Labour History Review

The anatomy of a changing consciousness: the miners of Northumberland, 1898-1914

Labour History Review (2001), 66, (2), 165–186.

Abstract

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

E. J. Hobsbawm, Worlds of Labour: Further Studies in the History of Labour, London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984; N. Kirk, The Growth of Working Class Reformism in Mid-Victorian England, London, Croom Helm, 1985 Worlds of Labour: Further Studies in the History of Labour Google Scholar

E. F. Biagini and A. J. Reid (eds), Currents of Radicalism: Popular Radicalism, Organised Labour and Party Politics in Britain, 1850-1914, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991 Currents of Radicalism: Popular Radicalism, Organised Labour and Party Politics in Britain, 1850-1914 Google Scholar

R. McKibbin, The Ideologies of Class, Oxford, Clarendon, 1991 The Ideologies of Class Google Scholar

See for instance P. Joyce, Visions of the People: Industrial England and the Question of Class, 1848-1914, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991; P. Joyce, ‘The End of Social History?’, Social History, 20, 1, 1995, pp. 73-91; G. Stedman Jones, ‘Rethinking Chartism’ in his Languages of Class: Studies in English Working Class History, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1983; J. Vernon, ‘Who's Afraid of the Linguistic Turn? The Politics of Social History and its Discontents’, Social History, 19, 1, 1994, pp. 82-97 Visions of the People: Industrial England and the Question of Class, 1848-1914 Google Scholar

J. Belchem, ‘Reconstructuring labour history’, Labour History Review, 63, 3, 1997, pp. 318-23 ‘Reconstructuring labour history’ Labour History Review 63 318 23 Google Scholar

N. Kirk, Change, Continuity and Class: Labour in British Society, 1850-1920, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1998, p. 149. He has argued that in criticising the idea of class the post-modernists have exaggerated Hobsbawm's notion of class embodied in his ‘The Making of the Working Class, 1870-1914’ in Worlds of Labour Change, Continuity and Class: Labour in British Society, 1850-1920 149 Google Scholar

This point is made by Kirk, Change, Continuity, p. 226 and by M. Savage and A. Miles, The Remaking of the British Working Class, 1840-1940, London, Routledge, 1994 Google Scholar

Kirk, Change, Continuity, p. 155 Google Scholar

Savage and Miles, The Remaking, p. 8. For the same point, see J. Belchem and N. Kirk (eds), Languages of Labour, Aldershot, Ashgate, 1997, Introduction Google Scholar

R. Gregory, The Miners and British Politics, 1906-1914, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1964, ch. V The Miners and British Politics, 1906-1914 Google Scholar

For evidence of this change, see V. G. Hall, ‘Aspects of the Political and Social History of Ashington, a Northumberland Coal Mining Community 1870-1914’, PhD, University of London, 1993; R. M. Hodnett, Politics and the Northumberland Miners. Liberals and Labour in Morpeth and Wansbeck, 1890-1922, Teesside Paper in North Eastern History, 5, Cleveland, University of Teesside, 1994 Google Scholar

This idea is advanced in P. F. Clarke, Lancashire and the New Liberalism, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1971; D. Tanner, Political Change and the Labour Party, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990. Subsequently, Tanner has argued that the Labour Party had come to predominate before the war in the mining areas of the North East, Scotland, South Wales and Yorkshire. See D. Tanner, ‘The Labour Party and electoral politics in the coalfields’ in A. Campbell, N. Fishman and D. Howell (eds), Miners, Unions and Politics, 1910-47, Aldershot, Scolar, 1996, pp. 59-92 Lancashire and the New Liberalism Google Scholar

