George Orwell, The Road to Wigan Pier, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1969, pp. 152-3. It is perhaps worth noting that the ‘cranks’ were well aware of the hostility they faced from commentators such as Orwell. As early as 1904 the word had been ‘reclaimed’ with the publication of the Crank monthly (later the Open Road) by the publisher C. W. Daniels, whose list included much material that would have fitted Orwell's terms of reference. See Jeremy Goring, The Centenary of a ‘Crank’ Publisher, Ashingdon, The CW Daniel Co., 1971.
The Road to Wigan Pier
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Although both Beatrix Campbell's Wigan Pier Revisited, London, Virago, 1984, and several of the essays in Christopher Norris (ed.), Inside the Myth: Orwell: Views from the Left, London, Lawrence and Wishart, 1984, note some of the relevant quotations from The Road to Wigan Pier, neither of the books seriously consider the issue of ‘cranks’ in a critical way. Google Scholar
The biographical information used here is derived from a letter to the author from Bro. William Nicol CR, archivist of the Community of the Resurrection, Mirfield, of 4 November 1997. Bro. Nicol indicates that he used the College's roll and the Crockford directory of 1951 as his sources. Google Scholar
Jack Bucknall, ‘The Catholic Crusade and the Anglo-Catholics’, Catholic Crusader, 20 June 1932, p. 3.
The Catholic Crusade and the Anglo-Catholics
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See Kenneth Leech (ed.), Conrad Noel and the Catholic Crusade. A Critical Evaluation, Croydon, Jubilee Group, 1993. See also the pamphlet in the Affirming Catholicism series by Mark Chapman, Liturgy, Socialism and Life. The Legacy of Conrad Noel, London, Darton, Longman and Todd, 2001. Affirming Catholicism is a movement that seeks to affirm its confidence in the Anglican heritage and to renew and promote the Catholic tradition within it.
Conrad Noel and the Catholic Crusade. A Critical Evaluation Google Scholar
Chris Bryant, Possible Dreams, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1996. See pp. 140-3 for an example of Bryant on the Crusade.
3 Google Scholar
Alan Wilkinson, Christian Socialism: Scott Holland to Tony Blair, London, SCM Press, 1998, pp. 164-5. Orens' points are made in an essay in Leech (ed.), Conrad Noel.
Christian Socialism: Scott Holland to Tony Blair
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E. R. Norman, Church and Society in England 1770-1970. A Historical Study, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1976, pp. 247-8.
Church and Society in England 1770-1970. A Historical Study
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Perhaps the definitive account of the Battle of the Flags is to be found in Reg Groves, Conrad Noel and the Thaxted Movement, London, Merlin Press, 1967. Groves, a leading figure in the early days of British Trotskyism, had been a Crusader, and he also produced Catholic Crusade 1918-1936, London, Archive, 1972, notable for its reproduction of the Crusade's manifesto. See also the fictionalised version of the Battle of the Flags by the late Robert Shaw, The Flag, London, Chatto and Windus, 1965. Chapman, Liturgy, draws upon Noel's own account in his considerations; Conrad Noel, The Battle of the Flags, London, The Labour Publishing House, 1922.
Conrad Noel and the Thaxted Movement Google Scholar
Church Militant, June-July 1945, p. 12. Google Scholar
Conrad Noel, An Autobiography, ed. Sidney Dark, London, J. M. Dent, 1945, p. 108. This autobiography was posthumous, but the editor, Sidney Dark, notes that when Noel died in July 1942, ‘he had dictated the greater part of an autobiography’ (p. vii). Dark does note later in his Foreword that there was a considerable degree of editing done on the material, but this seems to have taken the form of omission (p. vii).
108 Google Scholar
Jack Putterill, Thaxted Quest for Social Justice, Marlow, Precision Press, 1977. See p. 146 for an example of Putterill's approach to the Soviet Union and its allies.
Thaxted Quest for Social Justice Google Scholar
Orens shows an awareness that Noel's approach to the Soviet Union changed: ‘For a time Noel was able to delude himself about events in the Soviet Union’ (emphasis added), (Leech (ed.), Conrad Noel, p. 33). Wilkinson, in citing Orens, omits the qualification. For Bucknall's application to join the CPGB and its reasons for refusing him membership, see Communist Review, June 1930, pp. 234-8 — Bucknall, and pp. 239-42 — CPGB response. Google Scholar
Harry Wicks, Keeping my Head, London, Socialist Platform, 1992, p. 174.
