European Journal of Language Policy

Le rôle de l'interaction entre les actions de l'Etat, des planificateurs linguistiques et des communautés dans la vitalité linguistique des langues régionales et minoritaires

European Journal of Language Policy (2012), 4, (2), 237–254.

Abstract

Cette contribution vise à clarifier les conditions dans lesquelles les actions de revitalisation linguistique prises après la seconde guerre mondiale en Europe peuvent renforcer d'une manière plus permanente les langues minoritaires et régionales qui se trouvent en situation vulnérable. Plus précisément, cette recherche se penche sur la situation du gallois en contraste avec le breton et le gaélique irlandais. Dans la perspective du cadre écologique, qui a inspiré la Charte européenne des langues régionales et minoritaires, elle examine la mise en oeuvre de programmes de revitalisation et de maintenance des langues dans les écoles, ainsi que l'adoption de politiques linguistiques bénéfiques pour les langues moins répandues. Elle cherche à voir pourquoi ces initiatives ont connu des succès inégaux. Les raisons pour lesquelles certains modèles de revitalisation semblent avoir plus de succès que d'autres dans le développement du patrimoine linguistique semblent provenir de l'interaction des parties prenantes, telles que les Etats, les planificateurs de langue, et les communautés linguistiques impliquées dans la mise en oeuvre des programmes des politiques. En effet, lorsque toutes les parties prenantes s'accordent à promouvoir des attitudes positives envers la revitalisation de la langue, et qu'elles partagent les mêmes objectifs, la revitalisation peut avoir lieu. Mais quand leurs objectifs ou leurs comportements ne sont pas harmonisés leurs actions risquent de ne pas soutenir la revitalisation de la langue.

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Baker, C. (2006). Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism (Francfort : Multilingual Matters). Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism Google Scholar

Broudic, F. (1999). Histoire de la langue bretonne (Rennes : Ed. Ouest-France). Histoire de la langue bretonne Google Scholar

Broudic, F. (2007). La langue bretonne, disponible à www.langue-bretonne.com/index.html Google Scholar

Bugarski, R. (1992). ‘Language in Yugoslavia: Situation, Policy, Planning’, R. Bugarski et C. Hawkesworth (dir.), Language Planning in Yugoslavia (Ohio : Slavica), pp. 10-26. Language Planning in Yugoslavia 10 26 Google Scholar

Cooper, R. (1989). Language Planning and Social Change (Cambridge : Cambridge University Press). Language Planning and Social Change Google Scholar

Edwards, J. (2001). ‘The Ecology of Language Revival’, Current Issues in Language Planning 2.2-3 : 231-41. ‘The Ecology of Language Revival’ Current Issues in Language Planning 2 231 41 Google Scholar

Fishman, J. (1991). Reversing Language Shift: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of Assistance to Threatened Languages (Clevedon and Philadelphia : Multilingual Matters). Reversing Language Shift: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of Assistance to Threatened Languages Google Scholar

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Haugen, E. (1972). ‘The Ecology of Language’, A. S. Dil (dir.), The Ecology of Language: Essays by Einar Haugen (Stanford : Stanford University Press), pp. 325-39. The Ecology of Language: Essays by Einar Haugen 325 39 Google Scholar

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Hinton, L., et Hale, K. (2001). The Green Book on Language Revitalisation (San Diego : Academic Press). The Green Book on Language Revitalisation Google Scholar

Jones, M. C. (1998). Language Obsolescence and Revitalisation: Linguistic Changes in Two Sociolinguistically Contrasting Welsh Communities (Oxford et New York : Oxford University Press). Language Obsolescence and Revitalisation: Linguistic Changes in Two Sociolinguistically Contrasting Welsh Communities Google Scholar

Kortmann, B., et Auwera, J. (eds) (2011). The Languages and Linguistics of Europe: A Comprehensive Guide (Berlin : De Gruyter Mouton). The Languages and Linguistics of Europe: A Comprehensive Guide Google Scholar

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Office de la langue bretonne-Ofis ar brezhoneg, disponible à www.ofis-bzh.org/index.ph Google Scholar

Romaine, S. (2006). ‘Reversing Language Shift’, K. Brown (dir.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (Elsevier, 2e edition), pp. 568-71. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics 568 71 Google Scholar

Salminen, T. (1999). UNESCO Red Book on Endangered Languages (3 février 2010), disponible à www.helsinki.fi/~tasalmin/europe_index.html Google Scholar

Spolsky, B. (2005). ‘Language Policy’, J. Cohen et al. (dir.), Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism (Sommerville : Cascadilla Press). ‘Language Policy’ Google Scholar

Tabouret-Keller, A. (2011). Le bilinguisme en procès, cent ans d'errance (Limoges : Lambert-Lucas). Le bilinguisme en procès, cent ans d'errance Google Scholar

Thiesse, A. M. (1999). La création des identités nationales.Europe XVIIIe-XXe siècle (Paris : Seuil). La création des identités nationales. Europe XVIIIe-XXe siècle Google Scholar

Trywyydd, C. (2010). The Advantages of the Welsh Language in the World of Work: Briefing Paper and Case Study (Cardiff : Welsh Language Board). The Advantages of the Welsh Language in the World of Work: Briefing Paper and Case Study Google Scholar

UNESCO Ad Hoc Expert Group on Endangered Languages (2003). Language Vitality and Endangerment, submitted to the International Expert Meeting on UNESCO Programme Safeguarding of Endangered Languages, Paris, 10-12 marche 2003. Google Scholar

Welsh Language Board (Bwrdd yr iaith Gymraeg) (2003a). ‘Providers’, disponible à www.byig-wlb.org.uk/English/learning/Pages/Providers.aspx Google Scholar

Welsh Language Board (Bwrdd yr iaith Gymraeg) (2003b). 2001 Census - Main Statistics about Welsh, disponible à www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/census/census-2001 Google Scholar

Wendel, J. N. (2005). ‘Notes on the Ecology of Language’, Bunkyo Gakuin University Academic Journal 5 : 51-76. ‘Notes on the Ecology of Language’ Bunkyo Gakuin University Academic Journal 5 51 76 Google Scholar

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Gagnon, Sylvie