Marshall, Norfolk, vol. 2, pp. 99, 190, 363, 364. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Chambers and Mingay, Agricultural Revolution, p. 65. Google Scholar

Young, Norfolk, p. 390. Google Scholar

Nigel Harvey, The Industrial Archaeology of Farming in England and Wales, 1980, p. 72. Google Scholar

Raynbird, Agriculture of Norfolk, p. 116. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Glyde, Suffolk, p. 338. Google Scholar

Wade Martins and Williamson, Burroughes, pp. 27-8. Google Scholar

H. Evans, ‘Norfolk draining’, JRASE, vol. 4, 1845, pp. 43-4. ‘Norfolk draining’ JRASE 4 43 4 Google Scholar

Raynbird, Agricultural Norfolk, p. 127. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Overton, Agricultural Revolutions, p. 128. Google Scholar

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Author details

Martins, Susanna

Williamson, Tom