European Journal of Language Policy

Meeting language-in-education policy aims: Catalonia in the twenty-first century

European Journal of Language Policy (2014), 6, (1), 5–21.

Abstract

This article focuses on the language-in-education policy of the region of Catalonia, examining some specific effects of the shift in medium-of-instruction (MOI) from exclusively Spanish to largely Catalan-medium education, by means of an innovative fieldwork experiment. The new MOI resulted from several important pieces of legislature, including the 1983 Llei de Normalització Lingüística, which had the aim of "extending knowledge of Catalan". The present article aims to test whether this objective has been met. Testing (such as the nivell de suficiència de català examination) and decrees (Catalunya 2002) indicate that a key aspect of Catalan linguistic knowledge is the ability to identify non-standard language use, which is often manifested as interference with Spanish. For my fieldwork experiment, 50 participants were asked to identify non-standard language use in both Catalan and Spanish. The participants belonged to two generations: one educated in Spanish, and the other in Catalan (under the current language immersion programme). Comparing the results of the two age groups shows that subjects educated through the medium of Catalan are significantly more adept at identifying non-standard language use in Catalan. This specific language skill has thus been extended to the population of Catalonia. While the identification of non-standard language was not explicitly targeted in the 1983 LNL, it can still be argued that the objective of extending knowledge of Catalan has been at least partly fulfilled.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Bretxa, V. and Vila i Moreno, F. (2012) ‘Els canvis sociolingüístics en el pas de primària a secundària: el projecte RESOL a la ciutat de Mataró’, Treballs de Sociolingüística Catalana 22: 93-118. ‘Els canvis sociolingüístics en el pas de primària a secundària: el projecte RESOL a la ciutat de Mataró’ Treballs de Sociolingüística Catalana 22 93 118 Google Scholar

Catalunya (1979) Estatut d'Autonomia de Catalunya. Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya. English translation available at http://www.gencat.cat/generalitat/eng/estatut1979/index.htm Google Scholar

Catalunya (1983a) Llei de Normalització Lingüística. Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya. Google Scholar

Catalunya (1983b) Ordre de 8 de setembre de 1983 (DOGC 362, del 9, i correcció d'errada en el DOGC 369, de 5 d'octubre), per la qual es desplega el Decret 362/1983, de 30 d'agost, sobre l'aplicació de la Llei /1983, de normalització lingüística a Catalunya, a l'àmbit de l'ensenyament no universitari, modificat per l'Ordre de 6 de desembre de 1983 (DOGC 415, de 9 de març de 1984). Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya. Google Scholar

Catalunya (2002) Decret 161/2002, d'11 de juny, sobre l'acreditació del coneixement del català i l'aranès en els processos de selecció de personal i de provisió de llocs de treball de les administracions públiques de Catalunya. Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya. Google Scholar

Conversi, D. (1997) The Basques, the Catalans and Spain. London: Hurst & Co. The Basques, the Catalans and Spain Google Scholar

Giles, H. et al. (1977) ‘Toward a theory of language in ethnic group relations’, H. Giles (ed.), Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations. London: Academic Press, 307-48. Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations 307 48 Google Scholar

Haugen, E. (1966) ‘Dialect, Language, Nation’, American Anthropologist 68.4: 922-35. ‘Dialect, Language, Nation’ American Anthropologist 68 922 35 Google Scholar

Institut Ramon Llull. (n.d.) Certificats Català. Available at: http://www.llull.cat/catala/aprendre_catala/certificats_examens.cfm Google Scholar

Morrison, K. and Lui, I. (2000) ‘Ideology, linguistic capital and the medium of instruction in Hong Kong’, Journal of Multilingualism and Multicultural Development 21.6: 471-86. ‘Ideology, linguistic capital and the medium of instruction in Hong Kong’ Journal of Multilingualism and Multicultural Development 21 471 86 Google Scholar

Palau i Puig, C. (2012) ‘Experiències per a l'extensió de l'ús del català en l'educació en el lleure. El Taller d'educació per la llengua’, Treballs de Sociolingüística Catalana 22: 137-45. ‘Experiències per a l'extensió de l'ús del català en l'educació en el lleure. El Taller d'educació per la llengua’ Treballs de Sociolingüística Catalana 22 137 45 Google Scholar

Schiffman, H. (1996) Linguistic culture and language policy. London: Routledge. Linguistic culture and language policy Google Scholar

Shohamy, E. (2007) ‘Language tests as language policy tools’, Assessment in Education 14.1: 117-30. ‘Language tests as language policy tools’ Assessment in Education 14 117 30 Google Scholar

Shohamy, E. (2008) ‘Language policy and language assessment: The relationship’, Current Issues in Language Planning 9.3: 363-73. ‘Language policy and language assessment: The relationship’ Current Issues in Language Planning 9 363 73 Google Scholar

Shohamy, E. (2011) ‘Assessing multilingual competencies: Adopting construct valid assessment policies’, The Modern Language Journal 95.3: 165-79. ‘Assessing multilingual competencies: Adopting construct valid assessment policies’ The Modern Language Journal 95 165 79 Google Scholar

Vila i Moreno, F. (2008) ‘Language-in-education policies in the Catalan language area’, AILA Review 21: 31-48. ‘Language-in-education policies in the Catalan language area’ AILA Review 21 31 48 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Hawkey, James