Quaker Studies

‘Novel Reading and Insanity’: Nineteenth-Century Quaker Fiction Reading Practices

Quaker Studies (2018), 23, (1), 3–24.

Abstract

Standard histories of nineteenth-century Quakerism note that fiction reading was prohibited or strongly discouraged in the Religious Society of Friends, and multiple public documents from the period indicate that pronouncements against reading fiction, especially for young people, were ubiquitous until almost the end of the century. However, records found in minutes kept by Quaker-only reading groups or in the library holdings of Quaker reading societies show that, in private or semi-private settings, Quakers were regularly acquiring fiction as early as the 1820s. Through an examination of some of these records and the histories of some Quaker reading groups, this article complicates our historical understanding of how the Religious Society of Friends adapted to a new information technology, engaging a powerful tension between their testimony of integrity and their belief in continuing revelation.

‘Novel Reading and Insanity’: Nineteenth-Century Quaker Fiction Reading Practices

Abstract

Standard histories of nineteenth-century Quakerism note that fiction reading was prohibited or strongly discouraged in the Religious Society of Friends, and multiple public documents from the period indicate that pronouncements against reading fiction, especially for young people, were ubiquitous until almost the end of the century. However, records found in minutes kept by Quaker-only reading groups or in the library holdings of Quaker reading societies show that, in private or semi-private settings, Quakers were regularly acquiring fiction as early as the 1820s. Through an examination of some of these records and the histories of some Quaker reading groups, this article complicates our historical understanding of how the Religious Society of Friends adapted to a new information technology, engaging a powerful tension between their testimony of integrity and their belief in continuing revelation.

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The Friends’ Book Society Minute Books, 1822–1988, MS 2160. Library of Birmingham, Birmingham. Google Scholar

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Abbott, Margery Post, Mary Ellen Chijioke, Pink Dandelion, and John William Oliver, Jr., (eds), Historical Dictionary of the Friends (Quakers), Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements, No. 44, Lanham, MD and Oxford: Scarecrow Press, 2003. Historical Dictionary of the Friends (Quakers), Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements, No. 44 Google Scholar

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Catalogue of Books in the Library of the Birmingham Friends’ Reading Society, Birmingham: White & Pike, 1858. Google Scholar

A Catalogue of Books in the Library of The Manchester Friends’ Institute, Manchester: Smith & Wood, 1897. Google Scholar

Catalogue of the Library of the Literary Society of Friends; with a prefatory notice of its origin, objects, and present state, London: Printed for the Society, by J. More’s, Bouverie Street, 1825. Google Scholar

Cho, Nancy, ‘Literature’, in Angell, Stephen, and Dandelion, Pink (eds), The Cambridge Companion to Quakerism, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, forthcoming. Literature The Cambridge Companion to Quakerism Google Scholar

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Demoralizing Literature and Art, Philadelphia: The Tract Association of Friends, 1882. Google Scholar

An Essay on the Impropriety of Reading Novels, [London]: Horne, Printer, 1826. Google Scholar

Faxon, Frederick W., Literary Annuals and Gift Books: a bibliography, 1823–1903, Pinner, Middlesex: Private Libraries Association, 1973. Literary Annuals and Gift Books: a bibliography, 1823–1903 Google Scholar

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Hood, James W., ‘“Permanently Valuable”: Victorian Christian literary annuals and the commodification of religion’, Victorians Institute Journal 38 (2010), pp. 53–102. “Permanently Valuable”: Victorian Christian literary annuals and the commodification of religion Victorians Institute Journal 38 53 102 Google Scholar

Hood, James W. (ed.), Quakers and Literature, Philadelphia: Friends Association for Higher Education, 2016. Quakers and Literature Google Scholar

Hunter, J[ohn]. D., ‘The Early Years of the Birmingham Friends’ Reading Society’, Journal of West Midlands Regional Studies 2 (1968), pp. 44–76. The Early Years of the Birmingham Friends’ Reading Society Journal of West Midlands Regional Studies 2 44 76 Google Scholar