Keeping my Head
174 Google Scholar
Church Militant, January 1940, p. 5. Google Scholar
Leech (ed.), Conrad Noel, p. 55, note 52. Google Scholar
Albert Meltzer, I Couldn't Paint Golden Angels, Edinburgh, AK Press, p. 135.
I Couldn't Paint Golden Angels
135 Google Scholar
Jack Bucknall, ‘The Communist Party Congress’, Catholic Crusader, 15 November 1932, p. 7.
The Communist Party Congress
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Andrew Rothstein, ‘Is Atheism a Disaster?’, Challenge, 21 November 1935, pp. 3-5. Jack Bucknall, ‘Atheism a Disaster’, Challenge, 21 November 1935, pp. 5-7.
Is Atheism a Disaster?
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Jack Bucknall, ‘Russia — Some Impressions’, Challenge, May 1936, pp. 4-6. Challenge was still the organ of the Crusade at this stage. In an interview with the author (19 December 1997), Morwenna Bucknall, Jack's daughter, indicated that the trip to Russia had been financed by a fellow member of a Rosicrucian society to which Bucknall also belonged. The letters attacking Bucknall for his views on the Soviet Union and Trotsky were written by Hannah Laurie and G. H. Whittaker and appear on pp. 6-8 of the same edition. In late 1932 or early 1933 Bucknall also wrote an article for the Catholic Crusader on Trotskyism. I owe this reference to Revd Kenneth Leech but have not been able to precisely identify its dating. Dealing with historical issues, it again generally shows a sympathetic view of Trotsky's arguments.
Russia — Some Impressions
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Church Militant, January-February 1944, p. 8. Google Scholar
Church Militant, June 1943, pp. 2-3. Google Scholar
‘Notes on the Chapter’, Church Militant, January-February 1944, p. 4. Google Scholar
Church Militant, June-July 1944, p. 7. Google Scholar
Ullrich Kockel, The Gentle Subversion, Bremen, Verlag für ESIS-Publikationen, 1993, p. 12. This publication is in English. For further material on the German Life Reform movement, see Kevin Repp, Reformers, Critics and the paths of German Modernity, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 2000, which deals with the 1890 to 1914 period, and also D. Kerbs and J. Reulecke, Handbuch der Deutschen Reformbewegungen 1880-1914, Wuppertal, Peter Hammer Verlag, 1998.
The Gentle Subversion
12 Google Scholar
Orwell, The Road, p. 160. Google Scholar
Orwell, The Road, pp. 195-6. Google Scholar
Stewart Easton, The Way of Anthroposophy, London, Rudolf Steiner Press, 1985.
The Way of Anthroposophy Google Scholar
Robert McDermott (ed. and introduction), The Essential Steiner, San Francisco, Harper San Francisco, 1984.
The Essential Steiner Google Scholar
Peter Washington, Madame Blavatsky's Baboon, London, Secker and Warburg, 1993.
Madame Blavatsky's Baboon Google Scholar
Washington, Baboon, p. 387. Google Scholar
Jack Bucknall, ‘Agriculture’, Church Militant, September 1941, p. 7. Google Scholar
George Scott Blair, ‘The Scientific Outlook’, Church Militant, October 1941.
The Scientific Outlook
Church Militant Google Scholar
Mason's contribution appeared in Church Militant, November 1941, and Blair's response in Church Militant, December 1941. This was the article in which Blair indicated his professional background. Google Scholar
Bucknall in Church Militant, February 1942; Blair in Church Militant, March 1942; Chambers in Church Militant, April 1942. Google Scholar
Orwell, The Road, p. 153 (both quotations). Google Scholar
For the Kenyatta prayers, see Jack Bucknall, ‘Public Worship’, Church Militant, Winter 1953, p. 12. Google Scholar
McDermott, The Essential, p. 384. Google Scholar
Washington, Baboon, p. 251. Google Scholar
Rudi Lissau, Rudolf Steiner's Social Intentions, Canterbury, New Economy Publications, 1996, p. 12.
Rudolf Steiner's Social Intentions
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The connections between the Community of the Resurrection and the Christian Socialist movement are well covered by Peter d'A. Jones, The Christian Socialist Revival 1877-1914, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1968, and also by Alan Wilkinson, the Community's historian, in his Christian Socialism. Google Scholar
Alan Wilkinson, The Community of the Resurrection, A Centennial History, London, SCM Press, 1992, p. 183. Footnote on p. 361 shows that Fitzgerald was a signatory to both documents. Wilkinson's account shows that Bucknall, and his brother-in-law John Groser, signed the 1923 address.
