Labour History Review

‘The Boy is the Father of the Man’:1 Moral Panic Over Working-Class Youth, 1850 to The Present

Labour History Review (2004), 69, (2), 185–199.

Abstract

This article explores the persistent panic over male working-class youth by taking soundings at fifty-year intervals to assess the models of proper and deviant masculinity being proposed by influential groups ranging from voluntary workers to civil servants to social scientists. It considers whether the pattern of anxiety is as much the problem that needs to be understood as the adolescent behaviour it purports to describe, particularly where repeatedly prescribed remedies have been strikingly ineffective.

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A. Lowry, ‘The criminal boy', in E. J. Urwick (ed.), Studies of Boy Life in our Cities, London, J. M. Dent, 1904, p. 171. Studies of Boy Life in our Cities 171 Google Scholar

S. Cohen, Folk Devils and Moral Panics. The Creation of the Mods and Rockers, 2nd edn, London, Martin Robertson, 1980, pp. 31-2. Folk Devils and Moral Panics. The Creation of the Mods and Rockers 31 2 Google Scholar

G. Pearson, Hooligans. A History of Respectable Fears, London, Macmillan, 1983; J. Springhall, Youth, Popular Culture and Moral Panics: Penny Gaffs to Gangsta-Rap, 1830-1996, London, Macmillan, 1998, p. 26. Hooligans. A History of Respectable Fears Google Scholar

R. W. Malcolmson, Popular Recreations in English Society, 1700-1850, Cambridge University Press, 1973, ch. 3. Popular Recreations in English Society, 1700-1850 Google Scholar

Springhall, Youth, p. 13; J.R. Gillis, Youth and History. Tradition and Change in European Age Relations, 1770-Present, New York, Academic Press, 1974, p. 129. Google Scholar

A. Delves, ‘Popular recreation and social conflict in Derby, 1800-1850', in E. and S. Yeo (eds), Popular Culture and Class Conflict, 1590-1914, Brighton, Harvester, 1981, pp. 107-8; E. Yeo, ‘Culture and constraint in working-class movements', in ibid., p. 160. Popular Culture and Class Conflict, 1590-1914 107 8 Google Scholar

Gillis, Youth, ch. 3; see too J. Springhall, Coming of Age: Adolescence in Britain 1860-1960, Dublin, Gill and Macmillan, pp. 25-6 for a revision of Gillis’ argument. Google Scholar

M. Carpenter, Reformatory Schools for the Children of the Perishing and Dangerous Classes and for Juvenile Offenders, 1851, Woburn reprint, 1968, pp. 68-72. Google Scholar

C. Steedman, Landscape for a Good Woman, London, Virago, 1986, pp. 128-9, 134-7 offers a fascinating analysis of this encounter. Landscape for a Good Woman 128 9 Google Scholar

H. Mayhew, ‘Labour and the poor: the metropolitan districts', Morning Chronicle, 31 January 1850. ‘Labour and the poor: the metropolitan districts’ Morning Chronicle Google Scholar

Carpenter, Reformatory Schools, p. 56; chs 2-4, 6 for the types of schools. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

P. Gardner, The Lost Elementary Schools of Victorian England. The People's Education, London, Croom Helm, 1984, pp. 95-7, 157-69, 173. The Lost Elementary Schools of Victorian England. The People's Education 95 7 Google Scholar

Springhall, Youth, pp. 13-16. Google Scholar

E. P. Thompson, ‘Mayhew and the Morning Chronicle’, in Thompson and E. Yeo (eds), The Unknown Mayhew, London, Merlin, 1971, pp. 32-4. The Unknown Mayhew 32 4 Google Scholar

E. Janes Yeo, The Contest for Social Science. Relations and Representations of Gender and Class, London, Rivers Oram, 1996, pp. 98-101, 113-6. The Contest for Social Science. Relations and Representations of Gender and Class 98 101 Google Scholar

Ibid., pp. 122-6; see also, M. Carpenter, ‘Women's work in the reformatory movement', English Woman's Journal, 1, 1858, pp. 289-90. For her life, J. E. Carpenter, The Life and Work of Mary Carpenter, 1879, Patterson Smith reprint, Montclair, 1974; also J. Manton, Mary Carpenter and the Children of the Streets, London, Heinemann, 1976. ‘Women's work in the reformatory movement’ English Woman's Journal 1 289 90 Google Scholar

