Before Farming

Making a point: the Early Middle Palaeolithic tool assemblage of Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel

Before Farming (2012), 2012, (4), 1–23.

Abstract

The Early Middle Palaeolithic (EMP) industries in the Levant (ca 250-160 ka ago) are distinguished by the presence of true laminar technology, alongside Levallois recurrent unidirectional and bidirectional flaking methods. The EMP further differs from the later MP in the composition of the toolkit. It was previously suggested that EMP retouched tool assemblages are characterised by the presence of elongated Mousterian points made on blades, retouched blades and Upper Palaeolithic (UP) tool-types. In contrast, the later MP is characterised by diverse toolkits dominated by side-scrapers, denticulates and UP types and containing only very few retouched points. However, while numerous later MP sites have been subjected to quantitative technological and typological studies, such studies are rare for EMP assemblages. This paper focuses on typological aspects of the EMP assemblage of Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel, in an attempt to characterise the site toolkit and to assess the differences between the EMP and later MP toolkits. The study demonstrates that the most characteristic features of the Misliya Cave toolkit are: high proportion of elongated retouched points; production of different types of points; preference for blades as blanks for tool production; use of different types of retouch for the preparation of different tool types. Our results show that toolkit-composition at Misliya and other EMP sites in the Levant is considerably different from later MP toolkits. We hypothesise that the different toolkits mark a shift in the range of activities or in the way similar activities were carried out in the EMP and later MP.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

 Google Scholar

Bar-Yosef, O 1992. Middle Paleolithic Human Adaptations in the Mediterranean Levant. In Akazawa, T, Aoki, K & Kimura, T (eds) The Evolution and Dispersal of Modern Humans in Asia. Tokyo: Hakusen-Sha: 189-215. The Evolution and Dispersal of Modern Humans in Asia 189 215 Google Scholar

Bar-Yosef, O 1998. The chronology of the Middle Palaeolithic of the Levant. In Akazawa, T, Aoki, K & Bar-Yosef, O (eds) Neandertals and Modern Humans in Western Asia. New York: Plenum Press:39-56. Neandertals and Modern Humans in Western Asia 39 56 Google Scholar

Bar-Yosef, O 2000. The Middle and Early Upper Paleolithic in Southwest Asia and Neighboring Regions. In Bar-Yosef, O & Pilbeam, D (eds) The Geography of Neandertals and Modern Humans in Europe and the Greater Mediterranean. Cambridge: Peabody Museum Press:107-156. The Geography of Neandertals and Modern Humans in Europe and the Greater Mediterranean 107 156 Google Scholar

Bar-Yosef, O, Belfer-Cohen, A, Goldberg, P, Kuhn, SL, Meignen, L, Vandermeersch, B & Weiner, S 2005. Archaeological Background to Hayonim Cave and Meged Rockshelter. In Stiner, MC, The Faunas of Hayonim Cave, Israel: A 200,000-year Record of Paleolithic Diet, Demography and Society. Cambridge University Press:17-38. The Faunas of Hayonim Cave, Israel: A 200,000-year Record of Paleolithic Diet, Demography and Society 17 38 Google Scholar

Bar-Yosef, O & Meignen, L 2007. Kebara Cave Mt. Carmel, Israel. The Middle and Upper Paleolithic Archaeology. Part I. American School of Prehistoric Research Bulletin 49. Harvard University, Cambridge: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. Kebara Cave Mt. Carmel, Israel. The Middle and Upper Paleolithic Archaeology. Part I. American School of Prehistoric Research Bulletin 49 Google Scholar

Bergman, CA & Ohnuma, K 1983. Technological Notes on Some Blades from Hummal Ia, El-Kowm, Syria. Quartar 33/34:171-180. Technological Notes on Some Blades from Hummal Ia, El-Kowm, Syria Quartar 33/34 171 180 Google Scholar

Boëda, E, Geneste, JM, Griggo, C, Mercier, N, Muhesen, S, Reyss, JL, Taha, A & Valladas, H 1999. A Levallois point embedded in the vertebra of a wild ass (Equus africanus): hafting, projectiles and Mousterian hunting weapons. Antiquity 73:394-402 A Levallois point embedded in the vertebra of a wild ass (Equus africanus): hafting, projectiles and Mousterian hunting weapons Antiquity 73 394 402 Google Scholar

Bordes, F 1961. Typologie du Paleolithique Ancien et Moyen. Bordeaux: Delmas. Typologie du Paleolithique Ancien et Moyen Google Scholar