The Community of the Resurrection, A Centennial History
183 Google Scholar
Ellic Howe, The Magicians of the Golden Dawn, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1972, p. 274.
The Magicians of the Golden Dawn
274 Google Scholar
Howe, Magicians, p. 257. Howe's chapter 17, ‘The Stella Matutina’, deals with this body. Francis King, Ritual Magic in England, London, Neville Spearman, pp. 94-6. Google Scholar
Howe, Magicians, pp. 262-72; King, Ritual, pp. 101-6. Google Scholar
Howe, Magicians, p. 265; King, Ritual, p. 107. Google Scholar
King, Ritual, p. 107. Google Scholar
King, Ritual, p. 168. Google Scholar
Information derived from a letter to the author from Robert Gilbert, 9 February 1998. Mr Gilbert was not able to indicate when Bucknall left the movement. Robert Gilbert is the most important contemporary writer on the OGD. A recent work of his is Revelations of the Golden Dawn, London, Quantum, 1997. Google Scholar
Church Militant, August 1954, unpaginated. Quote from first page. Google Scholar
See King, Ritual, p. 107. Google Scholar
These claims are made on the back cover of Edmond Bordeaux Szekely, Search for the Ageless, Vol. 1, Nelson (British Columbia), International Biogenic Society, 1978. I have not made any efforts at verifying them. Google Scholar
Edmond Szekely, Cosmos, Man and Society. A Paneubiotic Synthesis, Ashingdon, C. W. Daniel, 1936. This book was translated by Purcell Weaver. It is now out of print. The International Biogenic Society, a body that promotes Szekely's ideas based in British Columbia currently publishes a book with the same title, but which is not the same text. Google Scholar
Purcell Weaver, in Szekely, Cosmos, p. 12. Google Scholar
Church Militant, December 1947-January 1948, pp. 8-9. Google Scholar
Edmond Bordeaux Szekely, Treasury of Raw Foods, Nelson (British Columbia), International Biogenic Society, 1997. This is a reprint of material originally published in Britain in the 1930s.
Treasury of Raw Foods Google Scholar
See Chris Bryant, Stafford Cripps, London, Hodder & Staughton, 1997, p. 65. Purcell Weaver is currently living in California. Sir Toby Weaver, a distinguished civil servant who worked in the educational field, died in June 2001. See obituary in Independent, 11 June 2001. Google Scholar
Diana Cripps, ‘Menus for August’, Cosmovitalist Monthly, August 1939, unpaginated, back page.
Menus for August
Cosmovitalist Monthly Google Scholar
Bryant, Cripps, pp. 271-4. Bucknall, too, broke this rule, smoking a pipe. Bucknall also broke the rule that stressed the need to replace tea and coffee with herb tea or cereal coffee. Several of the interviewees who talked to me about Bucknall fondly recalled his brewing of real coffee in a pan on the stove of his kitchen. Google Scholar
See Cosmovitalist Quarterly, Spring 1946. Details about the Bureau are given on the inside of the front cover, and Florence Mahon is named as the Bureau's secretary there. Google Scholar
John Mahon, Harry Pollitt. A Biography, London, Lawrence and Wishart, 1976.
Harry Pollitt. A Biography Google Scholar
Watson Thomson, Pioneer in Community, Toronto, The Ryerson Press, 1949, p. xv. The review is in Church Militant, November-December 1949, pp. 12-13.
Pioneer in Community
xv Google Scholar
The trend is, of course, that subsumed by the word ‘organic’. For an excellent account of this trend throughout the twentieth century see the recent book by Philip Conford, The Origins of the Organic Movement, Edinburgh, Floris Books, 2001. Google Scholar
Rather than try to substantiate this rather generalised judgement, I would refer the reader to Gary Valentine Lachman's recent book Turn off your mind, London, Sidgwick and Jackson, 2001. The book's subtitle is ‘The mystic sixties and the dark side of the Age of Aquarius’, which gives a good summary of its contents. Google Scholar
The anthroposophical movement has had a longstanding and principled opposition to genetic modification. Over the last few years a significant amount of material has been published on this question in New View, the Anthroposophical Society in Great Britain's ‘public’ journal. Google Scholar
Orwell, The Road, pp. 154-5. Google Scholar