Isichei, Elizabeth, Victorian Quakers, Oxford: Oxford UP, 1970. Victorian Quakers Google Scholar

Kaufman, Paul, Libraries and their Users, London: The Library Association, 1969. Libraries and their Users Google Scholar

The Keepsake (for 1828), Frederick Mansel Reynolds (ed.), London: Thomas Davison, 1828. Google Scholar

Kennedy, Thomas C., British Quakerism, 1860–1920: the transformation of a religious community, Oxford: Oxford UP, 2001. British Quakerism, 1860–1920: the transformation of a religious community Google Scholar

Kite, William, Fiction in Public Libraries, Philadelphia, [n.p.]: 1880. Fiction in Public Libraries Google Scholar

Kutcher, Matthew Lawrence, ‘Flowers of Friendship: gift books and polite culture in early nineteenth-century Britain’, Dissertation, U of Michigan, 1998. Flowers of Friendship: gift books and polite culture in early nineteenth-century Britain Google Scholar

Larsen, Timothy, A People of One Book: the Bible and the Victorians, Oxford: Oxford UP, 2011. A People of One Book: the Bible and the Victorians Google Scholar

Ledbetter, Kathryn, ‘Lucrative Requests: British authors and gift book editors’, Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 88 (1994), pp. 207–16. Lucrative Requests: British authors and gift book editors Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 88 207 16 Google Scholar

Ledbetter, Kathryn, ‘“BeGemmed and beAmuletted”: Tennyson and those “vapid” gift books’, Victorian Poetry 34 (1996), pp. 235–45. “BeGemmed and beAmuletted”: Tennyson and those “vapid” gift books Victorian Poetry 34 235 45 Google Scholar

Ledbetter, Kathryn, ‘“White Vellum and Gilt Edges”: Imaging The Keepsake’, Studies in the Literary Imagination 30 (1997), pp. 35–49. “White Vellum and Gilt Edges”: Imaging The Keepsake Studies in the Literary Imagination 30 35 49 Google Scholar

Ledbetter, Kathryn, ‘“The Copper and Steel Manufactory” of Charles Heath’, Victorian Review 28 (2002), pp. 21–30. “The Copper and Steel Manufactory” of Charles Heath Victorian Review 28 21 30 Google Scholar

Lodge, Sara, ‘Romantic Reliquaries: memory and irony in the literary annuals’, Romanticism: The Journal of Romantic Culture and Criticism 10 (2004), pp. 23–40. Romantic Reliquaries: memory and irony in the literary annuals Romanticism: The Journal of Romantic Culture and Criticism 10 23 40 Google Scholar

Longhurst, Liz (ed.), A Memoir of Samuel Drewett (1851–1903), Reading: Dreamcatchers Publishing, 2011. A Memoir of Samuel Drewett (1851–1903) Google Scholar

Mays, Kelly J., ‘The Disease of Reading and Victorian Periodicals’, in Jordan, John O., and Patten, Robert L. (eds), Literature in the Marketplace: nineteenth-century British publishing and reading practices, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995, pp. 165–94. The Disease of Reading and Victorian Periodicals Literature in the Marketplace: nineteenth-century British publishing and reading practices 165 94 Google Scholar

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The Old Discipline: nineteenth-century Friends’ disciplines in America, Glenside, PA: Quaker Heritage Press, 1999. Google Scholar

On Fiction Reading, No. 134, Philadelphia: Tract Association of Friends, 188[1?]. Google Scholar

Pearson, Jacqueline, Women’s Reading in Britain, 1750–1835: A dangerous recreation, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1999. Women’s Reading in Britain, 1750–1835: A dangerous recreation Google Scholar

Penn, William, No Cross, No Crown, Philadelphia: Printed by T. K. & P. G. Collins, for the Representative Committee, or Meeting for Sufferings, of the Yearly Meeting of Friends, 1853. No Cross, No Crown Google Scholar

