Labour History Review

The Public Sphere and Party Change: Explaining the Modernisation of the Australian Labor Party in the 1960s

Labour History Review (2000), 65, (2), 227–246.

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Australian Labor's traditional processes of policy formulation are detailed famously in V. G. Childe, How Labour Governs. A Study of Workers' Representation, 2nd edn, Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1964 Google Scholar

O. Kirchcheimer, ‘The Transformation of the Western European Party Systems’ in Joseph LaPalombara and Myron Weiner (eds), Political Parties and Political Development, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1966, pp. 177-200 Political Parties and Political Development 177 200 Google Scholar

D. Jaensch, The Hawke-Keating hijack: The ALP in transition, Sydney, Allen and Unwin, 1989 The Hawke-Keating hijack: The ALP in transition Google Scholar

S. Macintyre, ‘The Short History of Social Democracy in Australia’, Thesis Eleven, 15 (1986), pp. 3-14 ‘The Short History of Social Democracy in Australia’ Thesis Eleven 15 3 14 Google Scholar

R. Catley and B. McFarlane, From Tweedledum to Tweedledee: the new Labour government in Australia, a critique of its social model, Sydney, Australia and New Zealand Book Co, 1974 From Tweedledum to Tweedledee: the new Labour government in Australia, a critique of its social model Google Scholar

B. Frankel, ‘Beyond Labourism and Socialism: How the Australian Labor Party Developed the Model of "New Labour"’, New Left Review, 221 (Jan/Feb 1997), p. 6 ‘Beyond Labourism and Socialism: How the Australian Labor Party Developed the Model of "New Labour"’ New Left Review 221 6 Google Scholar

A dominant argument for the ‘third way’ is that it is justified by the inevitable lapsing of the old left once the economic theory of socialism was fully revealed in the 1970s. See Anthony Giddens, The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy, Cambridge, Polity Press, 1998; Mark Latham, Civilising Global Capital: New thinking for Australian Labor, Sydney, Allen and Unwin, 1998 Google Scholar

This emphasis on the structural dependency of the state on capital to explain party modernisation is drawn from the influential article by A. Przeworksi and M. Wallerstein, ‘Structural Dependence of the State on Capital’, American Political Science Review, 82 (1) (March 1988), pp. 11-30. It is used to explain the ‘modernisation’ of the British Labour Party in M. Wickham-Jones, ‘Anticipating Social Democracy, Preempting Applications: Economic Policy-Making in the British Labour Party, 1987-1992’, Politics and Society, 23 (4) (December 1995), pp. 465-94 Google Scholar

J. Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, Polity Press, 1989 The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society Google Scholar

For the concept's use in literary criticism, see: T. Eagleton, The Function of Criticism: from the Spectator to post-structuralism, Verso, 1984; P. W. Hohendahl, The Institution of Criticism, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1982. On working-class politics see K. Tucker Jr., French Revolutionary Syndicalism and the Public Sphere, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996; O. Negt and A. Kluge, Public Sphere and Experience - Towards an Analysis of the Bourgeois and Proletarian Sphere, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1993. For a review of recent cultural history that uses the concept of the public sphere, see J. L. Brooke, ‘Reason and Passion in the Public Sphere: Habermas and the Cultural Historians’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 29, 1 (1998), pp. 43-67. For sociological commentary, see C. Calhoun (ed.), Habermas and the Public Sphere, Massachusetts and London, MIT Press, 1992 The Function of Criticism: from the Spectator to post-structuralism Google Scholar

On environmental change and party change, see A. M. Appleton and D. S. Ward, ‘Party Response to Environmental Change: A Model of Organizational Innovation’, Party Politics 3, 3 (1997), pp. 341-62. On external shocks and party change, see W. C. Muller, ‘Inside the Black Box: A Confrontation of Party Executive Behaviour and Theories of Party Organizational Change’, Party Politics 3, 3 (1997), pp. 293-313 ‘Party Response to Environmental Change: A Model of Organizational Innovation’ Party Politics 3 341 62 Google Scholar