H. Beynon and T. Austrin, Masters and Servants. Class and Patronage in the Making of a Labour Organisation. The Durham. Miners and the English Political Tradition, London, Rivers Oram, 1994, p. 105; for South Wales, see for example, R. Fagge, ‘Political identities in the West Virginia and South Wales coalfields’ in Belchem and Kirk (eds), Languages of Labour, pp. 186-212; C. Williams, ‘"The hope of the British proletariat": the South Wales miners, 1910-1947’ in Campbell et al. (eds), Miners, Unions and Politics, pp. 121-44; D. Egan,‘"A cult of their own": syndicalism and The Miners Next Step’ in Campbell et al. (eds), Miners, Unions and Politics, pp. 13-33; P. Stead, ‘Establishing a heartland: the Labour Party in Wales’ in K. D. Brown (ed.), The First Labour Party, 1904-1914, London, Croom Helm, 1985, pp. 64-88 Masters and Servants. Class and Patronage in the Making of a Labour Organisation. The Durham. Miners and the English Political Tradition 105 Google Scholar

Church makes this comment of the North Eastern counties in general (R. Church, The History of the British Coal Industry Volume 3 1830-1913: Victorian Pre-eminence, Oxford, Clarendon, 1986, pp. 724 The History of the British Coal Industry Volume 3 1830-1913: Victorian Pre-eminence 724 Google Scholar

For a discussion of conflict in the coal industry, see R. Church and Q. Outram, Strikes and Solidarity: Coalfield Conflict in Britain, 1889-1966, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998, p. 7 Strikes and Solidarity: Coalfield Conflict in Britain, 1889-1966 7 Google Scholar

For an account of the unions of mid century, see R. Challinor and B. Ripley, The Miners' Association: A Trade Union in the Age of Chartists, London, Lawrence and Wishart, 1968; E. Welbourne, ‘The Miners’ Unions of Northumberland and Durham, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1923, pp. 37-4, 115-24 The Miners' Association: A Trade Union in the Age of Chartists Google Scholar

This was the case also in Durham county and in an increasing number of mining regions. The willingness to engage in collective bargaining was a characteristic generally of new model employers in the last part of the century. See Kirk, The Growth of Working Class Reformism, p. 153 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The best description of this system is that by the miner David Douglass, Pit Life in County Durham: Rank and File Movements and Workers' Control, History Workshop Pamphlet, 6, Oxford, Ruskin College, 1972 Google Scholar

For a discussion of such arrangements, see Welbourne, The Miners' Unions; Hall, ‘Aspects of the Political and Social History of Ashington’, ch. IV Google Scholar

Church and Outram, Strikes and Solidarity, p. 44 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

For an examination of the ideology of Burt, see L. Satre, ‘Education and Religion in the shaping of Thomas Burt, Miners’ Leader', North East Labour Society Bulletin, 26, 1992, pp. 87-104. The influence of methodism on the political attitudes of miners in Durham is thoroughly dealt with by Robert Moore, Pitmen, Preachers and Politics: The Effects of Methodism in a Durham Mining Community, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1974 ‘Education and Religion in the shaping of Thomas Burt, Miners’ Leader' North East Labour Society Bulletin 26 87 104 Google Scholar

Robert Page Arnot, ‘The Miners: A History of the Miners’ Federation of Great Britain, 1889-1910, London, Allen and Unwin, 1949, pp. 138-51 ‘The Miners: A History of the Miners’ Federation of Great Britain, 1889-1910 138 51 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See for instance his statements at the annual picnic quoted in The Morpeth Herald, 13 July 1896 Google Scholar

For the history of this event, see L. T. Satre, ‘Thomas Burt and the Crisis of Victorian Liberalism in the North East’, Northern History, XXIII, 1987, pp. 174-93; A. Watson, A Great Labour Leader: Being the Life of the Right Honourable Thomas Burt, MP, London, Brown, Langham and Co., 1908 ‘Thomas Burt and the Crisis of Victorian Liberalism in the North East’ Northern History XXIII 174 93 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 12 May 1885 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 26 September 1891 Google Scholar

Ashington Miners' Lodge Minutes, 22 November 1893; The Morpeth Herald, 23 and 31 May 1894 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 13 July 1896 Google Scholar