‘Place des Roses, or, The Lady’s Dream’, in Reynolds, Frederick Mansel (ed.), The Keepsake (for 1828), London: Thomas Davison, 1828, pp. 82–104. Place des Roses, or, The Lady’s Dream The Keepsake 82 104 Google Scholar

Rappoport, Jill, ‘Buyer Beware: the gift poetics of Letitia Elizabeth Landon’, Nineteenth-Century Literature 58 (2004), pp. 441–73. Buyer Beware: the gift poetics of Letitia Elizabeth Landon Nineteenth-Century Literature 58 441 73 Google Scholar

Ledbetter, Kathryn, ‘Lucrative Requests: British authors and gift book editors’, Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 88 (1994), pp. 207–16. Lucrative Requests: British authors and gift book editors Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 88 207 16 Google Scholar

Ledbetter, Kathryn, ‘“BeGemmed and beAmuletted”: Tennyson and those “vapid” gift books’, Victorian Poetry 34 (1996), pp. 235–45. “BeGemmed and beAmuletted”: Tennyson and those “vapid” gift books Victorian Poetry 34 235 45 Google Scholar

Ledbetter, Kathryn, ‘“White Vellum and Gilt Edges”: Imaging The Keepsake’, Studies in the Literary Imagination 30 (1997), pp. 35–49. “White Vellum and Gilt Edges”: Imaging The Keepsake Studies in the Literary Imagination 30 35 49 Google Scholar

Ledbetter, Kathryn, ‘“The Copper and Steel Manufactory” of Charles Heath’, Victorian Review 28 (2002), pp. 21–30. “The Copper and Steel Manufactory” of Charles Heath Victorian Review 28 21 30 Google Scholar

Lodge, Sara, ‘Romantic Reliquaries: memory and irony in the literary annuals’, Romanticism: The Journal of Romantic Culture and Criticism 10 (2004), pp. 23–40. Romantic Reliquaries: memory and irony in the literary annuals Romanticism: The Journal of Romantic Culture and Criticism 10 23 40 Google Scholar

Longhurst, Liz (ed.), A Memoir of Samuel Drewett (1851–1903), Reading: Dreamcatchers Publishing, Giving Women: alliance and exchange in Victorian culture, Oxford: Oxford UP, 2012. A Memoir of Samuel Drewett (1851–1903) Google Scholar

‘Report of the Committee of Women Friends, Appointed to inquire into the “Effects produced on the minds of school girls, by the reading of tale books and books partially fictitious; and to consider where the line of prohibition can best be drawn,”’ Two Reports from the Committee of Women Friends, Presented to the Annual Meetings of the Friends’ Educational Society, 1838–39, London: Harvey and Darton, Gracechurch Street; John L. Linney, York, 2nd edn, 1842, pp. 5–17. Report of the Committee of Women Friends, Appointed to inquire into the “Effects produced on the minds of school girls, by the reading of tale books and books partially fictitious; and to consider where the line of prohibition can best be drawn,” Two Reports from the Committee of Women Friends, Presented to the Annual Meetings of the Friends’ Educational Society, 1838–39 5 17 Google Scholar

Rose, Jonathan, ‘How Historians Study Reading Response: or, What Did Jo think of Bleak House?’, in Jordan, John O., and Patten, Robert L. (eds), Literature in the Marketplace: nineteenth-century British publishing and reading practices, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995, pp. 195–212. How Historians Study Reading Response: or, What Did Jo think of Bleak House? Literature in the Marketplace: nineteenth-century British publishing and reading practices 195 212 Google Scholar

Scott, Richenda, Elizabeth Cadbury, 1858–1951, London: George G. Harrap, 1955. Elizabeth Cadbury, 1858–1951 Google Scholar

Sloan, Catherine, ‘“Periodicals of an objectionable character”: peers and periodicals at Croydon Friends’ School, 1826–1875’, Victorian Periodicals Review 50.4 (Winter 2017), pp. 769–86. “Periodicals of an objectionable character”: peers and periodicals at Croydon Friends’ School, 1826–1875 Victorian Periodicals Review 50.4 769 86 Google Scholar