Carpenter, Reformatory Schools, p. 1. Google Scholar

The Oxford English Dictionary gives uses of both adolescence and adolescent as early as the fifteenth century, but with the publication of G. Stanley Hall's authoritative tome, note 25 below, the term became common linguistic currency. Google Scholar

Report of the Inter-Departmental Committee on Physical Deterioration, Cmd 2175, 1904, vol. I, pp. 72, 74-6 for adolescence. Google Scholar

For Le Bon's work as a reaction to the Paris Commune of 1871 and later radicalism, see R. Nye, The Origins of Crowd Psychology: Gustave Le Bon and the Crisis of Mass Democracy in the Third Republic, London, Sage, 1975. Google Scholar

G. Le Bon, The Crowd, A Study of the Popular Mind, London, T. Fisher Unwin, 6th impression, 1909, pp. 36, 26. The Crowd, A Study of the Popular Mind 36, 26 Google Scholar

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Trotter, Instincts, London, T. Fisher Unwin, 7th impression, 1922; W. McDougall, Psychology. The Study of Behaviour, London, Oxford University Press, 1912, pp. 164-5. Google Scholar

G. Stanley Hall, Adolescence its Psychology and its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion and Education, 1904, New York, D. Appleton, 1925, vol. 1, pp. viii, 2, 340-1, 351; Springhall, Coming of Age, pp. 28-31; D. Ross, G. Stanley Hall: The Psychologist as Prophet, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1972. Adolescence its Psychology and its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion and Education, 1904 1 viii Google Scholar

Stanley Hall, Adolescence, vol. 1, pp. xiv, 49, 240, 269, 340, 360. Adolescence 1 xiv Google Scholar

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Urwick, Studies, pp. 258-60. Google Scholar

A. Freeman, Boy Life and Labour. The Manufacture of Inefficiency, London, P. S. King & Son, 1914, p. 3; Urwick, Studies, p. xi. Arnold and Sidney Webb co-edited the work of the LSE's Social Investigation and Research Seminar in Seasonal Trades, London, Constable & Co., 1912. Boy Life and Labour. The Manufacture of Inefficiency 3 Google Scholar

See Freeman's ‘Bibliography of juvenile labour', Boy Life, pp. 233-48. Google Scholar

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Paterson, Across the Bridges, or Life by the South London Riverside, London, Edward Arnold, 1911. pp. 134. 140. Across the Bridges, or Life by the South London Riverside 134 Google Scholar

Freeman, Boy Life, p. 151; for use of Hall, pp. 94-6. For the same culture through working-class eyes, see Springhall, Coming, ch. 4; A. Davies, Leisure, Gender and Poverty: Working-Class Culture in Salford and Manchester, 1900-1939, Buckingham, Open University Press, 1992, chs 4, 5. Google Scholar

Freeman, Boy Life, pp. 133-4. Google Scholar

Ibid., pp. 151-2; Paterson, Across, pp. 144-5, 162. Google Scholar

Freeman, Boy Life, p. 152; Paterson, Across, p. 125; C. E. B. Russell, Manchester Boys. Sketches of Manchester Lads at Work and Play, 1905, Manchester, Richardson reprint, 1984, pp. 29-30. Google Scholar

M. Sadler, ‘Preface', in Freeman, Boy Life, p. xii. Google Scholar

R. Bray, The Town Child, London, Unwin, 2nd edn, 1907, pp. 29, 55; Paterson, Across, p. 168; also C. F. G. Masterman, ‘The child and environment', in T. Stephens (ed.), The Child and Religion, London, Williams and Norgate, 1905, p. 106 for the city child's ‘kaleidoscope, a panorama of passing impressions'. The Town Child 29 Google Scholar

C. F. G. Masterman, The Condition of England, London, Methuen, 1909, p. 118. The Condition of England 118 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Urwick, Studies, pp. 256, 265, 300. For the derivation of hooligan, see Pearson, Hooligans, pp. 255-6. Google Scholar

