The history of sport was not established in Italy as a discipline based on the use of archival sources until the 1990s. In the private sphere, precise quantitative and qualitative data are not available for the countless sport-related archives built up from the end of the 19th century. As their owners often have no interest in their preservation or are unaware of their historical value, there is a great risk of loss, dispersal and destruction. Public records regarding sport are practically non-existent until 1922 because the Liberal governments regarded sport as morally suspect and created no institutional structures for it. Under Fascism, public records relating to sport proliferated, but the creating bodies were seldom concerned exclusively with this sector and the records are therefore hard to identify within the mass of general documentation. Extensive cooperation will be needed to preserve these records by undertaking a thorough survey and creating an archival database.