Souvenir of the Jubilee of the Manchester Friends’ Institute, London: Headley Brothers, [1908]. Google Scholar

Thompson, Ralph, American Literary Annuals and Gift Books, 1825–1865, Archon Books, 1967. American Literary Annuals and Gift Books, 1825–1865 Google Scholar

Tolles, Frederick B., ‘“Of the Best Sort but Plain”: the Quaker esthetic’, American Quarterly 11.4 (Winter 1959), pp. 484–502. “Of the Best Sort but Plain”: the Quaker esthetic American Quarterly 11.4 484 502 Google Scholar

Forster, Joseph B., ‘Memorandum in reference to the action of the Committee of the Manchester Friends Institute’, 25 Sept. 1870. MS Box 9.6.2. Library of the Society of Friends, London. Memorandum in reference to the action of the Committee of the Manchester Friends Institute Google Scholar

The Friends’ Book Society Minute Books, 1822–1988, MS 2160. Library of Birmingham, Birmingham. Google Scholar

‘Rules of the Society’. Library and Reading Society of London, 1821, in Correspondence between Jane Pearson & Thomas Wilkinson & others. MS Box 12.9/71. Library of the Society of Friends, London. Google Scholar

Abbatt, John Dilworth, A Victorian Quaker Courtship: Lancashire love letters of the 1850s, Richmond, IN: Friends United Press, 1988. A Victorian Quaker Courtship: Lancashire love letters of the 1850s Google Scholar

Abbott, Margery Post, Mary Ellen Chijioke, Pink Dandelion, and John William Oliver, Jr., (eds), Historical Dictionary of the Friends (Quakers), Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements, No. 44, Lanham, MD and Oxford: Scarecrow Press, 2003. Historical Dictionary of the Friends (Quakers), Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements, No. 44 Google Scholar

Barclay, Robert, Barclay’s Apology in Modern English, ed. Dean Freiday, Manasquan, NJ: Dean Freiday, 1967. Barclay’s Apology in Modern English Google Scholar

Brown, Susan, ‘The Victorian Poetess’, in Bristow, Joseph (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Victorian Poetry, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006, pp. 180–202. The Victorian Poetess The Cambridge Companion to Victorian Poetry 180 202 Google Scholar

Catalogue of Books in the Library of the Birmingham Friends’ Reading Society, Birmingham: McMichael, 1910. Google Scholar

Catalogue of Books in the Library of the Birmingham Friends’ Reading Society, Birmingham: White & Pike, 1858. Google Scholar

A Catalogue of Books in the Library of The Manchester Friends’ Institute, Manchester: Smith & Wood, 1897. Google Scholar

Catalogue of the Library of the Literary Society of Friends; with a prefatory notice of its origin, objects, and present state, London: Printed for the Society, by J. More’s, Bouverie Street, 1825. Google Scholar

Cho, Nancy, ‘Literature’, in Angell, Stephen, and Dandelion, Pink (eds), The Cambridge Companion to Quakerism, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, forthcoming. Literature The Cambridge Companion to Quakerism Google Scholar

Dandelion, Pink, ‘Guarded Domesticity and Engagement with ‘The World’: The Separate Spheres of Quaker Quietism’, Common Knowledge 16.1 (Dec. 2010), pp. 95–109. Guarded Domesticity and Engagement with ‘The World’: The Separate Spheres of Quaker Quietism Common Knowledge 16.1 95 109 Google Scholar

Demoralizing Literature and Art, Philadelphia: The Tract Association of Friends, 1882. Google Scholar

An Essay on the Impropriety of Reading Novels, [London]: Horne, Printer, 1826. Google Scholar

Faxon, Frederick W., Literary Annuals and Gift Books: a bibliography, 1823–1903, Pinner, Middlesex: Private Libraries Association, 1973. Literary Annuals and Gift Books: a bibliography, 1823–1903 Google Scholar

Felmingham, Michael, The Illustrated Gift Book, 1880–1930: with a checklist of 2500 titles, Aldershot: Scolar, 1988. The Illustrated Gift Book, 1880–1930: with a checklist of 2500 titles Google Scholar