Masterman, Condition, pp. 125-9 for the 1908 Peckham by-election and the new frivolous attitude, compared with the menace of a Mafficking crowd; pp. 144-8 for Will Crooks managing the crowd with humorous skill. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Urwick, Studies, p. 296. Google Scholar

Freeman, Boy Life, p. 206. Google Scholar

Ibid., p. 223; p. 222 for citizenship education; Urwick, Studies, p. xi. Google Scholar

Paterson, Across, p. 161, Urwick, Studies, p. 270. Google Scholar

Gillis, Youth, p. 116. Google Scholar

Urwick, Studies, p. 316. Google Scholar

Gillis, Youth, p. 148. For co-operative democracy, see P. Gurney, Co-operative Culture and the Politics of Consumption in England, c. 1870-1930, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1996; G. Scott, Feminism and the Politics of Working Women: The Women's Co-operative Guild, London, UCL Press, 1998. Google Scholar

Pearson, Hooligans, notes the collusion of neighbours in some of the collective violence, particularly against the police, pp. 86-7. Google Scholar

Russell, Manchester Boys, p. 18. Google Scholar

B. P. Neuman, The Boys’ Club in Theory and Practice. A Manual of Suggestions for Workers, London, David Nutt, 1900, p. 14; C. Russell and L. Rigby, Working Lads Clubs, London, Macmillan, 1908, p. 86. The Boys’ Club in Theory and Practice. A Manual of Suggestions for Workers 14 Google Scholar

S. Humphries, Hooligans or Rebels?. An Oral History of Working-Class Childhood and Youth 1880-1930, Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1981, ch. 4. Hooligans or Rebels?. An Oral History of Working-Class Childhood and Youth 1880-1930 Google Scholar

Urwick, Studies, pp. 270, 310. Google Scholar

Freeman, Boy Life, pp. 22, 39, 71; Paterson, Across, pp. 30, 171. Urwick still pictured the mother in control until the boy began to earn wages: Studies, pp. 261, 292, 298. Google Scholar

F. Gibbon, ‘C.E.B. Russell, 1866-1917', in R. Forman (ed.), Great Christians, London, Ivor Nicholson and Watson, 1933, pp. 484-5, 491-2; DNB for Paterson (1884-1947). Great Christians Google Scholar

G. Lansbury, My Life, London, Constable, 1928, p. 30. For the settlement movement, see Yeo, Contest, pp. 250-8. My Life 30 Google Scholar

Although youth is an old noun (fourteenth century), the Oxford English Dictionary says it came into frequent use from the 1950s onward as an adjective to name organizations and agencies. Google Scholar

As quoted in S. Hall and T. Jefferson (eds), Resistance through Rituals. Youth Subcultures in Post-War Britain, London, Harper Collins Academic, 1976, p. 27. Google Scholar

Cohen, Folk Devils, chs 1, 4; pp. 109, 119; S. Cohen and P. Rock, ‘The teddy boy’ in V. Bogdanor and R. Skidelsky (eds), The Age of Affluence 1951-1964, London, Macmillan, 1970. Google Scholar

Pearson, Hooligan, p. 18 for Teds; Cohen, Folk Devils, p. 109 quoting Margate magistrate Dr Simpson. Google Scholar

See M. Barker and A. Beezer, ‘The language of racism. An examination of the Lord Scarman's report on the Brixton riots', International Socialism, Winter 1983, pp. 108-25. ‘The language of racism. An examination of the Lord Scarman's report on the Brixton riots’ International Socialism 108 25 Google Scholar

For dispute about whether youth purchasing power increased pre- or post-war, see M. Abrams, The Teenage Consumer, London, London Press Exchange, 1959, p. 9; D. Fowler, ‘Teenage consumers? Young wage earners and leisure in Manchester, 1919-1939’, in A. Davies and S. Fielding (eds), Workers’ Worlds: Cultures and Communities in Manchester and Salford, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1992, pp. 148-50. Google Scholar

A. Etzioni, Parenting Deficit, London, Demos, 1993; The Spirit of Community: Rights, Responsibilities, and the Communitarian Agenda, New York, Crown, 1993; The Guardian, 3 April 1997. Parenting Deficit Google Scholar

See K. Kiernan, H. Land and J. Lewis, Lone Motherhood in Twentieth-century Britain. From Footnote to Front Page, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1998. Google Scholar

