Science Fiction Film & Television

Aliens, cyborgs and other invisible men

Hollywood's solutions to the black ‘problem’ in sf cinema

Science Fiction Film & Television (2013), 6, (2), 219–251.

Abstract

Drawing on the racial discourses of W.E.B. Du Bois in Souls of Black Folk (1903) and ‘The Comet’ (1920), this article examines the containment and commodification of the black protagonist in Hollywood sf cinema starting with The World, The Flesh, and the Devil (1959) and ending with I Am Legend (2007) to discredit the notion that the race ‘problem’ has been solved by the ‘colour-blind’, ‘post-racial’ society. While each section of the article emphasises a specific strategy to contain and commodify the protagonist, from introjected racism to masking, the splitting of the self, and the recontextualisation of slavery, the analyses of the films shows these strategies form an interrelated and continuous approach that requires black actors to labour under a perpetual disadvantage.

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Asimov, Isaac. ‘Robot Dreams’. Masterpieces: The Best Science Fiction of the Twentieth Century. Ed. Orson Scott Card. New York: Penguin, 2001. 91-96 Masterpieces: The Best Science Fiction of the Twentieth Century 91 96 Google Scholar

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Bould, Mark. ‘The False Salvation of the Here and Now: Aliens, Images, and the Commodification of Desire in The Brother from Another Planet’. Sayles Talk: New Perspectives on Independent Filmmaker John Sayles. Ed. Diane Carson and Heidi Kenaga. Detroit, MI: Wayne State UP, 2006. 79-102. Sayles Talk: New Perspectives on Independent Filmmaker John Sayles 79 102 Google Scholar

Brayton, Sean. ‘The Post-White Imaginary in Alex Proyas's I, Robot’. Science Fiction Studies 35.1 (2008): 72-87. ‘The Post-White Imaginary in Alex Proyas's I, Robot’ Science Fiction Studies 35 72 87 Google Scholar

Chaney, Michael. ‘Slave Cyborgs and the Black Infovirus: Ishmael Reed's Cybernetic Aesthetic’. Modern Fiction Studies 49.2 (2003): 261-83. ‘Slave Cyborgs and the Black Infovirus: Ishmael Reed's Cybernetic Aesthetic’ Modern Fiction Studies 49 261 83 Google Scholar

‘Cinema: The World, The Flesh, and The Devil’. Time. 1 June 1959. Web. Google Scholar

Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. Ed. Cedric Watts. London: Everyman, 1995. Heart of Darkness Google Scholar

Cornea, Christina. ‘Alien Others: Race and the Science Fiction Film’. Science Fiction Cinema: Between Fantasy and Reality. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2007. 175-213. Science Fiction Cinema: Between Fantasy and Reality 175 213 Google Scholar

Cripps, Thomas. Making Movies Black: The Hollywood Message Movie from World War II to the Civil Rights Era. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1993. Making Movies Black: The Hollywood Message Movie from World War II to the Civil Rights Era Google Scholar

Cripps, Thomas. Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Film, 1900-1942. New York: Oxford UP, 1993. Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Film, 1900-1942 Google Scholar

‘Crew Dossier: Benjamin Sisko’. Deep Space Nine: The Complete Seventh Season. Paramount, 2003. DVD. Google Scholar

Crowdus, Gary. ‘Thinking about the Power of Images: An Interview with Spike Lee’. Cineaste. 26.2 (2001): 4-10. ‘Thinking about the Power of Images: An Interview with Spike Lee’ Cineaste 26 4 10 Google Scholar

Diawara, Manthia. ‘The Blackface Stereotype’. BlackCulturalStudies.org Google Scholar

Du Bois, W. E. B. The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Dover, 1994. The Souls of Black Folk Google Scholar

Du Bois, W. E. B. ‘The Comet’. Darkwater: Voices from within the Veil. Mineola: Dover, 1999. 149-60. Darkwater: Voices from within the Veil 149 60 Google Scholar