Flint, Kate, The Woman Reader, 1837–1914, Oxford: Clarendon, 1993. The Woman Reader, 1837–1914 Google Scholar

Fox, George, Gospel Truth Demonstrated, in a Collection of Doctrinal Books, Given Forth by that Faithful Minister of Jesus Christ, George Fox: containing principles essential to christianity and salvation, held among the people called Quakers, Philadelphia: Marcus T. C. Gould; New York: Isaac T. Hopper, 1831. Gospel Truth Demonstrated, in a Collection of Doctrinal Books, Given Forth by that Faithful Minister of Jesus Christ, George Fox: containing principles essential to christianity and salvation, held among the people called Quakers Google Scholar

Friendship’s Offering, A Literary Album, edited by Thomas K. Hervey, London: Lupton Relfe, 1827. Google Scholar

Friendship’s Offering: a literary album, and Christmas and New Year’s present for 1828, London: Smith, Elder, & Co., 1828. Google Scholar

Gallagher, Catherine, ‘The Rise of Fictionality’, in Moretti, Franco (ed.), The Novel: Volume 1: history, geography, and culture, Princeton: Princeton UP, 2006, pp. 336–63. The Rise of Fictionality The Novel: Volume 1: history, geography, and culture 336 63 Google Scholar

Guillory, John, ‘The Ethical Practice of Modernity: the example of reading’, in Garber, Marjorie, Hanssen, Beatrice, and Walkowitz, Rebecca L. (eds), The Turn to Ethics, New York: Routledge, 2000, pp. 29–46. The Ethical Practice of Modernity: the example of reading The Turn to Ethics 29 46 Google Scholar

Hawkins, Ann R., ‘“Delectable” Books for “Delicate” Readers: The 1830s Giftbook Market, Ackermann and Co., and the Countess of Blessington’, Kentucky Philological Review 16 (2002), pp. 20–26. “Delectable” Books for “Delicate” Readers: The 1830s Giftbook Market, Ackermann and Co., and the Countess of Blessington Kentucky Philological Review 16 20 26 Google Scholar

Hoagwood, Terence Allan and Kathryn Ledbetter, ‘Colour’d Shadows’: contexts in publishing, printing, and reading nineteenth-century British women writers, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. ‘Colour’d Shadows’: contexts in publishing, printing, and reading nineteenth-century British women writers Google Scholar

Hood, James W., ‘“Permanently Valuable”: Victorian Christian literary annuals and the commodification of religion’, Victorians Institute Journal 38 (2010), pp. 53–102. “Permanently Valuable”: Victorian Christian literary annuals and the commodification of religion Victorians Institute Journal 38 53 102 Google Scholar

Hood, James W. (ed.), Quakers and Literature, Philadelphia: Friends Association for Higher Education, 2016. Quakers and Literature Google Scholar

Hunter, J[ohn]. D., ‘The Early Years of the Birmingham Friends’ Reading Society’, Journal of West Midlands Regional Studies 2 (1968), pp. 44–76. The Early Years of the Birmingham Friends’ Reading Society Journal of West Midlands Regional Studies 2 44 76 Google Scholar

Isichei, Elizabeth, Victorian Quakers, Oxford: Oxford UP, 1970. Victorian Quakers Google Scholar

Kaufman, Paul, Libraries and their Users, London: The Library Association, 1969. Libraries and their Users Google Scholar

The Keepsake (for 1828), Frederick Mansel Reynolds (ed.), London: Thomas Davison, 1828. Google Scholar

Kennedy, Thomas C., British Quakerism, 1860–1920: the transformation of a religious community, Oxford: Oxford UP, 2001. British Quakerism, 1860–1920: the transformation of a religious community Google Scholar

Kite, William, Fiction in Public Libraries, Philadelphia, [n.p.]: 1880. Fiction in Public Libraries Google Scholar

