Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Contact-induced Grammatical Change and Independent Development in the Chabacano Creoles

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (2020), 97, (1), 105–123.

Abstract

This study examines variation and change among three Chabacano varieties. While there has been considerable debate on how these Spanish-lexified creoles formed and how they are related, there has been no comprehensive comparison of their grammatical features. Based on frameworks of contact-induced grammaticalization, this paper compares three areas of Cavite, Ternate, and Zamboanga Chabacano grammar: modality, reciprocal marking and argument marking. While these creoles have typological similarities, they also have substantial differences due to variation in the grammaticalization of elements from Spanish and the different adstrates in each community. These different grammaticalization paths support theories that these varieties developed independently rather than directly from a single ancestor. Historical evidence suggests they developed under different sociohistorical circumstances during different time periods. Factors in their continuing divergence include their geographical distance, language endangerment in Cavite and Ternate, and the presence of Visayan L2 speakers in Zamboanga.

En este artículo estudiamos la variación y el cambio gramatical en las variedades chabacanas de Cavite, Ternate y Zamboanga. Aunque la formación y las interrelaciones de estas variedades criollas se hayan debatido considerablemente, todavía falta una comparación exhaustiva de sus rasgos gramaticales. Basado en marcos de gramaticalización inducida por el contacto, este artículo compara la modalidad, la reciprocidad y la marcación de los argumentos en estas tres variedades chabacanas. Si bien estos criollos tienen una notable similitud tipológica, se diferencian sustancialmente en cuanto a la variación en la gramaticalización de los elementos del español y de las diferentes lenguas de adstrato. La evidencia sobre las diferentes vías de gramaticalización apoya la teoría de un desarrollo independiente en vez de un origen común y único. La evidencia histórica sugiere que las variedades se desarrollaron bajo diferentes circunstancias sociohistóricas en diferentes momentos históricos. La distancia geográfica entre las comunidades, el peligro de desaparición en Cavite y Ternate, y la presencia de hablantes de lenguas bisayas que hablan chabacano como L2 en Zamboanga se identifican como los factores que causan la divergencia todavía en curso.

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Author details

SIPPOLA, EEVA

LESHO, MARIVIC