Before Farming

Pitsaneng

evidence for a neolithic Lesotho?

Before Farming (2004), 2004, (4), 1–10.

Abstract

This paper uses the excavations carried out in 2000 at the site of Pitsaneng in the Lesotho highlands to bring together an argument for a more extensive and diverse trade and exchange network involving Lesotho than has previously been acknowledged. It is proposed that the Lesotho highlands' involvement in these networks led to the development of a ‘new stone age', which may have included the practice of small scale pastoralism by stone age herder-hunter-gatherers in Lesotho prior to the arrival of Sotho farming communities in the late nineteenth century.

Access Token
£25.00
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Arbousset, T 1991. Missionary Excursion. Translated by D Ambrose and A Brutsch. Morija, Lesotho: Morija Archives. Missionary Excursion Google Scholar

Ashton, H 1952. TheBasuto. Oxford: Oxford University Press TheBasuto Google Scholar

Barrow, J 1806. An account of travels into the interior of southern Africa, in the years 1797 and 1798. London: Cadell and Davies. An account of travels into the interior of southern Africa, in the years 1797 and 1798 Google Scholar

Burchell, WJ 1953. Travels in the interior of southern Africa (1810-1812), Volume 1 (a) and Volume 2 (b). London: The Batchworth Press. Travels in the interior of southern Africa 1 (a) Google Scholar

Cable, JHC 1984. Economy and technology in the Late Stone Age of southern Natal. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports International Series 201. Google Scholar

Carter, PL 1977. The prehistory of eastern Lesotho. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Cambridge. Google Scholar

Carter, PL, Mitchell, PJ & Vinnicombe, P 1988. Sehonghong: the Middle and Later Stone Age sequence at a Lesotho rock-shelter. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports International Series 406. Google Scholar

Davies, O 1971. Excavations at Blackburn. South African Archaeological Bulletin 26:165-178. Excavations at Blackburn South African Archaeological Bulletin 26 165 178 Google Scholar

Feely, JM 1987. The early farmers of Transkei, southern Africa before A. D. 1870. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports International Series 378. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Jolly, P 1995. Melikane and Upper Mangolong revisited: the possible effects on San art of symbiotic contact between south-eastern San and southern Sotho and Nguni communities. South African Archaeological Bulletin 50:68-80. Melikane and Upper Mangolong revisited: the possible effects on San art of symbiotic contact between south-eastern San and southern Sotho and Nguni communities South African Archaeological Bulletin 50 68 80 Google Scholar

Klatzow, S 1994. Roosfontein, a contact site in the eastern Free State. South African Archaeological Bulletin 49:9-15. Roosfontein, a contact site in the eastern Free State South African Archaeological Bulletin 49 9 15 Google Scholar

Maggs, TMO'C 1976. Iron Age Communities of the Southern Highveld. Pietermaritzburg: Natal Museum. Iron Age Communities of the Southern Highveld Google Scholar

Maggs, TMO'C & Ward, V 1980. Driel Shelter: rescue at a Late Stone Age site on the Tugela River. Annals of the Natal Museum 24:35-70. Driel Shelter: rescue at a Late Stone Age site on the Tugela River Annals of the Natal Museum 24 35 70 Google Scholar

Mazel, AD 1989. People making history: the last ten thousand years of hunter-gatherer communities in the Thukela basin. Natal Museum Journal of Humanities 1:1-168. People making history: the last ten thousand years of hunter-gatherer communities in the Thukela basin Natal Museum Journal of Humanities 1 1 168 Google Scholar

Mazel, AD 1992. Early pottery from the eastern part of southern Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin 47:3-7. Early pottery from the eastern part of southern Africa South African Archaeological Bulletin 47 3 7 Google Scholar