Negt and Kluge, Public Sphere and Experience, pp. 58-9 Google Scholar

On the need for a Labor newspaper, see Australian Labor Party, Official Report of Proceedings of the 23rd Commonwealth Conference, 1959, pp. 14-16. The absence of a Labor press was mourned in Brian Fitzpatrick's Labor Newsletter, 3, 31 (1962), p. 1. Labor's propaganda was criticised in J. Jupp, Australian Party Politics, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, 1964, p. 73. Labor education's decline was mourned by E. Higgins, ‘Why Study Politics?’, Australian Highway, 38, 5 (1956), p. 67. A request for socialist reading material from the branches was rejected in C. Wyndham to Western Australian Executive, 8 February 1966, ALP Papers, National Library of Australia (henceforth NLA), MS 4985, Box 120, Folder 43, p. 1 Google Scholar

Anti-Labor advertisements were described in Sydney Morning Herald, 26/11/63, p. 8. Labor's failure to afford telecasts was reported in Australian, 4/11/64, p. 2. The need for the ALP to respond to television was noted at its 1959 Conference - Official Report of Proceedings of the 23rd Commonwealth Conference, p. 42 Google Scholar

Drafts of Calwell's Daily Telegraph articles can be found in ALP Papers, National Library of Australia, MS 4985, Box 148, Folder 205. Brian Fitzpatrick expresses fear at Fairfax support for Labor in Brian Fitzpatrick's Labor Newsletter, 15 February 1962, vol. 3, no. 33, p. 3. Laurie Oakes claims that Newton wrote Calwell's speeches in Whitlam PM, p. 95 Google Scholar

These arguments were evident in Creighton Burns, ‘Labor Traumas’, Dissent, vol. 4, no. 1, Autumn 1964, p. 8; D. Rawson, ‘Bringing Back the Pollies’, Dissent, no. 18, Spring 1966, p. 31 Google Scholar

‘Editorial: Government Should be Returned’, Sun-Herald, 24/11/63, p. 48 Google Scholar

Jupp, ‘The Base: a symposium on ALP Policy’, Dissent, Winter 1963, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 8; D. Rawson, ‘The ALP Federal Machine’, Australian Quarterly, vol. 37, no. 3, September 1965, p. 32 ‘The Base: a symposium on ALP Policy’ Dissent 3 8 Google Scholar

The criticism of caucus is made in ‘Editorial: No More Taxis While Caucus Ponders’, SMH, 22/11/63, p. 2; ‘party machine management’ is criticised in ‘Editorial: Why the Government Should be Returned’, SMH, 23/11/63, p. 2 Google Scholar

Creighton Burns, ‘Labor Traumas’, Dissent, vol. 4, no. 1, Autumn 1964, p. 9 ‘Labor Traumas’ Dissent 4 9 Google Scholar

‘Editorial: Parliamentary Labor and its Leaders’, SMH, 26/2/64, p. 2 Google Scholar

‘Onlooker’, ‘Candid Comment’, Sun-Herald, 17/3/63, p. 36 Google Scholar

S. Encel, ‘The Labor Party and the Future’, Australian Quarterly, vol. 36, no. 3, September 1964, p. 24 ‘The Labor Party and the Future’ Australian Quarterly 36 24 Google Scholar

The changing electorate was noted in Encel, ‘The Labour Party’, p. 34. The quote referring to the need to appeal to particular groups is from Brian Fitzpatrick's Labor Newsletter, 28 June 1963, vol. 5, no. 51, p. 4 Google Scholar

Arthur Calwell, ALP, Official Report of Proceedings of the 26th Commonwealth Conference (hereafter ALP Conference, 1965), p. 252 ALP 252 Google Scholar

Brian Fitzpatrick's Labor Newsletter, 31 July 1964, vol. 6, no. 65, p. 1 Google Scholar

Negt and Kluge, Public Sphere and Experience, pp. 60-3 Google Scholar

Keefe, ALP, ALP Conference, 1965, p. 24 Google Scholar

Keefe, ALP, Official Report of Proceedings of the 25th Commonwealth Conference, 1963 (hereafter ALP Conference 1963), pp. 7-8 Google Scholar

Federal Executive Minutes, 27/7/66, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 120, Folder 40, p. 17 Google Scholar