Beynon and Austrin, Masters and Servants, pp. 103-5; Williams, ‘The hope of the British proletariat’; Fagge, ‘Political identities’; Stead, ‘Establishing a heartland’ Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 26 May 1906 Google Scholar

The legal threats to trade unions have been well covered. See, for instance, K. D. Brown, ‘Trade Unions and the Law’ in C. Wrigley (ed.), A History of British Industrial Relations, 1875-1914, Amherst, University of Massachusetts Press, 1982, pp. 116-34 A History of British Industrial Relations, 1875-1914 116 34 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See H. Phelps Brown, The Origins of Trade Union Power, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1983, p. 33 The Origins of Trade Union Power 33 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 28 January, 19 July 1905 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Beynon and Austrin, Masters and Servants, p. 105 Google Scholar

For a discussion of the MFGB, see D. Howell, ‘"All or nowt": the politics of the MFGB’ in Campbell et al. (eds), Miners, Unions and Politics, pp. 35-58 Google Scholar

Beynon and Austrin, Masters and Servants, p. 103 Google Scholar

H. Pelling, The Origins of the Labour Party, 1880-1900, London, Macmillan, 1954, p. 225 The Origins of the Labour Party, 1880-1900 225 Google Scholar

For a discussion of the situation in Durham, see Beynon and Austrin, Masters and Servants, pp. 104-6 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 22 August, 3 October 1901 Google Scholar

Speech at Northumberland Miners' Picnic, 1906 quoted in The Morpeth Herald, 24 July 1906 Google Scholar

The Ashington and Hirst News, 15 October 1909 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The Ashington and Hirst Press, 23 July 1909 Google Scholar

The Ashington and Hirst Press, 9 October 1909 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The Ashington and Hirst Press, 9 October 1909 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 22 January 1910 Google Scholar

The Ashington and Hirst Press, 28 January 1910 Google Scholar

For an account of this complicated situation, see Gregory, The Miners, ch. V Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Hall, ‘Aspects of the Political and Social History of Ashington’; Hodnett, Politics and the Northumberland Miners. Tanner also makes this point (Tanner, ‘The Labour Party and electoral polities’) Laslett has raised doubts about the success of Labour in Lanarkshire, Scotland (J. H. M. Laslett, Colliers Across the Sea: A Comparative Study of Class Formation in Scotland and the American Midwest, 1830-1924, Urbana and Chicago, USA, University of Illinois Press, 2000, ch. 8) Google Scholar

D. Hopkins, ‘The rise of Labour in Wales, 1890-1914’, Llafur, 6, 3, 1994, pp. 120-41 ‘The rise of Labour in Wales, 1890-1914’ Llafur 6 120 41 Google Scholar

Gregory suggests that some miners continued to work for the Liberal Party but there is no evidence of this (The Miners, p. 79) Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

NMMCA Executive Committee, April 1911. This also caused trouble in Durham (Beynon and Austrin, Masters and Servants, pp. 231-36) Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 1 March, 8 March, 15 March 1912 Google Scholar

Although many historians have written about the minimum wage strike, the classic account remains that by Arnot, The Miners: Years of Struggle Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The workers' need for security in stressed by Pelling, The Origins, pp. 195-7 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

For an account of the Triple Alliance, see P. S. Bagwell, ‘The Triple Industrial Alliance, 1913-1922’ in A. Briggs and J. Saville (eds), Essays in Labour History, 1880-1923, Hamden, Connecticut, Archon Books, 1971, pp. 96-128 Essays in Labour History, 1880-1923 96 128 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

For a discussion of the Central Labour College, see C. Tsuzuki, ‘Anglo-Marxism and working-class education’ in J. M. Winter (ed.), The Working Class in Modern British History: Essays in Honour of Henry Pelling, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1983, pp. 187-99 The Working Class in Modern British History: Essays in Honour of Henry Pelling 187 99 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Beynon and Austrin, Masters and Servants, p. 106; for Wales see, for example, Egan, ‘A cult of their own’ Google Scholar

