Before Farming

Rock-art in the Tolmer sandstones, Northern Territory, Australia

Before Farming (2003), 2003, (2), 1–22.

Abstract

Little has been reported of the rock-art in the area between Darwin and the Daly River, in the Northern Territory. Recent management surveys, however, have revealed that the northern end of the outcropping Tolmer Sandstone contains a small but significant corpus of rock-art. While having aspects in common with the adjacent areas of the Victoria/Upper Daly River region to the south-west and western Arnhem Land to the east, the differences are enough to indicate that the sites in the area constitute a distinct art region in their own right. Further, within this corpus there is a pattern of bichrome art occurring on the edge of the escarpments and adjacent to the resources of the nearby wetlands, and older looking red paintings in the interior of the range.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

 Google Scholar

Baker, R 1983. Pine Creek Gold mine environmental studies: archaeology. Report to Kinhill Stearns, Adelaide. Google Scholar

Bauman, T & Deveson, T 1983. Clearance of Renison Goldfields EL and GML areas at Pine Creek. Restricted report to the Aboriginal Sacred Sites Authority, Darwin. Google Scholar

Bednarik, RG 1993. About cupules. Rock Art Research 10(2):138-139. About cupules Rock Art Research 10 138 139 Google Scholar

Berndt, RM & Berndt, CH 1977. The world of the first Australians. Sydney: Ure Smith. The world of the first Australians Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Bureau of Meteorology 2000. Climate averages. www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages Google Scholar

Burns, T 1999. Subsistence and settlement patterns in the Darwin coastal region during the late Holocene period: a preliminary report of archaeological research. Australian Aboriginal Studies 1999/1:59-69. Subsistence and settlement patterns in the Darwin coastal region during the late Holocene period: a preliminary report of archaeological research Australian Aboriginal Studies 1999/1 59 69 Google Scholar

Chaloupka, G 1984. From paleo art to casual paintings Monograph Series 1. Darwin: Northern Territory Museum of Arts & Sciences. From paleo art to casual paintings Monograph Series 1 Google Scholar

Chaloupka, G 1993. Journey in time: the world's longest continuing art tradition. Sydney: Reed. Journey in time: the world's longest continuing art tradition Google Scholar

David, B, David, M, Flood, J & Frost J 1990. Rock paintings of the Yingalarri region. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 28(2):442-462. Rock paintings of the Yingalarri region Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 28 442 462 Google Scholar

Edwards, R 1979. Australian Aboriginal art: the art of the Alligators Rivers region, Northern Territory. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. Australian Aboriginal art: the art of the Alligators Rivers region, Northern Territory Google Scholar

Flood, J 1997 Rock-art of the Dreamtime. Sydney: Angus & Robertson. Rock-art of the Dreamtime Google Scholar

Gorecki, P, Grant, M, O'Connor, S & Veth, P 1997. The morphology function and antiquity of grinding implements in Australia. Archaeology in Oceania 32:141-150. The morphology function and antiquity of grinding implements in Australia Archaeology in Oceania 32 141 150 Google Scholar

Gunn, RG 1983. Aboriginal rock-art in the Grampians. Records of the Victorian Archaeological Survey No 16. Melbourne: Ministry for Conservation. Aboriginal rock-art in the Grampians Google Scholar

Gunn, RG 1989. Langgay rock-art survey. Report to the Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin. Katherine. Google Scholar

Gunn, RG 1991. The rock-art of Litchfield National Park; a resource assessment with implications for the Park Management. Report to the Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin. Batchelor. Google Scholar

Gunn, RG 1992a. The rock-art of Litchfield National Park: a second survey. Report to the Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin. Darwin. Google Scholar

Gunn, RG 1992b. Bulajang - a reappraisal of the archaeology of an Aboriginal cult. In MacDonald, J & Haskovec, IP (eds) State of the art. Occasional AURA Publication 6. Melbourne: Australian Rock Art Research Association: 174-194. State of the art 174 194 Google Scholar

Gunn, RG 1998. Umbrawarra Aboriginal art-site complex: recording and assessment. Report to Aboriginal Areas Protection Authority, Darwin. Google Scholar

Guse, D 1995. Archaeological survey of the proposed realignment of the North Australia Railway, Pine Creek to Union Reefs, NT. Report to Australian National Rail. Google Scholar

Guse, D 1997. Werat archaeology: a study of archaeological sites in the Finniss and Reynolds River region: stage 1 report. Report to the Australian Heritage Commission, Canberra. Google Scholar

Guse, D 1998. A report on the collection of archaeological sites at Union Reefs Gold Mine, NT. Report for Union Reefs Gold Mine, Acacia Resources. Google Scholar

Guse, D 2000. Investigation of archaeological sites in the Finniss/Reynolds/Daly Rivers coastal biogeographic region. Report to the Australian Heritage Commission, Canberra. Google Scholar