Federal Executive Minutes, 7/12/66, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 120, Folder 40, p. 9 Google Scholar

Federal Executive Minutes, 9/2/66, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 120, Folder 40, pp. 3-5 Google Scholar

Cyril Wyndham to Victorian Central Executive, 30/9/66, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 120, Folder 42, p. 2 Google Scholar

A. A. Calwell, Transcript of T. V. interview on B. T. V. 6, 23/2/66, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 120, Folder 41, p. 2 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

C. Wyndham, ‘The Future of the ALP’, Australian Quarterly, vol. 38, no. 2, June 1966, p. 29, p. 32 ‘The Future of the ALP’ Australian Quarterly 38 29 Google Scholar

E. G. Whitlam, Address to Melbourne Trades Hall Council, Labor Day Dinner, 11/3/67, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 118, Folder 26, pp. 2-3 Google Scholar

C. Wyndham, ‘Party Reorganisation - Recommendations of the General Secretary’, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 118, Folder 27, p. 19 Google Scholar

Whitlam cited in Oakes, Whitlam PM, p. 104 Google Scholar

Wyndham cited in ‘Look Forward’, ‘ALP Women Urged’, SMH, 24/2/65, p. 5 Google Scholar

C. T. Oliver cited in ‘ALP Query on Women Voters’, Sun-Herald, 23/2/64, p. 2 Google Scholar

C. S. Wyndham, ‘The Future of the ALP’, Australian Quarterly, vol. 38, no. 2, June 1966, p. 37 ‘The Future of the ALP’ Australian Quarterly 38 37 Google Scholar

‘Statements made by or attributed to Mr E. G. Whitlam, M. P.’, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 119, Folder 39, Appendix J, Item 16, p. 4 Google Scholar

E. G. Whitlam, ALP Conference 1965, p. 257 257 Google Scholar

These three interlinked claims were made sequentially in ‘The Don't Care Poll’, Australian, 30/11/64, p. 2; ‘ALP Discontent seen in "Shadow Cabinet" Poll Fight’, Sydney Morning Herald, 25/2/64, p. 1 and ‘Revolt on Calwell’, Australian, 17/12/64, p. 1 Google Scholar

‘Interviewer’, Transcript of Interview with E. G. Whitlam on Programme Seven Days, ATN 7, 15/2/66, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 120, Folder 41, p. 1 Google Scholar

Clyde Cameron, The Cameron Diaries, A Susan Haynes Book, Allen and Unwin Australia, Sydney, 1990, p. 171 The Cameron Diaries 171 Google Scholar

Whitlam's denial is in ‘Whitlam - Upset’, Australian, 16/1/65, p. 1. The claim of editorial miscalculation is made in ‘Inimicus’, The Melbourne Partisan, April 1965, p. 24 Google Scholar

‘Editorial: Parliamentary Labour and its Leaders’, Sydney Morning Herald, 24/2/64, p. 2 Google Scholar

The Party inquest was leaked in ‘ALP Election "Inquest": Bigger Say Urged for MPs’, Sydney Morning Herald, 22/2/64. Wyndham's speech was reported in ‘Look Forward’, ‘ALP Women Urged’, Sydney Morning Herald, 24/2/64, p. 5. Whitlam's comments were recorded in ‘ALP Leaders Defend Party on TV’, Sydney Morning Herald, 28/2/64, p. 11. The change to Party procedure was reported in ‘Calwell Invited to all Sittings of ALP Executive’, Sydney Morning Herald, 4/3/64, p. 1 Google Scholar

Freudenberg's admission is in A Certain Grandeur. Gough Whitlam in Politics, Penguin Books, Ringwood, 1987, p. 34. Whitlam is cited on his TV performance in Oakes, Whitlam PM, p. 133. Whitlam's view of the Executive is in Transcript of Interview with E. G. Whitlam on Programme Seven Days, ATN 7, 15/2/66, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 120, Folder 41, p. 4 Google Scholar

K. C. Beazley, ‘Federal Labor and the American Installations: Prelude to Government’, Australian Outlook, vol. 33, no. 2, August 1979, p. 178 ‘Federal Labor and the American Installations: Prelude to Government’ Australian Outlook 33 178 Google Scholar