E.g., ‘A good man is hard to find', The Guardian, 20 March 1996; ‘Father figures', ibid., 23 June 1997, or BBC News, 7 June 2003, reporting that the Daycare Trust wanted more men in the field as role models. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

A. Lowry, ‘The criminal boy', in E. J. Urwick (ed.), Studies of Boy Life in our Cities, London, J. M. Dent, 1904, p. 171. Studies of Boy Life in our Cities 171 Google Scholar

S. Cohen, Folk Devils and Moral Panics. The Creation of the Mods and Rockers, 2nd edn, London, Martin Robertson, 1980, pp. 31-2. Folk Devils and Moral Panics. The Creation of the Mods and Rockers 31 2 Google Scholar

G. Pearson, Hooligans. A History of Respectable Fears, London, Macmillan, 1983; J. Springhall, Youth, Popular Culture and Moral Panics: Penny Gaffs to Gangsta-Rap, 1830-1996, London, Macmillan, 1998, p. 26. Hooligans. A History of Respectable Fears Google Scholar

R. W. Malcolmson, Popular Recreations in English Society, 1700-1850, Cambridge University Press, 1973, ch. 3. Popular Recreations in English Society, 1700-1850 Google Scholar

Springhall, Youth, p. 13; J.R. Gillis, Youth and History. Tradition and Change in European Age Relations, 1770-Present, New York, Academic Press, 1974, p. 129. Google Scholar

A. Delves, ‘Popular recreation and social conflict in Derby, 1800-1850', in E. and S. Yeo (eds), Popular Culture and Class Conflict, 1590-1914, Brighton, Harvester, 1981, pp. 107-8; E. Yeo, ‘Culture and constraint in working-class movements', in ibid., p. 160. Popular Culture and Class Conflict, 1590-1914 107 8 Google Scholar

Gillis, Youth, ch. 3; see too J. Springhall, Coming of Age: Adolescence in Britain 1860-1960, Dublin, Gill and Macmillan, pp. 25-6 for a revision of Gillis’ argument. Google Scholar

M. Carpenter, Reformatory Schools for the Children of the Perishing and Dangerous Classes and for Juvenile Offenders, 1851, Woburn reprint, 1968, pp. 68-72. Google Scholar

C. Steedman, Landscape for a Good Woman, London, Virago, 1986, pp. 128-9, 134-7 offers a fascinating analysis of this encounter. Landscape for a Good Woman 128 9 Google Scholar

H. Mayhew, ‘Labour and the poor: the metropolitan districts', Morning Chronicle, 31 January 1850. ‘Labour and the poor: the metropolitan districts’ Morning Chronicle Google Scholar

Carpenter, Reformatory Schools, p. 56; chs 2-4, 6 for the types of schools. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

P. Gardner, The Lost Elementary Schools of Victorian England. The People's Education, London, Croom Helm, 1984, pp. 95-7, 157-69, 173. The Lost Elementary Schools of Victorian England. The People's Education 95 7 Google Scholar

Springhall, Youth, pp. 13-16. Google Scholar

E. P. Thompson, ‘Mayhew and the Morning Chronicle’, in Thompson and E. Yeo (eds), The Unknown Mayhew, London, Merlin, 1971, pp. 32-4. The Unknown Mayhew 32 4 Google Scholar

E. Janes Yeo, The Contest for Social Science. Relations and Representations of Gender and Class, London, Rivers Oram, 1996, pp. 98-101, 113-6. The Contest for Social Science. Relations and Representations of Gender and Class 98 101 Google Scholar

Ibid., pp. 122-6; see also, M. Carpenter, ‘Women's work in the reformatory movement', English Woman's Journal, 1, 1858, pp. 289-90. For her life, J. E. Carpenter, The Life and Work of Mary Carpenter, 1879, Patterson Smith reprint, Montclair, 1974; also J. Manton, Mary Carpenter and the Children of the Streets, London, Heinemann, 1976. ‘Women's work in the reformatory movement’ English Woman's Journal 1 289 90 Google Scholar