Brooks, AS, Yellen, JE, Nevell, L & Hartman, G 2006. Projectile technologies of the African MSA: implications for modern human origins. In Hovers, E & Kuhn, SL (eds) Transitions Before the Transition: Evolution and Stability in the Middle Paleolithic and Middle Stone Age. New-York: Springer:233-256. Transitions Before the Transition: Evolution and Stability in the Middle Paleolithic and Middle Stone Age 233 256 Google Scholar

Copeland, L 1975. The Middle and Upper Palaeolithic in Lebanon and Syria in the Light of Recent Research. In Wendorf, F & Close, A (eds) Problems in Prehistory: North Africa and the Levant. Dallas Southern Methodist University Press:317-350. Problems in Prehistory: North Africa and the Levant 317 350 Google Scholar

Copeland, L 1983. The Paleolithic stone industries. In Roe, D (ed) Adlun in the Stone Age. The Excavations of D. A. E. Garrod in the Lebanon 1958-1963. Oxford: BAR International Series:89-365. Adlun in the Stone Age. The Excavations of D. A. E. Garrod in the Lebanon 1958-1963 89 365 Google Scholar

Copeland, L 1985. The Pointed Tools of Hummal Ia (El-Kowm, Syria). Cahiers de l'Euphrate 4:177-189. The Pointed Tools of Hummal Ia (El-Kowm, Syria) Cahiers de l'Euphrate 4 177 189 Google Scholar

Crew, HL 1976. The Mousterian Site of Rosh Ein Mor. In Marks AE (ed) Prehistory and Palaeoenvironments in the Central Negev, Israel. Vol 1: The Avdat/Aqev Area. Dallas: SMU Press:75-112. Prehistory and Palaeoenvironments in the Central Negev, Israel. Vol 1: The Avdat/Aqev Area 75 112 Google Scholar

Dibble, HL 1995. Middle Paleolithic Scraper Reduction: Background, Clarification, and Review of the Evidence to Date. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 2:299-368. Middle Paleolithic Scraper Reduction: Background, Clarification, and Review of the Evidence to Date Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 2 299 368 Google Scholar

Goren-Inbar, N 1990. The Lithic assemblages. In Goren-Inbar, N (ed), Quneitra: A Mousterian Site on the Golan Heights. Jerusalem: Qedem 31:61-167. Quneitra: A Mousterian Site on the Golan Heights 31 61 167 Google Scholar

Garrod, DAE & Bate, DMA 1937. The Stone Age of Mount Carmel. Vol. I. Excavations at the Wadi Mughara. Oxford: Clarendon Press. The Stone Age of Mount Carmel. Vol. I. Excavations at the Wadi Mughara Google Scholar

Gordon, D 1993. Mousterian tool selection, reduction and discard at Ghar, Israel. Journal of Field Archaeology 20:205-218. Mousterian tool selection, reduction and discard at Ghar, Israel Journal of Field Archaeology 20 205 218 Google Scholar

Goren-Inbar 19904; Hauck 20105; Hovers 20096; Jelinek 19757; Wojtczak 20118) *Only complete artefacts Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Hauck, TC 2011. Mousterian technology and settlement dynamics in the site of Hummal (Syria). Journal of Human Evolution 61:519-537. Mousterian technology and settlement dynamics in the site of Hummal (Syria) Journal of Human Evolution 61 519 537 Google Scholar

Henry, DO 2003. Neanderthals in the Levant: Behavioral Organization and the Beginnings of Human Modernity. London: Continuum. Neanderthals in the Levant: Behavioral Organization and the Beginnings of Human Modernity Google Scholar

Hovers, E 2001. Territorial Behavior in the Middle Paleolithic of the Southern Levant. In Conard, N (ed) Settlement Dynamics of the Middle Paleolithic and Middle Stone Age. Tubingen: Kerns Verlag:123-152. Settlement Dynamics of the Middle Paleolithic and Middle Stone Age 123 152 Google Scholar

Hovers, E 2009. The Lithic Assemblages of Qafzeh Cave. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The Lithic Assemblages of Qafzeh Cave Google Scholar

Hovers, E & Belfer-Cohen, A 2013. On Variability and Complexity: lessons from the Levantine Middle Paleolithic Record. Current Anthropology. Volume 54, Supplement 8, in press On Variability and Complexity: lessons from the Levantine Middle Paleolithic Record Current Anthropology. 54 Google Scholar

Inizan, ML, Roche, H & Tixier, J 1992. Technology of Knapped Stone. France: Meudon, CREP. Technology of Knapped Stone Google Scholar

Jelinek, A 1975. A Preliminary Report on Some Lower and Middle Paleolithic Industries from the Tabun Cave, Mount Carmel (Israel). In Wendorf, F & Marks, AE (eds) Problems in Prehistory: North Africa and the Levant. Dallas: SMU Press:279-316. Problems in Prehistory: North Africa and the Levant 279 316 Google Scholar