Australian Labor's traditional processes of policy formulation are detailed famously in V. G. Childe, How Labour Governs. A Study of Workers' Representation, 2nd edn, Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1964 Google Scholar

O. Kirchcheimer, ‘The Transformation of the Western European Party Systems’ in Joseph LaPalombara and Myron Weiner (eds), Political Parties and Political Development, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1966, pp. 177-200 Political Parties and Political Development 177 200 Google Scholar

D. Jaensch, The Hawke-Keating hijack: The ALP in transition, Sydney, Allen and Unwin, 1989 The Hawke-Keating hijack: The ALP in transition Google Scholar

S. Macintyre, ‘The Short History of Social Democracy in Australia’, Thesis Eleven, 15 (1986), pp. 3-14 ‘The Short History of Social Democracy in Australia’ Thesis Eleven 15 3 14 Google Scholar

R. Catley and B. McFarlane, From Tweedledum to Tweedledee: the new Labour government in Australia, a critique of its social model, Sydney, Australia and New Zealand Book Co, 1974 From Tweedledum to Tweedledee: the new Labour government in Australia, a critique of its social model Google Scholar

B. Frankel, ‘Beyond Labourism and Socialism: How the Australian Labor Party Developed the Model of "New Labour"’, New Left Review, 221 (Jan/Feb 1997), p. 6 ‘Beyond Labourism and Socialism: How the Australian Labor Party Developed the Model of "New Labour"’ New Left Review 221 6 Google Scholar

A dominant argument for the ‘third way’ is that it is justified by the inevitable lapsing of the old left once the economic theory of socialism was fully revealed in the 1970s. See Anthony Giddens, The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy, Cambridge, Polity Press, 1998; Mark Latham, Civilising Global Capital: New thinking for Australian Labor, Sydney, Allen and Unwin, 1998 Google Scholar

This emphasis on the structural dependency of the state on capital to explain party modernisation is drawn from the influential article by A. Przeworksi and M. Wallerstein, ‘Structural Dependence of the State on Capital’, American Political Science Review, 82 (1) (March 1988), pp. 11-30. It is used to explain the ‘modernisation’ of the British Labour Party in M. Wickham-Jones, ‘Anticipating Social Democracy, Preempting Applications: Economic Policy-Making in the British Labour Party, 1987-1992’, Politics and Society, 23 (4) (December 1995), pp. 465-94 Google Scholar

J. Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, Polity Press, 1989 The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society Google Scholar

For the concept's use in literary criticism, see: T. Eagleton, The Function of Criticism: from the Spectator to post-structuralism, Verso, 1984; P. W. Hohendahl, The Institution of Criticism, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1982. On working-class politics see K. Tucker Jr., French Revolutionary Syndicalism and the Public Sphere, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996; O. Negt and A. Kluge, Public Sphere and Experience - Towards an Analysis of the Bourgeois and Proletarian Sphere, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1993. For a review of recent cultural history that uses the concept of the public sphere, see J. L. Brooke, ‘Reason and Passion in the Public Sphere: Habermas and the Cultural Historians’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 29, 1 (1998), pp. 43-67. For sociological commentary, see C. Calhoun (ed.), Habermas and the Public Sphere, Massachusetts and London, MIT Press, 1992 The Function of Criticism: from the Spectator to post-structuralism Google Scholar

On environmental change and party change, see A. M. Appleton and D. S. Ward, ‘Party Response to Environmental Change: A Model of Organizational Innovation’, Party Politics 3, 3 (1997), pp. 341-62. On external shocks and party change, see W. C. Muller, ‘Inside the Black Box: A Confrontation of Party Executive Behaviour and Theories of Party Organizational Change’, Party Politics 3, 3 (1997), pp. 293-313 ‘Party Response to Environmental Change: A Model of Organizational Innovation’ Party Politics 3 341 62 Google Scholar