Carpenter, Reformatory Schools, p. 1. Google Scholar

The Oxford English Dictionary gives uses of both adolescence and adolescent as early as the fifteenth century, but with the publication of G. Stanley Hall's authoritative tome, note 25 below, the term became common linguistic currency. Google Scholar

Report of the Inter-Departmental Committee on Physical Deterioration, Cmd 2175, 1904, vol. I, pp. 72, 74-6 for adolescence. Google Scholar

For Le Bon's work as a reaction to the Paris Commune of 1871 and later radicalism, see R. Nye, The Origins of Crowd Psychology: Gustave Le Bon and the Crisis of Mass Democracy in the Third Republic, London, Sage, 1975. Google Scholar

G. Le Bon, The Crowd, A Study of the Popular Mind, London, T. Fisher Unwin, 6th impression, 1909, pp. 36, 26. The Crowd, A Study of the Popular Mind 36, 26 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Trotter, Instincts, London, T. Fisher Unwin, 7th impression, 1922; W. McDougall, Psychology. The Study of Behaviour, London, Oxford University Press, 1912, pp. 164-5. Google Scholar

G. Stanley Hall, Adolescence its Psychology and its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion and Education, 1904, New York, D. Appleton, 1925, vol. 1, pp. viii, 2, 340-1, 351; Springhall, Coming of Age, pp. 28-31; D. Ross, G. Stanley Hall: The Psychologist as Prophet, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1972. Adolescence its Psychology and its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion and Education, 1904 1 viii Google Scholar

Stanley Hall, Adolescence, vol. 1, pp. xiv, 49, 240, 269, 340, 360. Adolescence 1 xiv Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Urwick, Studies, pp. 258-60. Google Scholar

A. Freeman, Boy Life and Labour. The Manufacture of Inefficiency, London, P. S. King & Son, 1914, p. 3; Urwick, Studies, p. xi. Arnold and Sidney Webb co-edited the work of the LSE's Social Investigation and Research Seminar in Seasonal Trades, London, Constable & Co., 1912. Boy Life and Labour. The Manufacture of Inefficiency 3 Google Scholar

See Freeman's ‘Bibliography of juvenile labour', Boy Life, pp. 233-48. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Paterson, Across the Bridges, or Life by the South London Riverside, London, Edward Arnold, 1911. pp. 134. 140. Across the Bridges, or Life by the South London Riverside 134 Google Scholar

Freeman, Boy Life, p. 151; for use of Hall, pp. 94-6. For the same culture through working-class eyes, see Springhall, Coming, ch. 4; A. Davies, Leisure, Gender and Poverty: Working-Class Culture in Salford and Manchester, 1900-1939, Buckingham, Open University Press, 1992, chs 4, 5. Google Scholar

Freeman, Boy Life, pp. 133-4. Google Scholar

Ibid., pp. 151-2; Paterson, Across, pp. 144-5, 162. Google Scholar

Freeman, Boy Life, p. 152; Paterson, Across, p. 125; C. E. B. Russell, Manchester Boys. Sketches of Manchester Lads at Work and Play, 1905, Manchester, Richardson reprint, 1984, pp. 29-30. Google Scholar

M. Sadler, ‘Preface', in Freeman, Boy Life, p. xii. Google Scholar

R. Bray, The Town Child, London, Unwin, 2nd edn, 1907, pp. 29, 55; Paterson, Across, p. 168; also C. F. G. Masterman, ‘The child and environment', in T. Stephens (ed.), The Child and Religion, London, Williams and Norgate, 1905, p. 106 for the city child's ‘kaleidoscope, a panorama of passing impressions'. The Town Child 29 Google Scholar

C. F. G. Masterman, The Condition of England, London, Methuen, 1909, p. 118. The Condition of England 118 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Urwick, Studies, pp. 256, 265, 300. For the derivation of hooligan, see Pearson, Hooligans, pp. 255-6. Google Scholar

Masterman, Condition, pp. 125-9 for the 1908 Peckham by-election and the new frivolous attitude, compared with the menace of a Mafficking crowd; pp. 144-8 for Will Crooks managing the crowd with humorous skill. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Urwick, Studies, p. 296. Google Scholar

Freeman, Boy Life, p. 206. Google Scholar

Ibid., p. 223; p. 222 for citizenship education; Urwick, Studies, p. xi. Google Scholar