Mazel.AD 1997. Hunter-gatherers in the Thukela Basin during the last 1500 years, with special reference to hunter-gatherer/agriculturalist relations. In Bank, A (ed) The proceedings of the Khoisan identities & cultural heritage conference. Cape Town: Arts and Culture Trust:94-101. Hunter-gatherers in the Thukela Basin during the last 1500 years, with special reference to hunter-gatherer/agriculturalist relations 94 101 Google Scholar

Mazel, AD & Watchman, AL 2003. Dating rock paintings in the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg and the Biggarsberg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Southern African Humanities 15:59-73. Dating rock paintings in the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg and the Biggarsberg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Southern African Humanities 15 59 73 Google Scholar

Mitchell, PJ 1992. Archaeological research in Lesotho: a review of 120 years. African Archaeological Review 9:3-34. Archaeological research in Lesotho: a review of 120 years African Archaeological Review 9 3 34 Google Scholar

Mitchell, PJ 1993. The archaeology of Tloutle rock shelter, Maseru district, Lesotho. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum Bloemfontein 9:77-132. The archaeology of Tloutle rock shelter, Maseru district, Lesotho Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum Bloemfontein 9 77 132 Google Scholar

Mitchell, PJ 1994. The archaeology of the Phuthiatsana-ea-Thaba Bosiu basin, Lesotho, southern Africa: changes in Later Stone Age regional demography. Antiquity 68:83-96. The archaeology of the Phuthiatsana-ea-Thaba Bosiu basin, Lesotho, southern Africa: changes in Later Stone Age regional demography Antiquity 68 83 96 Google Scholar

Mitchell, PJ 1996a. Sehonghong: the late Holocene assemblages with pottery. South African Archaeological Bulletin 51:17-25. Sehonghong: the late Holocene assemblages with pottery South African Archaeological Bulletin 51 17 25 Google Scholar

Mitchell, PJ 1996b. Prehistoric exchange and interaction in southeastern southern Africa: marine shells and ostrich eggshell. African Archaeological Review 13:35-76. Prehistoric exchange and interaction in southeastern southern Africa: marine shells and ostrich eggshell African Archaeological Review 13 35 76 Google Scholar

Mitchell, PJ 2001. Recent archaeological work in Lesotho: an overview of fieldwork 1988-2000. National University of Lesotho Journal of Research Recent archaeological work in Lesotho: an overview of fieldwork 1988-2000 National University of Lesotho Journal of Research Google Scholar

Mitchell, PJ 2002. The archaeology of southern Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The archaeology of southern Africa Google Scholar

Mitchell PJ 2003. Anyone for Hxaro? Thoughts on the theory and practice of exchange in southern African Later Stone Age archaeology. In Mitchell, P, Haour, A & Hobart, J (eds) Researching Africa's past: new contributions from British archaeologists. Oxford: School of Archaeology:35-43 Researching Africa's past: new contributions from British archaeologists 35 43 Google Scholar

Mitchell, PJ & Charles, R 1998. Archaeological fieldwork in the Lesotho highlands, July and August 1998: the second season of excavation at the Likoaeeng open-air site. Nyame Akuma 50:13-21. Archaeological fieldwork in the Lesotho highlands, July and August 1998: the second season of excavation at the Likoaeeng open-air site Nyame Akuma 50 13 21 Google Scholar

Mitchell, PJ, Parkington, JE & Yates, R 1994. Recent Holocene archaeology in western and southern Lesotho. South African Archaeological Bulletin 49:33-52. Recent Holocene archaeology in western and southern Lesotho South African Archaeological Bulletin 49 33 52 Google Scholar

Orpen, JM 1874. A glimpse into the mythology of the Maluti Bushmen. Cape Monthly Magazine 9:1-13. A glimpse into the mythology of the Maluti Bushmen Cape Monthly Magazine 9 1 13 Google Scholar

Parkington, JE, Yates, R & Poggenpoel, C 1987. Lesotho rescue archaeology 1982/83. Unpublished report for the Protection and Preservation Commission, Lesotho. Google Scholar