Negt and Kluge, Public Sphere and Experience, pp. 58-9 Google Scholar

On the need for a Labor newspaper, see Australian Labor Party, Official Report of Proceedings of the 23rd Commonwealth Conference, 1959, pp. 14-16. The absence of a Labor press was mourned in Brian Fitzpatrick's Labor Newsletter, 3, 31 (1962), p. 1. Labor's propaganda was criticised in J. Jupp, Australian Party Politics, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, 1964, p. 73. Labor education's decline was mourned by E. Higgins, ‘Why Study Politics?’, Australian Highway, 38, 5 (1956), p. 67. A request for socialist reading material from the branches was rejected in C. Wyndham to Western Australian Executive, 8 February 1966, ALP Papers, National Library of Australia (henceforth NLA), MS 4985, Box 120, Folder 43, p. 1 Google Scholar

Anti-Labor advertisements were described in Sydney Morning Herald, 26/11/63, p. 8. Labor's failure to afford telecasts was reported in Australian, 4/11/64, p. 2. The need for the ALP to respond to television was noted at its 1959 Conference - Official Report of Proceedings of the 23rd Commonwealth Conference, p. 42 Google Scholar

Drafts of Calwell's Daily Telegraph articles can be found in ALP Papers, National Library of Australia, MS 4985, Box 148, Folder 205. Brian Fitzpatrick expresses fear at Fairfax support for Labor in Brian Fitzpatrick's Labor Newsletter, 15 February 1962, vol. 3, no. 33, p. 3. Laurie Oakes claims that Newton wrote Calwell's speeches in Whitlam PM, p. 95 Google Scholar

These arguments were evident in Creighton Burns, ‘Labor Traumas’, Dissent, vol. 4, no. 1, Autumn 1964, p. 8; D. Rawson, ‘Bringing Back the Pollies’, Dissent, no. 18, Spring 1966, p. 31 Google Scholar

‘Editorial: Government Should be Returned’, Sun-Herald, 24/11/63, p. 48 Google Scholar

Jupp, ‘The Base: a symposium on ALP Policy’, Dissent, Winter 1963, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 8; D. Rawson, ‘The ALP Federal Machine’, Australian Quarterly, vol. 37, no. 3, September 1965, p. 32 ‘The Base: a symposium on ALP Policy’ Dissent 3 8 Google Scholar

The criticism of caucus is made in ‘Editorial: No More Taxis While Caucus Ponders’, SMH, 22/11/63, p. 2; ‘party machine management’ is criticised in ‘Editorial: Why the Government Should be Returned’, SMH, 23/11/63, p. 2 Google Scholar

Creighton Burns, ‘Labor Traumas’, Dissent, vol. 4, no. 1, Autumn 1964, p. 9 ‘Labor Traumas’ Dissent 4 9 Google Scholar

‘Editorial: Parliamentary Labor and its Leaders’, SMH, 26/2/64, p. 2 Google Scholar

‘Onlooker’, ‘Candid Comment’, Sun-Herald, 17/3/63, p. 36 Google Scholar

S. Encel, ‘The Labor Party and the Future’, Australian Quarterly, vol. 36, no. 3, September 1964, p. 24 ‘The Labor Party and the Future’ Australian Quarterly 36 24 Google Scholar

The changing electorate was noted in Encel, ‘The Labour Party’, p. 34. The quote referring to the need to appeal to particular groups is from Brian Fitzpatrick's Labor Newsletter, 28 June 1963, vol. 5, no. 51, p. 4 Google Scholar

Arthur Calwell, ALP, Official Report of Proceedings of the 26th Commonwealth Conference (hereafter ALP Conference, 1965), p. 252 ALP 252 Google Scholar

Brian Fitzpatrick's Labor Newsletter, 31 July 1964, vol. 6, no. 65, p. 1 Google Scholar

Negt and Kluge, Public Sphere and Experience, pp. 60-3 Google Scholar

Keefe, ALP, ALP Conference, 1965, p. 24 Google Scholar

Keefe, ALP, Official Report of Proceedings of the 25th Commonwealth Conference, 1963 (hereafter ALP Conference 1963), pp. 7-8 Google Scholar

Federal Executive Minutes, 27/7/66, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 120, Folder 40, p. 17 Google Scholar

Federal Executive Minutes, 7/12/66, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 120, Folder 40, p. 9 Google Scholar