Dyer, Richard. White. London: Routledge, 1997. White Google Scholar

Eldridge, Michael. ‘Bop Girl Goes Calypso: Containing Race and Youth Culture in Cold War America’. Anthurium 3.2 (2005). Web. Accessed 15 July 2010. ‘Bop Girl Goes Calypso: Containing Race and Youth Culture in Cold War America’ Anthurium 3 Google Scholar

Eshun, Kodwo. ‘Further Considerations on Afrofuturism’. CR: The New Centennial Review 3.2 (2003): 287-302. ‘Further Considerations on Afrofuturism’ CR: The New Centennial Review 3 287 302 Google Scholar

Fanon, Frantz. Black Skins, White Masks. New York: Grove, 1967. Black Skins, White Masks Google Scholar

Fiedler, Lesleie A. ‘Come Back to the Raft Ag'in, Huck Honey!’ A Fiedler Reader. New York: Stein and Day, 1977. 3-12. A Fiedler Reader 3 12 Google Scholar

Gallardo C., Ximena, and C. Jason Smith. Alien Woman: The Making of Lt. Ripley. New York: Continuum, 2004. Alien Woman: The Making of Lt. Ripley Google Scholar

Guerrero, Ed. Framing Blackness: The African American Image in Film. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1993. Framing Blackness: The African American Image in Film Google Scholar

‘Here's How It Was: The Making of Firefly’. Firefly DVD extra. 20th Century Fox, 2003. Google Scholar

Hooks, Bell. We Real Cool: Black Men and Masculinity. New York: Routledge, 2004. We Real Cool: Black Men and Masculinity Google Scholar

Hughes, Langston. Simple's Uncle Sam. New York: Hill and Wang, 2000. Simple's Uncle Sam Google Scholar

‘Interview with John Sayles and Maggie Renzi’. The Brother from Another Planet DVD extra. MGM Home Entertainment, 2003. Google Scholar

Jeffords, Susan. Hard Bodies: Hollywood Masculinity in the Reagan Era. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1993. Hard Bodies: Hollywood Masculinity in the Reagan Era Google Scholar

Johnson, Albert. ‘Beige, Brown, or Black’. Film Quarterly 13.1 (1959): 38-43. ‘Beige, Brown, or Black’ Film Quarterly 13 38 43 Google Scholar

Kaplan, Amy. The Anarchy of Empire in the Making of U. S. Culture. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2002. The Anarchy of Empire in the Making of U. S. Culture Google Scholar

King, C. Richard, and David J. Leonard. ‘Is Neo White? Reading Race, Watching the Trilogy’. Jacking in to the Matrix Franchise: Cultural Reception and Interpretation. Ed. Matthew Kapell and William G. Doty. New York: Continuum, 2004. 32-47. Jacking in to the Matrix Franchise: Cultural Reception and Interpretation 32 47 Google Scholar

Larrieux, Stéphanie. ‘The World, the Flesh, and the Devil: The Politics of Race, Gender, and Power in Post-Apocalyptic Hollywood Cinema’. Quarterly Review of Film and Video 27.2 (2010): 133-43. ‘The World, the Flesh, and the Devil: The Politics of Race, Gender, and Power in Post-Apocalyptic Hollywood Cinema’ Quarterly Review of Film and Video 27 133 43 Google Scholar

Logan, Michael. ‘Avery Brooks: The Private Commander’. TV Guide. 14 Jan 1994: 10-14. ‘Avery Brooks: The Private Commander’ TV Guide 10 14 Google Scholar

Mair, Jan. ‘Rewriting the "American Dream": Postmodernism and Otherness in Independence Day’. Aliens R Us: The Other in Science Fiction Cinema. Ed. Ziauddin Sardar and Sean Cubitt. London: Pluto, 2002. 34-50. Aliens R Us: The Other in Science Fiction Cinema 34 50 Google Scholar