See Kirk, Change, Continuity, p. 149 Google Scholar

E. P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1968, pp. 9-10 The Making of the English Working Class 9 10 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Census of England and Wales, 1901: County of Northumberland, London, HMSO, 1902, Table 11; Census of England and Wales, 1911: County of Northumberland, London, HMSO, 1914, Table 5 Google Scholar

Census, 1911: Northumberland, Table 27 Google Scholar

H. S. Jevons, The British Coal Trade, London, Kegan Paul, Trubner and Co., 1920, p. 267 The British Coal Trade 267 Google Scholar

Court records include many references to such behaviour. See for instance, The Morpeth Herald, 12 August 1901. For Lawson's account, see J. Lawson, A Man's Life, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1944 Google Scholar

Writings of the Northumberland miners' historian, Matthew Tait, were frequently published in The Morpeth Herald, as were speeches, especially those at the all-important miners' annual picnic, and even conversations were replete with such tales. For a discussion of the creation of solidarity in general, see Church and Outram, Strikes and Solidarity, pp. 115-19 Google Scholar

C. Kerr and A. Siegal, ‘The Interindustry Propensity to Strike — an International Comparison’ in A. Kornhauser, R. Dubin and A. M. Ross (eds), Industrial Conflict, London, McGraw-Hill, 1954, pp. 189-212 Industrial Conflict 189 212 Google Scholar

Church and Outram, Strikes and Solidarity, ch. 8 Google Scholar

Census, 1911: Northumberland, Table 17. For the nation as a whole, see Gregory, The Miners, p. 2 Google Scholar

For Ashington, see The Ashington Coal Company, Ashington, The Ashington Coal Company, 1912; Ashington Group Colliery Statistics, NRO/538/8, NCRO. For the county and the nation, see The National Association of Colliery Managers, Minutes of Proceedings, Vol. XI, 1914, NCB/AS/19, NCRO Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 5 April 1902 Google Scholar

For details of their subject matter, see issues of The Morpeth Herald for the whole period Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 8 March 1902 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Beynon and Austrin, Masters and Servants, p. 103 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Kirk, Continuity, Change, p. 155 Google Scholar

E. J. Hobsbawm, Worlds of Labour: Further Studies in the History of Labour, London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984; N. Kirk, The Growth of Working Class Reformism in Mid-Victorian England, London, Croom Helm, 1985 Worlds of Labour: Further Studies in the History of Labour Google Scholar

E. F. Biagini and A. J. Reid (eds), Currents of Radicalism: Popular Radicalism, Organised Labour and Party Politics in Britain, 1850-1914, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991 Currents of Radicalism: Popular Radicalism, Organised Labour and Party Politics in Britain, 1850-1914 Google Scholar

R. McKibbin, The Ideologies of Class, Oxford, Clarendon, 1991 The Ideologies of Class Google Scholar

See for instance P. Joyce, Visions of the People: Industrial England and the Question of Class, 1848-1914, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991; P. Joyce, ‘The End of Social History?’, Social History, 20, 1, 1995, pp. 73-91; G. Stedman Jones, ‘Rethinking Chartism’ in his Languages of Class: Studies in English Working Class History, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1983; J. Vernon, ‘Who's Afraid of the Linguistic Turn? The Politics of Social History and its Discontents’, Social History, 19, 1, 1994, pp. 82-97 Visions of the People: Industrial England and the Question of Class, 1848-1914 Google Scholar

J. Belchem, ‘Reconstructuring labour history’, Labour History Review, 63, 3, 1997, pp. 318-23 ‘Reconstructuring labour history’ Labour History Review 63 318 23 Google Scholar

N. Kirk, Change, Continuity and Class: Labour in British Society, 1850-1920, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1998, p. 149. He has argued that in criticising the idea of class the post-modernists have exaggerated Hobsbawm's notion of class embodied in his ‘The Making of the Working Class, 1870-1914’ in Worlds of Labour Change, Continuity and Class: Labour in British Society, 1850-1920 149 Google Scholar