Kutcher, Matthew Lawrence, ‘Flowers of Friendship: gift books and polite culture in early nineteenth-century Britain’, Dissertation, U of Michigan, 1998. Flowers of Friendship: gift books and polite culture in early nineteenth-century Britain Google Scholar

Larsen, Timothy, A People of One Book: the Bible and the Victorians, Oxford: Oxford UP, 2011. A People of One Book: the Bible and the Victorians Google Scholar

Ledbetter, Kathryn, ‘Lucrative Requests: British authors and gift book editors’, Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 88 (1994), pp. 207–16. Lucrative Requests: British authors and gift book editors Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 88 207 16 Google Scholar

Ledbetter, Kathryn, ‘“BeGemmed and beAmuletted”: Tennyson and those “vapid” gift books’, Victorian Poetry 34 (1996), pp. 235–45. “BeGemmed and beAmuletted”: Tennyson and those “vapid” gift books Victorian Poetry 34 235 45 Google Scholar

Ledbetter, Kathryn, ‘“White Vellum and Gilt Edges”: Imaging The Keepsake’, Studies in the Literary Imagination 30 (1997), pp. 35–49. “White Vellum and Gilt Edges”: Imaging The Keepsake Studies in the Literary Imagination 30 35 49 Google Scholar

Ledbetter, Kathryn, ‘“The Copper and Steel Manufactory” of Charles Heath’, Victorian Review 28 (2002), pp. 21–30. “The Copper and Steel Manufactory” of Charles Heath Victorian Review 28 21 30 Google Scholar

Lodge, Sara, ‘Romantic Reliquaries: memory and irony in the literary annuals’, Romanticism: The Journal of Romantic Culture and Criticism 10 (2004), pp. 23–40. Romantic Reliquaries: memory and irony in the literary annuals Romanticism: The Journal of Romantic Culture and Criticism 10 23 40 Google Scholar

Longhurst, Liz (ed.), A Memoir of Samuel Drewett (1851–1903), Reading: Dreamcatchers Publishing, 2011. A Memoir of Samuel Drewett (1851–1903) Google Scholar

Mays, Kelly J., ‘The Disease of Reading and Victorian Periodicals’, in Jordan, John O., and Patten, Robert L. (eds), Literature in the Marketplace: nineteenth-century British publishing and reading practices, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995, pp. 165–94. The Disease of Reading and Victorian Periodicals Literature in the Marketplace: nineteenth-century British publishing and reading practices 165 94 Google Scholar

‘Novel Reading and Insanity’, Friends Intelligencer 21.39 (Twelfth Month 3, 1864), pp. 611–12. Novel Reading and Insanity Friends Intelligencer 21.39 611 12 Google Scholar

The Old Discipline: nineteenth-century Friends’ disciplines in America, Glenside, PA: Quaker Heritage Press, 1999. Google Scholar

On Fiction Reading, No. 134, Philadelphia: Tract Association of Friends, 188[1?]. Google Scholar

Pearson, Jacqueline, Women’s Reading in Britain, 1750–1835: A dangerous recreation, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1999. Women’s Reading in Britain, 1750–1835: A dangerous recreation Google Scholar

Penn, William, No Cross, No Crown, Philadelphia: Printed by T. K. & P. G. Collins, for the Representative Committee, or Meeting for Sufferings, of the Yearly Meeting of Friends, 1853. No Cross, No Crown Google Scholar

‘Place des Roses, or, The Lady’s Dream’, in Reynolds, Frederick Mansel (ed.), The Keepsake (for 1828), London: Thomas Davison, 1828, pp. 82–104. Place des Roses, or, The Lady’s Dream The Keepsake 82 104 Google Scholar

Rappoport, Jill, ‘Buyer Beware: the gift poetics of Letitia Elizabeth Landon’, Nineteenth-Century Literature 58 (2004), pp. 441–73. Buyer Beware: the gift poetics of Letitia Elizabeth Landon Nineteenth-Century Literature 58 441 73 Google Scholar

Ledbetter, Kathryn, ‘Lucrative Requests: British authors and gift book editors’, Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 88 (1994), pp. 207–16. Lucrative Requests: British authors and gift book editors Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 88 207 16 Google Scholar