McGruder, Aaron. The Boondocks: Because I Know You Don't Read the Newspaper. Kansas City: Andrews McMeel, 2000: 38. The Boondocks: Because I Know You Don't Read the Newspaper 38 Google Scholar

‘Memorable Missions: Heart of Glory’. Star Trek: The Next Generation - The Complete First Season DVD extra. Paramount, 2002. Google Scholar

Nakamura, Lisa. ‘Race in the Construct, or the Construction of Race: New Media and Old Identities in "The Matrix"’. Domain Errors! Cyberfeminist Practices. Ed. Maria Fernandez, Faith Wilding, and Michelle M. Wright. New York: Autonomedia, 2002. 63-78. Domain Errors! Cyberfeminist Practices 63 78 Google Scholar

Nama, Adilifu. Black Space: Imagining Race in Science Fiction Film. Austin: U of Texas P, 2008. Black Space: Imagining Race in Science Fiction Film Google Scholar

Predator: The Life Inside. Predator DVD extra. 20th Century Fox, 2004. Google Scholar

Predator. Theatrical trailer. 30 Jul 2011. YouTube. Accessed 22 Aug 2011. Google Scholar

Rogin, Michael. Independence Day or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Enola Gay. London: BFI, 1998. Independence Day or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Enola Gay Google Scholar

‘Selected Crew Analysis: Year One’. Star Trek: The Next Generation: The Complete First Season. Paramount, 2002. DVD. Google Scholar

Shaw, Arnold. Belafonte: An Unauthorized Biography. Philadelphia: Chilton, 1960. Belafonte: An Unauthorized Biography Google Scholar

Shaw, Jessica, and Cindy Pearlman. ‘Will Power: The Actor's Journey from Fresh Prince to Hollywood Royalty’. EW.com Google Scholar

Sobchack, Vivian. ‘Postmodern Modes of Ethnicity’. Unspeakable Images: Ethnicity and the American Cinema. Ed. Lester D. Friedman. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1991. 329-52. Unspeakable Images: Ethnicity and the American Cinema 329 52 Google Scholar

Stokes, Melvin. D. W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation: A History of the ‘Most Controversial Motion Picture of All Time’. New York: Oxford UP, 2007. D. W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation: A History of the ‘Most Controversial Motion Picture of All Time’ Google Scholar

Subramanian, Janani. ‘Alienating Identification: Black Identity in The Brother from Another Planet and I Am Legend’. Science Fiction Film and Television 3.1 (2010): 37-55. ‘Alienating Identification: Black Identity in The Brother from Another Planet and I Am Legend’ Science Fiction Film and Television 3 37 55 Google Scholar

Tate, Greg. ‘Bamboozled: White Supremacy and a Black Way of Being Human’. Cineaste 26.2 (2001): 15-16. ‘Bamboozled: White Supremacy and a Black Way of Being Human’ Cineaste 26 15 16 Google Scholar

‘The Captains - Avery Brooks’. TV Guide. 24 Aug 1996: 19. Google Scholar

‘Tucanas’. Battlestar Galactica Database Writer's Guide. 1978. Reproduced in Kobol.com Google Scholar

‘Visor Pain’. Cult: Star Trek: Interviews: LeVar Burton. BBC Online. Web. 18 Feb 2011. Google Scholar

Yaszek, Lisa. ‘An Afrofuturist Reading of Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man’. Rethinking History 9.2/3 (2005): 297-313. ‘An Afrofuturist Reading of Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man’ Rethinking History 9 297 313 Google Scholar

Washington, Harriet. Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present. New York: Doubleday, 2006. Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present Google Scholar

Wells, H. G. The Island of Dr. Moreau. New York: Dover, 1996. The Island of Dr. Moreau Google Scholar

Winant, Howard. New Politics of Race: Globalism, Difference, Justice. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2004. New Politics of Race: Globalism, Difference, Justice Google Scholar

Winant, Howard. ‘The Dark Side of the Force: One Hundred Years of the Sociology of Race’. Sociology in America: A History. Ed. Craig Calhoun. Chicago: U Chicago P, 2007. 550-86. Sociology in America: A History 550 86 Google Scholar

