Extrapolation

Islandia

Agrarian Society Meets Global Capitalism

Extrapolation (2018), 59, (3), 213–233.

Abstract

Austin Tappan Wright’s novel Islandia (1942) describes an imaginary nation whose residents debate choices of economic and social policy during the era of Great Power imperialism that preceded the First World War. A framing plot pivots on efforts by European nations to force Islandians to open their closed agrarian economy to resource development and trade. In creating Islandia’s diplomatic dilemma, Wright references the history of European imperialism contemporaneous with the novel’s 1908 setting. The same dilemma and debates resonated in the 1920s, when Wright was composing the novel, and echo in the present neoliberal era in which developed economies claim the natural resources of other nations as a matter of right and progress.

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Angell, Norman. The Great Illusion: A Study of the Military Power in Nations in Relation to Their Economic and Social Advantage. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1910. Print. The Great Illusion: A Study of the Military Power in Nations in Relation to Their Economic and Social Advantage Google Scholar

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Booth, Charles. Life and Labour of the People of London. 1889. 3rd ed. 17 vols. London: Macmillan, 1903. Print. Life and Labour of the People of London Google Scholar

Clareson, Thomas. “Lost Lands, Lost Races: A Pagan Princess of Their Very Own.” Journal of Popular Culture 8.4 (1975): 714–723. Print. Lost Lands, Lost Races: A Pagan Princess of Their Very Own. Journal of Popular Culture 8.4 714 723 Google Scholar

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Flieger, Verlyn. “Wright’s Islandia: Utopia with Problems.” Women and Utopia: Critical Interpretations. Ed. Marleen Barr and Nicholas D. Smith. Lanham: UP of America, 1983. 96–107. Print. Wright’s Islandia: Utopia with Problems. Women and Utopia: Critical Interpretations 96 107 Google Scholar

Frank, Andre Gunder. The Development of Underdevelopment. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1966. Print. The Development of Underdevelopment Google Scholar

Frieden, Jeffry. Global Capitalism: Its Fall and Rise in the Twentieth Century. New York: W. W. Norton, 2006. Print. Global Capitalism: Its Fall and Rise in the Twentieth Century Google Scholar

Friedman, Thomas. The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005. Print. The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century Google Scholar

Gallagher, John, and Ronald Robinson. “The Imperialism of Free Trade.” The Economic History Review, 2nd series, 6.1 (1953): 1–15. Print. The Imperialism of Free Trade. The Economic History Review 6.1 1 15 Google Scholar

Greenwald, Maurine, and Margo Anderson. The Pittsburgh Survey: Social Science and Social Reform in the Early Twentieth Century. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1996. Print. The Pittsburgh Survey: Social Science and Social Reform in the Early Twentieth Century Google Scholar

Hipolito, Jane. “Islandia.” Survey of Science Fiction Literature. Ed. Frank Magill. Englewood Cliffs: Salem Press, 1979. 1084–1088. Print. Islandia. Survey of Science Fiction Literature 1084 1088 Google Scholar

Hobson, John A. Imperialism: A Study. New York: James Pott and Co., 1902. Print. Imperialism: A Study Google Scholar

Howard, Ebenezer. To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform. London: Swan Sonnenschein and Co., 1898. Print. To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform Google Scholar

Jacobs, Naomi. “Islandia: Plotting Utopian Desire.” Utopian Studies 6.2 (1995): 75–89. Print. Islandia: Plotting Utopian Desire. Utopian Studies 6.2 75 89 Google Scholar

Jaher, Frederic Cople. Doubters and Dissenters: Cataclysmic Thought in America, 1885–1918. New York: Free Press, 1964. Print. Doubters and Dissenters: Cataclysmic Thought in America, 1885–1918 Google Scholar

Jameson, Fredric. “Of Islands and Trenches: Neutralization and the Production of Utopian Discourse.” The Ideologies of Theory. London: Verso, 2008. 75–101. Print. Of Islands and Trenches: Neutralization and the Production of Utopian Discourse. The Ideologies of Theory 75 101 Google Scholar