This point is made by Kirk, Change, Continuity, p. 226 and by M. Savage and A. Miles, The Remaking of the British Working Class, 1840-1940, London, Routledge, 1994 Google Scholar

Kirk, Change, Continuity, p. 155 Google Scholar

Savage and Miles, The Remaking, p. 8. For the same point, see J. Belchem and N. Kirk (eds), Languages of Labour, Aldershot, Ashgate, 1997, Introduction Google Scholar

R. Gregory, The Miners and British Politics, 1906-1914, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1964, ch. V The Miners and British Politics, 1906-1914 Google Scholar

For evidence of this change, see V. G. Hall, ‘Aspects of the Political and Social History of Ashington, a Northumberland Coal Mining Community 1870-1914’, PhD, University of London, 1993; R. M. Hodnett, Politics and the Northumberland Miners. Liberals and Labour in Morpeth and Wansbeck, 1890-1922, Teesside Paper in North Eastern History, 5, Cleveland, University of Teesside, 1994 Google Scholar

This idea is advanced in P. F. Clarke, Lancashire and the New Liberalism, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1971; D. Tanner, Political Change and the Labour Party, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990. Subsequently, Tanner has argued that the Labour Party had come to predominate before the war in the mining areas of the North East, Scotland, South Wales and Yorkshire. See D. Tanner, ‘The Labour Party and electoral politics in the coalfields’ in A. Campbell, N. Fishman and D. Howell (eds), Miners, Unions and Politics, 1910-47, Aldershot, Scolar, 1996, pp. 59-92 Lancashire and the New Liberalism Google Scholar

H. Beynon and T. Austrin, Masters and Servants. Class and Patronage in the Making of a Labour Organisation. The Durham. Miners and the English Political Tradition, London, Rivers Oram, 1994, p. 105; for South Wales, see for example, R. Fagge, ‘Political identities in the West Virginia and South Wales coalfields’ in Belchem and Kirk (eds), Languages of Labour, pp. 186-212; C. Williams, ‘"The hope of the British proletariat": the South Wales miners, 1910-1947’ in Campbell et al. (eds), Miners, Unions and Politics, pp. 121-44; D. Egan,‘"A cult of their own": syndicalism and The Miners Next Step’ in Campbell et al. (eds), Miners, Unions and Politics, pp. 13-33; P. Stead, ‘Establishing a heartland: the Labour Party in Wales’ in K. D. Brown (ed.), The First Labour Party, 1904-1914, London, Croom Helm, 1985, pp. 64-88 Masters and Servants. Class and Patronage in the Making of a Labour Organisation. The Durham. Miners and the English Political Tradition 105 Google Scholar

Church makes this comment of the North Eastern counties in general (R. Church, The History of the British Coal Industry Volume 3 1830-1913: Victorian Pre-eminence, Oxford, Clarendon, 1986, pp. 724 The History of the British Coal Industry Volume 3 1830-1913: Victorian Pre-eminence 724 Google Scholar

For a discussion of conflict in the coal industry, see R. Church and Q. Outram, Strikes and Solidarity: Coalfield Conflict in Britain, 1889-1966, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998, p. 7 Strikes and Solidarity: Coalfield Conflict in Britain, 1889-1966 7 Google Scholar

For an account of the unions of mid century, see R. Challinor and B. Ripley, The Miners' Association: A Trade Union in the Age of Chartists, London, Lawrence and Wishart, 1968; E. Welbourne, ‘The Miners’ Unions of Northumberland and Durham, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1923, pp. 37-4, 115-24 The Miners' Association: A Trade Union in the Age of Chartists Google Scholar

This was the case also in Durham county and in an increasing number of mining regions. The willingness to engage in collective bargaining was a characteristic generally of new model employers in the last part of the century. See Kirk, The Growth of Working Class Reformism, p. 153 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The best description of this system is that by the miner David Douglass, Pit Life in County Durham: Rank and File Movements and Workers' Control, History Workshop Pamphlet, 6, Oxford, Ruskin College, 1972 Google Scholar