Anders, Charlie Jane. ‘The One Thing about Geordi That LeVar Burton Wishes Star Trek Had Explored: "His Sexuality"’. io9.com Google Scholar

Asimov, Isaac. ‘Robot Dreams’. Masterpieces: The Best Science Fiction of the Twentieth Century. Ed. Orson Scott Card. New York: Penguin, 2001. 91-96 Masterpieces: The Best Science Fiction of the Twentieth Century 91 96 Google Scholar

Baugh, John. ‘The Politicization of Changing Terms of Self-Reference among American Slave Descendants’. American Speech 66.2 (Summer 1991): 133-46. ‘The Politicization of Changing Terms of Self-Reference among American Slave Descendants’ American Speech 66 133 46 Google Scholar

Bernardi, Daniel L. Star Trek and History: Raceing Toward a White Future. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1998. Star Trek and History: Raceing Toward a White Future Google Scholar

Bould, Mark. ‘The False Salvation of the Here and Now: Aliens, Images, and the Commodification of Desire in The Brother from Another Planet’. Sayles Talk: New Perspectives on Independent Filmmaker John Sayles. Ed. Diane Carson and Heidi Kenaga. Detroit, MI: Wayne State UP, 2006. 79-102. Sayles Talk: New Perspectives on Independent Filmmaker John Sayles 79 102 Google Scholar

Brayton, Sean. ‘The Post-White Imaginary in Alex Proyas's I, Robot’. Science Fiction Studies 35.1 (2008): 72-87. ‘The Post-White Imaginary in Alex Proyas's I, Robot’ Science Fiction Studies 35 72 87 Google Scholar

Chaney, Michael. ‘Slave Cyborgs and the Black Infovirus: Ishmael Reed's Cybernetic Aesthetic’. Modern Fiction Studies 49.2 (2003): 261-83. ‘Slave Cyborgs and the Black Infovirus: Ishmael Reed's Cybernetic Aesthetic’ Modern Fiction Studies 49 261 83 Google Scholar

‘Cinema: The World, The Flesh, and The Devil’. Time. 1 June 1959. Web. Google Scholar

Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. Ed. Cedric Watts. London: Everyman, 1995. Heart of Darkness Google Scholar

Cornea, Christina. ‘Alien Others: Race and the Science Fiction Film’. Science Fiction Cinema: Between Fantasy and Reality. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2007. 175-213. Science Fiction Cinema: Between Fantasy and Reality 175 213 Google Scholar

Cripps, Thomas. Making Movies Black: The Hollywood Message Movie from World War II to the Civil Rights Era. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1993. Making Movies Black: The Hollywood Message Movie from World War II to the Civil Rights Era Google Scholar

Cripps, Thomas. Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Film, 1900-1942. New York: Oxford UP, 1993. Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Film, 1900-1942 Google Scholar

‘Crew Dossier: Benjamin Sisko’. Deep Space Nine: The Complete Seventh Season. Paramount, 2003. DVD. Google Scholar

Crowdus, Gary. ‘Thinking about the Power of Images: An Interview with Spike Lee’. Cineaste. 26.2 (2001): 4-10. ‘Thinking about the Power of Images: An Interview with Spike Lee’ Cineaste 26 4 10 Google Scholar

Diawara, Manthia. ‘The Blackface Stereotype’. BlackCulturalStudies.org Google Scholar

Du Bois, W. E. B. The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Dover, 1994. The Souls of Black Folk Google Scholar

Du Bois, W. E. B. ‘The Comet’. Darkwater: Voices from within the Veil. Mineola: Dover, 1999. 149-60. Darkwater: Voices from within the Veil 149 60 Google Scholar