Federal Executive Minutes, 9/2/66, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 120, Folder 40, pp. 3-5 Google Scholar

Cyril Wyndham to Victorian Central Executive, 30/9/66, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 120, Folder 42, p. 2 Google Scholar

A. A. Calwell, Transcript of T. V. interview on B. T. V. 6, 23/2/66, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 120, Folder 41, p. 2 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

C. Wyndham, ‘The Future of the ALP’, Australian Quarterly, vol. 38, no. 2, June 1966, p. 29, p. 32 ‘The Future of the ALP’ Australian Quarterly 38 29 Google Scholar

E. G. Whitlam, Address to Melbourne Trades Hall Council, Labor Day Dinner, 11/3/67, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 118, Folder 26, pp. 2-3 Google Scholar

C. Wyndham, ‘Party Reorganisation - Recommendations of the General Secretary’, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 118, Folder 27, p. 19 Google Scholar

Whitlam cited in Oakes, Whitlam PM, p. 104 Google Scholar

Wyndham cited in ‘Look Forward’, ‘ALP Women Urged’, SMH, 24/2/65, p. 5 Google Scholar

C. T. Oliver cited in ‘ALP Query on Women Voters’, Sun-Herald, 23/2/64, p. 2 Google Scholar

C. S. Wyndham, ‘The Future of the ALP’, Australian Quarterly, vol. 38, no. 2, June 1966, p. 37 ‘The Future of the ALP’ Australian Quarterly 38 37 Google Scholar

‘Statements made by or attributed to Mr E. G. Whitlam, M. P.’, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 119, Folder 39, Appendix J, Item 16, p. 4 Google Scholar

E. G. Whitlam, ALP Conference 1965, p. 257 257 Google Scholar

These three interlinked claims were made sequentially in ‘The Don't Care Poll’, Australian, 30/11/64, p. 2; ‘ALP Discontent seen in "Shadow Cabinet" Poll Fight’, Sydney Morning Herald, 25/2/64, p. 1 and ‘Revolt on Calwell’, Australian, 17/12/64, p. 1 Google Scholar

‘Interviewer’, Transcript of Interview with E. G. Whitlam on Programme Seven Days, ATN 7, 15/2/66, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 120, Folder 41, p. 1 Google Scholar

Clyde Cameron, The Cameron Diaries, A Susan Haynes Book, Allen and Unwin Australia, Sydney, 1990, p. 171 The Cameron Diaries 171 Google Scholar

Whitlam's denial is in ‘Whitlam - Upset’, Australian, 16/1/65, p. 1. The claim of editorial miscalculation is made in ‘Inimicus’, The Melbourne Partisan, April 1965, p. 24 Google Scholar

‘Editorial: Parliamentary Labour and its Leaders’, Sydney Morning Herald, 24/2/64, p. 2 Google Scholar

The Party inquest was leaked in ‘ALP Election "Inquest": Bigger Say Urged for MPs’, Sydney Morning Herald, 22/2/64. Wyndham's speech was reported in ‘Look Forward’, ‘ALP Women Urged’, Sydney Morning Herald, 24/2/64, p. 5. Whitlam's comments were recorded in ‘ALP Leaders Defend Party on TV’, Sydney Morning Herald, 28/2/64, p. 11. The change to Party procedure was reported in ‘Calwell Invited to all Sittings of ALP Executive’, Sydney Morning Herald, 4/3/64, p. 1 Google Scholar

Freudenberg's admission is in A Certain Grandeur. Gough Whitlam in Politics, Penguin Books, Ringwood, 1987, p. 34. Whitlam is cited on his TV performance in Oakes, Whitlam PM, p. 133. Whitlam's view of the Executive is in Transcript of Interview with E. G. Whitlam on Programme Seven Days, ATN 7, 15/2/66, ALP Papers, NLA MS 4985, Box 120, Folder 41, p. 4 Google Scholar

K. C. Beazley, ‘Federal Labor and the American Installations: Prelude to Government’, Australian Outlook, vol. 33, no. 2, August 1979, p. 178 ‘Federal Labor and the American Installations: Prelude to Government’ Australian Outlook 33 178 Google Scholar

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Irving, Terry

Scalmer, Sean