Hiscock, P 1991. An archaeological investigation of the proposed Stuart Highway re-alignment at Pine Creek. Report to Pine Creek Goldfields Ltd, Pine Creek. Google Scholar

Kearney, J 1991. Upper Daily Land Claim Volumes 1, 2 & 3. Report by the Aboriginal Land Commissioner to the Minister of Aboriginal Affairs and the Administrator of the Northern Territory. AGPS, Canberra. Google Scholar

Kinhill Engineers Pty Ltd 1992. Union Reefs gold project: historic and prehistoric archaeological heritage. Report to Union Reefs Project, Shell Co (Aus) Pty Ltd, Darwin. Google Scholar

Lewis, D 1988. The rock paintings of Arnhem Land, Australia. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports 415. The rock paintings of Arnhem Land, Australia 415 Google Scholar

McNickle, HP 1991. A survey of rock-art in the Victoria River District, Northern Territory. Rock Art Research 8(1):36-47. A survey of rock-art in the Victoria River District, Northern Territory Rock Art Research 8 36 47 Google Scholar

Mearns, L 1987. The documentation of Wagiman sites around Kalay and of Kuna.gnart.gnart at Umbrawarra Gorge. Report to the Aboriginal Sacred Sites Protection Authority, Darwin. Google Scholar

Merlan, F 1989. The interpretative framework of Wardaman rock-art: a preliminary report. Australian Aboriginal Studies 1989/2:14-24. The interpretative framework of Wardaman rock-art: a preliminary report. Australian Aboriginal Studies 1989/2 14 24 Google Scholar

Mulvaney, K 1992. Aboriginal archaeological survey: Gandy's Hill project. Report to AGC Woodward-Clyde Pty Ltd, Darwin. Google Scholar

Mulvaney, K 1993a. Aboriginal archaeological investigation: Mount Porter proposed gold mine. Report to Pine Creek Goldfields Ltd, Pine Creek. Google Scholar

Mulvaney, K 1993b. Preliminary archaeological survey: Mt Todd 22kv transmission line. Report to the Department of Transport and Works, Darwin. Google Scholar

Nelson, DE (ed) 2000. The beeswax art of northern Australia CD. Burnaby: Simon Fraser University. The beeswax art of northern Australia CD Google Scholar

Pearce, H 1982. Pine Creek Heritage scheme report: Volume 1. Report to the National Trust of Australia (Northern Territory). Google Scholar

Pearce, H 1983. Aboriginal sites in the Pine Creek district. Report to the Aboriginal Sacred Sites Authority, Darwin. Aboriginal Areas Protection Authority report R83/41. Google Scholar

Pietsch, B A 1989. Explanatory notes: Reynolds River 5071. Northern Territory Geological Survey, Darwin. AGPS, Canberra. Explanatory notes: Reynolds River 5071 Google Scholar

Rosenfeld, A 1999. Rock art and rock markings. Australian Archaeology 49:28-33. Rock art and rock markings Australian Archaeology 49 28 33 Google Scholar

Stuart-Smith, PG, Needham, PS, Bagas, L & Wallace, DA 1987. Pine Creek Northern Territory; 1:100 000 Geological map commentary. Northern Territory Geological Survey, Darwin. AGPS, Canberra. Pine Creek Northern Territory; 1:100 000 Geological map commentary Google Scholar

Taçon, PSC 1989. Art and the essence of being: symbolic and economic aspects of fish among the peoples of western Arnhem Land, Australia. In Morphy, H (ed) Animals into art. London: Unwin Hyman: 236-250. Animals into art 236 250 Google Scholar

Taçon, PSC 1992. Somewhere over the Rainbow: an ethnographic and archaeological analysis of recent rock paintings of western Arnhem Land. In MacDonald, J & Haskovec, IP (eds) State of the art. Occasional AURA Publication 6. Melbourne: Australian Rock Art Research Association: 202-215. State of the art 202 215 Google Scholar

Taçon, PSC, Fullagar, R, Ouzman, S & Mulvaney, K 1997. Cupule engravings from Jinmium-Granilpi (northern Australia) and beyond: exploration of a widespread and enigmatic class of rock marking. Antiquity 71:942-965. Cupule engravings from Jinmium-Granilpi (northern Australia) and beyond: exploration of a widespread and enigmatic class of rock marking Antiquity 71 942 965 Google Scholar

Taylor, L 1989. Seeing the ‘Inside’: Kunwinjku painting and the symbol of the divided body. In Morphy, H (ed) Animals into art. London: Unwin Hyman: 371-389. Animals into art 371 389 Google Scholar

Tindale, NB 1974. Aboriginal Tribes of Australia. Canberra: Australian National University Press. Aboriginal Tribes of Australia Google Scholar

Walsh, GL 1983. Composite stencil art: elemental or specialised. Australian Aboriginal Studies 2:34-44. Composite stencil art: elemental or specialised Australian Aboriginal Studies 2 34 44 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Gunn, R