Dyer, Richard. White. London: Routledge, 1997. White Google Scholar

Eldridge, Michael. ‘Bop Girl Goes Calypso: Containing Race and Youth Culture in Cold War America’. Anthurium 3.2 (2005). Web. Accessed 15 July 2010. ‘Bop Girl Goes Calypso: Containing Race and Youth Culture in Cold War America’ Anthurium 3 Google Scholar

Eshun, Kodwo. ‘Further Considerations on Afrofuturism’. CR: The New Centennial Review 3.2 (2003): 287-302. ‘Further Considerations on Afrofuturism’ CR: The New Centennial Review 3 287 302 Google Scholar

Fanon, Frantz. Black Skins, White Masks. New York: Grove, 1967. Black Skins, White Masks Google Scholar

Fiedler, Lesleie A. ‘Come Back to the Raft Ag'in, Huck Honey!’ A Fiedler Reader. New York: Stein and Day, 1977. 3-12. A Fiedler Reader 3 12 Google Scholar

Gallardo C., Ximena, and C. Jason Smith. Alien Woman: The Making of Lt. Ripley. New York: Continuum, 2004. Alien Woman: The Making of Lt. Ripley Google Scholar

Guerrero, Ed. Framing Blackness: The African American Image in Film. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1993. Framing Blackness: The African American Image in Film Google Scholar

‘Here's How It Was: The Making of Firefly’. Firefly DVD extra. 20th Century Fox, 2003. Google Scholar

Hooks, Bell. We Real Cool: Black Men and Masculinity. New York: Routledge, 2004. We Real Cool: Black Men and Masculinity Google Scholar

Hughes, Langston. Simple's Uncle Sam. New York: Hill and Wang, 2000. Simple's Uncle Sam Google Scholar

‘Interview with John Sayles and Maggie Renzi’. The Brother from Another Planet DVD extra. MGM Home Entertainment, 2003. Google Scholar

Jeffords, Susan. Hard Bodies: Hollywood Masculinity in the Reagan Era. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1993. Hard Bodies: Hollywood Masculinity in the Reagan Era Google Scholar

Johnson, Albert. ‘Beige, Brown, or Black’. Film Quarterly 13.1 (1959): 38-43. ‘Beige, Brown, or Black’ Film Quarterly 13 38 43 Google Scholar

Kaplan, Amy. The Anarchy of Empire in the Making of U. S. Culture. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2002. The Anarchy of Empire in the Making of U. S. Culture Google Scholar

King, C. Richard, and David J. Leonard. ‘Is Neo White? Reading Race, Watching the Trilogy’. Jacking in to the Matrix Franchise: Cultural Reception and Interpretation. Ed. Matthew Kapell and William G. Doty. New York: Continuum, 2004. 32-47. Jacking in to the Matrix Franchise: Cultural Reception and Interpretation 32 47 Google Scholar

Larrieux, Stéphanie. ‘The World, the Flesh, and the Devil: The Politics of Race, Gender, and Power in Post-Apocalyptic Hollywood Cinema’. Quarterly Review of Film and Video 27.2 (2010): 133-43. ‘The World, the Flesh, and the Devil: The Politics of Race, Gender, and Power in Post-Apocalyptic Hollywood Cinema’ Quarterly Review of Film and Video 27 133 43 Google Scholar

Logan, Michael. ‘Avery Brooks: The Private Commander’. TV Guide. 14 Jan 1994: 10-14. ‘Avery Brooks: The Private Commander’ TV Guide 10 14 Google Scholar

Mair, Jan. ‘Rewriting the "American Dream": Postmodernism and Otherness in Independence Day’. Aliens R Us: The Other in Science Fiction Cinema. Ed. Ziauddin Sardar and Sean Cubitt. London: Pluto, 2002. 34-50. Aliens R Us: The Other in Science Fiction Cinema 34 50 Google Scholar

McGruder, Aaron. The Boondocks: Because I Know You Don't Read the Newspaper. Kansas City: Andrews McMeel, 2000: 38. The Boondocks: Because I Know You Don't Read the Newspaper 38 Google Scholar