Plug, I & Engela, R 1992. The macrofaunal remains from recent excavations at Rose Cottage Cave, Orange Free State. South African Archaeological Bulletin 47:16-25. The macrofaunal remains from recent excavations at Rose Cottage Cave, Orange Free State South African Archaeological Bulletin 47 16 25 Google Scholar

Prins, FE & Grainger, JE 1993. Early farming communities in northern Transkei: the evidence from Ntsitsana and adjacent areas. Natal Museum Journal of Humanities 5:15 3-174. Early farming communities in northern Transkei: the evidence from Ntsitsana and adjacent areas Natal Museum Journal of Humanities 5 153 174 Google Scholar

Robey, T 1980. Mpambanyoni: a Late Iron Age site on the Natal south coast. Annals of the Natal Museum 24:147-164. Mpambanyoni: a Late Iron Age site on the Natal south coast Annals of the Natal Museum 24 147 164 Google Scholar

Sadr, K 2003. The Neolithic of southern Africa. Journal of African History 44.2:195-209. The Neolithic of southern Africa Journal of African History 44 195 209 Google Scholar

Sealy, JC & Yates, R 1994. The chronology of the introduction of pastoralism to the Cape, South Africa. Antiquity 68: 58-67. The chronology of the introduction of pastoralism to the Cape, South Africa Antiquity 68 58 67 Google Scholar

Sealy, JC & Yates, R 1996. Direct radiocarbon dating of early sheep bones: two further results. South African Archaeological Bulletin 51:109-110. Direct radiocarbon dating of early sheep bones: two further results South African Archaeological Bulletin 51 109 110 Google Scholar

Schapera, I 1927. Bows and arrows of the Bushmen. Man 27:113-117. Bows and arrows of the Bushmen Man 27 113 117 Google Scholar

Smits, LGA 1973. Rock painting sites in the Upper Senqu Valley, Lesotho. South African Archaeological Bulletin 28:32-38. Rock painting sites in the Upper Senqu Valley, Lesotho South African Archaeological Bulletin 28 32 38 Google Scholar

Smits, LGA 1983. Rock paintings in Lesotho: site characteristics. South African Archaeological Bulletin 38:62-76. Rock paintings in Lesotho: site characteristics South African Archaeological Bulletin 38 62 76 Google Scholar

Stow, GW 1905. The native races of South Africa. London: S. Sonnenschein & Co. The native races of South Africa Google Scholar

Thorp, CR 2000. Hunter-gatherers and farmers: an enduring frontier in the Caledon Valley, South Africa. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports International Series 860. Google Scholar

Vinnicombe, P 1976. People of the Eland. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press People of the Eland Google Scholar

Vogel, JC & Fuls, A 1999. Spatial distribution of radiocarbon dates for the iron age in southern Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin 54:97-101. Spatial distribution of radiocarbon dates for the iron age in southern Africa South African Archaeological Bulletin 54 97 101 Google Scholar

Wadley, L 1992. Rose Cottage Cave: the Later Stone Age levels with European and Iron Age artefacts. South African Archaeological Bulletin 47:8-12. Rose Cottage Cave: the Later Stone Age levels with European and Iron Age artefacts South African Archaeological Bulletin 47 8 12 Google Scholar

Wadley, L 1995. Review of dated Stone Age sites recently excavated in the eastern Free State, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 91:574-579. Review of dated Stone Age sites recently excavated in the eastern Free State, South Africa South African Journal of Science 91 574 579 Google Scholar

Wadley, L & McLaren, G 1998. Tandjesberg Shelter, eastern Free State, South Africa. Natal Museum Journal of Humanities 10:19-32. Tandjesberg Shelter, eastern Free State, South Africa Natal Museum Journal of Humanities 10 19 32 Google Scholar

Wiessner, P 1982. Risk, reciprocity and social influence on IKung San economics. In Leacock, E & Lee, RB (eds) Politics and History in Band Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:61-84 Politics and History in Band Societies 61 84 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Hobart, John