Paterson, Across, p. 161, Urwick, Studies, p. 270. Google Scholar

Gillis, Youth, p. 116. Google Scholar

Urwick, Studies, p. 316. Google Scholar

Gillis, Youth, p. 148. For co-operative democracy, see P. Gurney, Co-operative Culture and the Politics of Consumption in England, c. 1870-1930, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1996; G. Scott, Feminism and the Politics of Working Women: The Women's Co-operative Guild, London, UCL Press, 1998. Google Scholar

Pearson, Hooligans, notes the collusion of neighbours in some of the collective violence, particularly against the police, pp. 86-7. Google Scholar

Russell, Manchester Boys, p. 18. Google Scholar

B. P. Neuman, The Boys’ Club in Theory and Practice. A Manual of Suggestions for Workers, London, David Nutt, 1900, p. 14; C. Russell and L. Rigby, Working Lads Clubs, London, Macmillan, 1908, p. 86. The Boys’ Club in Theory and Practice. A Manual of Suggestions for Workers 14 Google Scholar

S. Humphries, Hooligans or Rebels?. An Oral History of Working-Class Childhood and Youth 1880-1930, Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1981, ch. 4. Hooligans or Rebels?. An Oral History of Working-Class Childhood and Youth 1880-1930 Google Scholar

Urwick, Studies, pp. 270, 310. Google Scholar

Freeman, Boy Life, pp. 22, 39, 71; Paterson, Across, pp. 30, 171. Urwick still pictured the mother in control until the boy began to earn wages: Studies, pp. 261, 292, 298. Google Scholar

F. Gibbon, ‘C.E.B. Russell, 1866-1917', in R. Forman (ed.), Great Christians, London, Ivor Nicholson and Watson, 1933, pp. 484-5, 491-2; DNB for Paterson (1884-1947). Great Christians Google Scholar

G. Lansbury, My Life, London, Constable, 1928, p. 30. For the settlement movement, see Yeo, Contest, pp. 250-8. My Life 30 Google Scholar

Although youth is an old noun (fourteenth century), the Oxford English Dictionary says it came into frequent use from the 1950s onward as an adjective to name organizations and agencies. Google Scholar

As quoted in S. Hall and T. Jefferson (eds), Resistance through Rituals. Youth Subcultures in Post-War Britain, London, Harper Collins Academic, 1976, p. 27. Google Scholar

Cohen, Folk Devils, chs 1, 4; pp. 109, 119; S. Cohen and P. Rock, ‘The teddy boy’ in V. Bogdanor and R. Skidelsky (eds), The Age of Affluence 1951-1964, London, Macmillan, 1970. Google Scholar

Pearson, Hooligan, p. 18 for Teds; Cohen, Folk Devils, p. 109 quoting Margate magistrate Dr Simpson. Google Scholar

See M. Barker and A. Beezer, ‘The language of racism. An examination of the Lord Scarman's report on the Brixton riots', International Socialism, Winter 1983, pp. 108-25. ‘The language of racism. An examination of the Lord Scarman's report on the Brixton riots’ International Socialism 108 25 Google Scholar

For dispute about whether youth purchasing power increased pre- or post-war, see M. Abrams, The Teenage Consumer, London, London Press Exchange, 1959, p. 9; D. Fowler, ‘Teenage consumers? Young wage earners and leisure in Manchester, 1919-1939’, in A. Davies and S. Fielding (eds), Workers’ Worlds: Cultures and Communities in Manchester and Salford, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1992, pp. 148-50. Google Scholar

A. Etzioni, Parenting Deficit, London, Demos, 1993; The Spirit of Community: Rights, Responsibilities, and the Communitarian Agenda, New York, Crown, 1993; The Guardian, 3 April 1997. Parenting Deficit Google Scholar

See K. Kiernan, H. Land and J. Lewis, Lone Motherhood in Twentieth-century Britain. From Footnote to Front Page, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1998. Google Scholar

E.g., ‘A good man is hard to find', The Guardian, 20 March 1996; ‘Father figures', ibid., 23 June 1997, or BBC News, 7 June 2003, reporting that the Daycare Trust wanted more men in the field as role models. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

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Yeo, Eileen