For a discussion of such arrangements, see Welbourne, The Miners' Unions; Hall, ‘Aspects of the Political and Social History of Ashington’, ch. IV Google Scholar

Church and Outram, Strikes and Solidarity, p. 44 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

For an examination of the ideology of Burt, see L. Satre, ‘Education and Religion in the shaping of Thomas Burt, Miners’ Leader', North East Labour Society Bulletin, 26, 1992, pp. 87-104. The influence of methodism on the political attitudes of miners in Durham is thoroughly dealt with by Robert Moore, Pitmen, Preachers and Politics: The Effects of Methodism in a Durham Mining Community, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1974 ‘Education and Religion in the shaping of Thomas Burt, Miners’ Leader' North East Labour Society Bulletin 26 87 104 Google Scholar

Robert Page Arnot, ‘The Miners: A History of the Miners’ Federation of Great Britain, 1889-1910, London, Allen and Unwin, 1949, pp. 138-51 ‘The Miners: A History of the Miners’ Federation of Great Britain, 1889-1910 138 51 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See for instance his statements at the annual picnic quoted in The Morpeth Herald, 13 July 1896 Google Scholar

For the history of this event, see L. T. Satre, ‘Thomas Burt and the Crisis of Victorian Liberalism in the North East’, Northern History, XXIII, 1987, pp. 174-93; A. Watson, A Great Labour Leader: Being the Life of the Right Honourable Thomas Burt, MP, London, Brown, Langham and Co., 1908 ‘Thomas Burt and the Crisis of Victorian Liberalism in the North East’ Northern History XXIII 174 93 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 12 May 1885 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 26 September 1891 Google Scholar

Ashington Miners' Lodge Minutes, 22 November 1893; The Morpeth Herald, 23 and 31 May 1894 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 13 July 1896 Google Scholar

Beynon and Austrin, Masters and Servants, pp. 103-5; Williams, ‘The hope of the British proletariat’; Fagge, ‘Political identities’; Stead, ‘Establishing a heartland’ Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 26 May 1906 Google Scholar

The legal threats to trade unions have been well covered. See, for instance, K. D. Brown, ‘Trade Unions and the Law’ in C. Wrigley (ed.), A History of British Industrial Relations, 1875-1914, Amherst, University of Massachusetts Press, 1982, pp. 116-34 A History of British Industrial Relations, 1875-1914 116 34 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See H. Phelps Brown, The Origins of Trade Union Power, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1983, p. 33 The Origins of Trade Union Power 33 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 28 January, 19 July 1905 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Beynon and Austrin, Masters and Servants, p. 105 Google Scholar

For a discussion of the MFGB, see D. Howell, ‘"All or nowt": the politics of the MFGB’ in Campbell et al. (eds), Miners, Unions and Politics, pp. 35-58 Google Scholar

Beynon and Austrin, Masters and Servants, p. 103 Google Scholar

H. Pelling, The Origins of the Labour Party, 1880-1900, London, Macmillan, 1954, p. 225 The Origins of the Labour Party, 1880-1900 225 Google Scholar

For a discussion of the situation in Durham, see Beynon and Austrin, Masters and Servants, pp. 104-6 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 22 August, 3 October 1901 Google Scholar

Speech at Northumberland Miners' Picnic, 1906 quoted in The Morpeth Herald, 24 July 1906 Google Scholar

The Ashington and Hirst News, 15 October 1909 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The Ashington and Hirst Press, 23 July 1909 Google Scholar

The Ashington and Hirst Press, 9 October 1909 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The Ashington and Hirst Press, 9 October 1909 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 22 January 1910 Google Scholar

The Ashington and Hirst Press, 28 January 1910 Google Scholar

For an account of this complicated situation, see Gregory, The Miners, ch. V Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Hall, ‘Aspects of the Political and Social History of Ashington’; Hodnett, Politics and the Northumberland Miners. Tanner also makes this point (Tanner, ‘The Labour Party and electoral polities’) Laslett has raised doubts about the success of Labour in Lanarkshire, Scotland (J. H. M. Laslett, Colliers Across the Sea: A Comparative Study of Class Formation in Scotland and the American Midwest, 1830-1924, Urbana and Chicago, USA, University of Illinois Press, 2000, ch. 8) Google Scholar