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London, Jack. The Iron Heel. New York: Macmillan, 1908. Print. The Iron Heel Google Scholar

Meckier, Jerome. “‘My Hypothetical Islanders’: The Role of Islands in Brave New World and Island.” Aldous Huxley Annual: A Journal of Twentieth-Century Thought and Beyond, Volume 12/13 (2012/2013). Ed. Bernfried Nugel and Jerome Meckier. Zurich: LIT Verlag, 2014. 319–340. Print. ‘My Hypothetical Islanders’: The Role of Islands in Brave New World and Island. Aldous Huxley Annual: A Journal of Twentieth-Century Thought and Beyond 12/13 319 340 Google Scholar

Moylan, Tom. Demand the Impossible: Science Fiction and the Utopian Imagination. 1986. 2nd ed. Bern: Peter Lang, 2014. Print. Demand the Impossible: Science Fiction and the Utopian Imagination Google Scholar

Oliver, Kenneth. “Islandia Revisited.” Pacific Spectator 9 (1955): 178–182. Print. Islandia Revisited. Pacific Spectator 9 178 182 Google Scholar

Peyser, Thomas. Utopia and Cosmopolis: Globalization in the Era of Literary Realism. Durham: Duke UP, 1998. Print. Utopia and Cosmopolis: Globalization in the Era of Literary Realism Google Scholar

Polanyi, Karl. The Great Transformation. New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1944. Print. The Great Transformation Google Scholar

Powell, Lawrence C. “‘All That Is Poetic in Life’: Austin Wright’s Islandia.” Wilson Library Quarterly 31.9 (1957): 701–705. Print. ‘All That Is Poetic in Life’: Austin Wright’s Islandia. Wilson Library Quarterly 31.9 701 705 Google Scholar

Rieder, John. Colonialism and the Emergence of Science Fiction. Middletown: Wesleyan UP, 2008. Print. Colonialism and the Emergence of Science Fiction Google Scholar

Rodgers, Daniel. Atlantic Crossings: Society and Politics in the Progressive Age. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2000. Print. Atlantic Crossings: Society and Politics in the Progressive Age Google Scholar

Roemer, Kenneth. The Obsolete Necessity: America in Utopian Writings, 1888–1900. Kent: Kent State UP, 1976. Print. The Obsolete Necessity: America in Utopian Writings, 1888–1900 Google Scholar

Thompson, Lanny. “The Imperial Republic: A Comparison of Insular Territories under U.S. Dominion after 1898.” Pacific Historical Review 71.4 (2002): 535–575. Print. The Imperial Republic: A Comparison of Insular Territories under U.S. Dominion after 1898. Pacific Historical Review 71.4 535 575 Google Scholar

Wallerstein, Immanuel. World-systems Analysis: An Introduction. Durham: Duke UP, 2004. Print. World-systems Analysis: An Introduction Google Scholar

Wegner, Phillip E. Imaginary Communities: Utopia, the Nation, and the Spatial Histories of Modernity. Berkeley: U of California P, 2002. Print. Imaginary Communities: Utopia, the Nation, and the Spatial Histories of Modernity Google Scholar

Wright, Austin Tappan. “1915?” The Atlantic Monthly 115 (April 1915): 453–468. Print. 1915? The Atlantic Monthly 115 453 468 Google Scholar

Wright, Austin Tappan. Islandia. 1942. New York: Rinehart and Company, 1958. Print. Islandia Google Scholar

Wright, Austin Tappan. Islandia, History and Description. 1883–1931. Typescript, Austin Tappan Wright papers, 1901–1958: Houghton Library, Harvard University. https://iiif.lib.harvard.edu/manifests/view/drs:51994930$1i. Web. 4 Jun. 2018. Google Scholar

Wickes, George, and Ray Frazer. “Aldous Huxley.” Writers at Work: The Paris Review Interviews, Second Series. Ed. George Plimpton. New York, Viking, 1963. 193–214. Print. Aldous Huxley. Writers at Work: The Paris Review Interviews, Second Series 193 214 Google Scholar

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Abbott, Carl