‘Memorable Missions: Heart of Glory’. Star Trek: The Next Generation - The Complete First Season DVD extra. Paramount, 2002. Google Scholar

Nakamura, Lisa. ‘Race in the Construct, or the Construction of Race: New Media and Old Identities in "The Matrix"’. Domain Errors! Cyberfeminist Practices. Ed. Maria Fernandez, Faith Wilding, and Michelle M. Wright. New York: Autonomedia, 2002. 63-78. Domain Errors! Cyberfeminist Practices 63 78 Google Scholar

Nama, Adilifu. Black Space: Imagining Race in Science Fiction Film. Austin: U of Texas P, 2008. Black Space: Imagining Race in Science Fiction Film Google Scholar

Predator: The Life Inside. Predator DVD extra. 20th Century Fox, 2004. Google Scholar

Predator. Theatrical trailer. 30 Jul 2011. YouTube. Accessed 22 Aug 2011. Google Scholar

Rogin, Michael. Independence Day or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Enola Gay. London: BFI, 1998. Independence Day or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Enola Gay Google Scholar

‘Selected Crew Analysis: Year One’. Star Trek: The Next Generation: The Complete First Season. Paramount, 2002. DVD. Google Scholar

Shaw, Arnold. Belafonte: An Unauthorized Biography. Philadelphia: Chilton, 1960. Belafonte: An Unauthorized Biography Google Scholar

Shaw, Jessica, and Cindy Pearlman. ‘Will Power: The Actor's Journey from Fresh Prince to Hollywood Royalty’. EW.com Google Scholar

Sobchack, Vivian. ‘Postmodern Modes of Ethnicity’. Unspeakable Images: Ethnicity and the American Cinema. Ed. Lester D. Friedman. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1991. 329-52. Unspeakable Images: Ethnicity and the American Cinema 329 52 Google Scholar

Stokes, Melvin. D. W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation: A History of the ‘Most Controversial Motion Picture of All Time’. New York: Oxford UP, 2007. D. W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation: A History of the ‘Most Controversial Motion Picture of All Time’ Google Scholar

Subramanian, Janani. ‘Alienating Identification: Black Identity in The Brother from Another Planet and I Am Legend’. Science Fiction Film and Television 3.1 (2010): 37-55. ‘Alienating Identification: Black Identity in The Brother from Another Planet and I Am Legend’ Science Fiction Film and Television 3 37 55 Google Scholar

Tate, Greg. ‘Bamboozled: White Supremacy and a Black Way of Being Human’. Cineaste 26.2 (2001): 15-16. ‘Bamboozled: White Supremacy and a Black Way of Being Human’ Cineaste 26 15 16 Google Scholar

‘The Captains - Avery Brooks’. TV Guide. 24 Aug 1996: 19. Google Scholar

‘Tucanas’. Battlestar Galactica Database Writer's Guide. 1978. Reproduced in Kobol.com Google Scholar

‘Visor Pain’. Cult: Star Trek: Interviews: LeVar Burton. BBC Online. Web. 18 Feb 2011. Google Scholar

Yaszek, Lisa. ‘An Afrofuturist Reading of Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man’. Rethinking History 9.2/3 (2005): 297-313. ‘An Afrofuturist Reading of Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man’ Rethinking History 9 297 313 Google Scholar

Washington, Harriet. Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present. New York: Doubleday, 2006. Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present Google Scholar

Wells, H. G. The Island of Dr. Moreau. New York: Dover, 1996. The Island of Dr. Moreau Google Scholar

Winant, Howard. New Politics of Race: Globalism, Difference, Justice. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2004. New Politics of Race: Globalism, Difference, Justice Google Scholar

Winant, Howard. ‘The Dark Side of the Force: One Hundred Years of the Sociology of Race’. Sociology in America: A History. Ed. Craig Calhoun. Chicago: U Chicago P, 2007. 550-86. Sociology in America: A History 550 86 Google Scholar

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Gallardo, Ximena