D. Hopkins, ‘The rise of Labour in Wales, 1890-1914’, Llafur, 6, 3, 1994, pp. 120-41 ‘The rise of Labour in Wales, 1890-1914’ Llafur 6 120 41 Google Scholar

Gregory suggests that some miners continued to work for the Liberal Party but there is no evidence of this (The Miners, p. 79) Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

NMMCA Executive Committee, April 1911. This also caused trouble in Durham (Beynon and Austrin, Masters and Servants, pp. 231-36) Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 1 March, 8 March, 15 March 1912 Google Scholar

Although many historians have written about the minimum wage strike, the classic account remains that by Arnot, The Miners: Years of Struggle Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The workers' need for security in stressed by Pelling, The Origins, pp. 195-7 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

For an account of the Triple Alliance, see P. S. Bagwell, ‘The Triple Industrial Alliance, 1913-1922’ in A. Briggs and J. Saville (eds), Essays in Labour History, 1880-1923, Hamden, Connecticut, Archon Books, 1971, pp. 96-128 Essays in Labour History, 1880-1923 96 128 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

For a discussion of the Central Labour College, see C. Tsuzuki, ‘Anglo-Marxism and working-class education’ in J. M. Winter (ed.), The Working Class in Modern British History: Essays in Honour of Henry Pelling, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1983, pp. 187-99 The Working Class in Modern British History: Essays in Honour of Henry Pelling 187 99 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Beynon and Austrin, Masters and Servants, p. 106; for Wales see, for example, Egan, ‘A cult of their own’ Google Scholar

See Kirk, Change, Continuity, p. 149 Google Scholar

E. P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1968, pp. 9-10 The Making of the English Working Class 9 10 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Census of England and Wales, 1901: County of Northumberland, London, HMSO, 1902, Table 11; Census of England and Wales, 1911: County of Northumberland, London, HMSO, 1914, Table 5 Google Scholar

Census, 1911: Northumberland, Table 27 Google Scholar

H. S. Jevons, The British Coal Trade, London, Kegan Paul, Trubner and Co., 1920, p. 267 The British Coal Trade 267 Google Scholar

Court records include many references to such behaviour. See for instance, The Morpeth Herald, 12 August 1901. For Lawson's account, see J. Lawson, A Man's Life, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1944 Google Scholar

Writings of the Northumberland miners' historian, Matthew Tait, were frequently published in The Morpeth Herald, as were speeches, especially those at the all-important miners' annual picnic, and even conversations were replete with such tales. For a discussion of the creation of solidarity in general, see Church and Outram, Strikes and Solidarity, pp. 115-19 Google Scholar

C. Kerr and A. Siegal, ‘The Interindustry Propensity to Strike — an International Comparison’ in A. Kornhauser, R. Dubin and A. M. Ross (eds), Industrial Conflict, London, McGraw-Hill, 1954, pp. 189-212 Industrial Conflict 189 212 Google Scholar

Church and Outram, Strikes and Solidarity, ch. 8 Google Scholar

Census, 1911: Northumberland, Table 17. For the nation as a whole, see Gregory, The Miners, p. 2 Google Scholar

For Ashington, see The Ashington Coal Company, Ashington, The Ashington Coal Company, 1912; Ashington Group Colliery Statistics, NRO/538/8, NCRO. For the county and the nation, see The National Association of Colliery Managers, Minutes of Proceedings, Vol. XI, 1914, NCB/AS/19, NCRO Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 5 April 1902 Google Scholar

For details of their subject matter, see issues of The Morpeth Herald for the whole period Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The Morpeth Herald, 8 March 1902 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Beynon and Austrin, Masters and Servants, p. 103 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Kirk, Continuity, Change, p. 155 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Hall, Valerie