Ledbetter, Kathryn, ‘“BeGemmed and beAmuletted”: Tennyson and those “vapid” gift books’, Victorian Poetry 34 (1996), pp. 235–45. “BeGemmed and beAmuletted”: Tennyson and those “vapid” gift books Victorian Poetry 34 235 45 Google Scholar

Ledbetter, Kathryn, ‘“White Vellum and Gilt Edges”: Imaging The Keepsake’, Studies in the Literary Imagination 30 (1997), pp. 35–49. “White Vellum and Gilt Edges”: Imaging The Keepsake Studies in the Literary Imagination 30 35 49 Google Scholar

Ledbetter, Kathryn, ‘“The Copper and Steel Manufactory” of Charles Heath’, Victorian Review 28 (2002), pp. 21–30. “The Copper and Steel Manufactory” of Charles Heath Victorian Review 28 21 30 Google Scholar

Lodge, Sara, ‘Romantic Reliquaries: memory and irony in the literary annuals’, Romanticism: The Journal of Romantic Culture and Criticism 10 (2004), pp. 23–40. Romantic Reliquaries: memory and irony in the literary annuals Romanticism: The Journal of Romantic Culture and Criticism 10 23 40 Google Scholar

Longhurst, Liz (ed.), A Memoir of Samuel Drewett (1851–1903), Reading: Dreamcatchers Publishing, Giving Women: alliance and exchange in Victorian culture, Oxford: Oxford UP, 2012. A Memoir of Samuel Drewett (1851–1903) Google Scholar

‘Report of the Committee of Women Friends, Appointed to inquire into the “Effects produced on the minds of school girls, by the reading of tale books and books partially fictitious; and to consider where the line of prohibition can best be drawn,”’ Two Reports from the Committee of Women Friends, Presented to the Annual Meetings of the Friends’ Educational Society, 1838–39, London: Harvey and Darton, Gracechurch Street; John L. Linney, York, 2nd edn, 1842, pp. 5–17. Report of the Committee of Women Friends, Appointed to inquire into the “Effects produced on the minds of school girls, by the reading of tale books and books partially fictitious; and to consider where the line of prohibition can best be drawn,” Two Reports from the Committee of Women Friends, Presented to the Annual Meetings of the Friends’ Educational Society, 1838–39 5 17 Google Scholar

Rose, Jonathan, ‘How Historians Study Reading Response: or, What Did Jo think of Bleak House?’, in Jordan, John O., and Patten, Robert L. (eds), Literature in the Marketplace: nineteenth-century British publishing and reading practices, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995, pp. 195–212. How Historians Study Reading Response: or, What Did Jo think of Bleak House? Literature in the Marketplace: nineteenth-century British publishing and reading practices 195 212 Google Scholar

Scott, Richenda, Elizabeth Cadbury, 1858–1951, London: George G. Harrap, 1955. Elizabeth Cadbury, 1858–1951 Google Scholar

Sloan, Catherine, ‘“Periodicals of an objectionable character”: peers and periodicals at Croydon Friends’ School, 1826–1875’, Victorian Periodicals Review 50.4 (Winter 2017), pp. 769–86. “Periodicals of an objectionable character”: peers and periodicals at Croydon Friends’ School, 1826–1875 Victorian Periodicals Review 50.4 769 86 Google Scholar

Souvenir of the Jubilee of the Manchester Friends’ Institute, London: Headley Brothers, [1908]. Google Scholar

Thompson, Ralph, American Literary Annuals and Gift Books, 1825–1865, Archon Books, 1967. American Literary Annuals and Gift Books, 1825–1865 Google Scholar

Tolles, Frederick B., ‘“Of the Best Sort but Plain”: the Quaker esthetic’, American Quarterly 11.4 (Winter 1959), pp. 484–502. “Of the Best Sort but Plain”: the Quaker esthetic American Quarterly 11.4 484 502 Google Scholar


Details

Author details

Hood, James W.