Jelinek, AJ 1982. The Middle Palaeolithic in the Southern Levant, with comments on the appearance of modern Homo sapiens. In Ronen, A (ed) The Transition from Lower to Middle Palaeolithic and the Origin of Modern Man. Oxford: BAR International Series:57-104. The Transition from Lower to Middle Palaeolithic and the Origin of Modern Man 57 104 Google Scholar

Jelinek, AJ, Farrand, WR, Hass, G, Horowitz, A & Goldberg, P 1973. New excavations at the Tabun Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel: a preliminary report. Paléorient 1:151-183. New excavations at the Tabun Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel: a preliminary report Paléorient 1 151 183 Google Scholar

Kaufman, D 1999. Archaeological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Humans: A View from the Levant. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey. Archaeological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Humans: A View from the Levant Google Scholar

Lombard, M 2005. Evidence of hunting and hafting during the Middle Stone Age at Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal: a multianalytical approach. Journal of Human Evolution 48:279-300. Evidence of hunting and hafting during the Middle Stone Age at Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal: a multianalytical approach Journal of Human Evolution 48 279 300 Google Scholar

Lombard, M 2007. Evidence for change in Middle Stone Age hunting behaviour at Blombos Cave: results of a macro-fracture analysis. South African Archaeological Bulletin 62:62-67. Evidence for change in Middle Stone Age hunting behaviour at Blombos Cave: results of a macro-fracture analysis South African Archaeological Bulletin 62 62 67 Google Scholar

Lombard, M, Parsons, I & van der Ryst, MM 2004. Middle Stone Age lithic experimentation for macro-fracture and residue analyses: the process and preliminary results with reference to the Sibudu Cave points. South African Journal of Science 100:159-166. Middle Stone Age lithic experimentation for macro-fracture and residue analyses: the process and preliminary results with reference to the Sibudu Cave points South African Journal of Science 100 159 166 Google Scholar

Lombard, M & Pargeter, J 2008. Hunting with Howiesons Poort segments: pilot experimental study and the functional interpretation of archaeological tools. Journal of Archaeological Science 35:2523-2531. Hunting with Howiesons Poort segments: pilot experimental study and the functional interpretation of archaeological tools Journal of Archaeological Science 35 2523 2531 Google Scholar

McCown, TD 1937. Mugharet es-Skhul: Description and Excavations. In Garrod, DAE & Bate, DMA, The Stone Age of Mount Carmel: Excavations at the Wady el-Mughara, Vol. I. Oxford: Clarendon Press: 91-112. The Stone Age of Mount Carmel: Excavations at the Wady el-Mughara I 91 112 Google Scholar

Meignen, L 1998. A Preliminary Report on Hayonim Cave Lithic Assemblages in the Context of the Near Eastern Middle Palaeolithic. In Akazawa, T, Aoki, K & Bar-Yosef, O (eds) Neandertals and Modern Humans in Western Asia. New York: Plenum Press:165-180. Neandertals and Modern Humans in Western Asia 165 180 Google Scholar

Meignen, L 2007. Middle Paleolithic Blady Assemblages in the Near East: A Reassessment. In Caucasus and the Initial Dispersals in the Old World. Russian Academy of Sciences. Institute of the History of Material Culture, St Petersburg: Vol. XXI:133-148. Caucasus and the Initial Dispersals in the Old World. Russian Academy of Sciences XXI 133 148 Google Scholar

Meignen, L 2011. The contribution of Hayonim cave assemblages to the understanding of the so-called Early Levantine Mousterian. In Le Tensorer, JM, Jagher, R & Otte, M (eds) The Lower and Middle Paleolithic in the Middle East and neighboring regions. ERAUL 126:85-100. The Lower and Middle Paleolithic in the Middle East and neighboring regions 126 85 100 Google Scholar

Meignen, L & Bar-Yosef, O 1992. Middle Paleolithic Variability in Kebara Cave, Israel. In Akazawa, T, Aoki, K & Kimura, T (eds) The Evolution and Dispersal of Modern Humans in Asia. Tokyo: Hakusen-Sha:129-148. The Evolution and Dispersal of Modern Humans in Asia 129 148 Google Scholar

Meignen, L, Bar-Yosef, O, Speth, JD & Stiner, MC 2006. Middle Paleolithic settlement patterns in the Levant. In Hovers, E & Kuhn, SL (eds) Transitions Before the Transition: Evolution and Stability in the Middle Paleolithic and Middle Stone Age. New York: Springer:149-169. Transitions Before the Transition: Evolution and Stability in the Middle Paleolithic and Middle Stone Age 149 169 Google Scholar

Mercier, N & Valladas, H 2003. Reassessment of TL age estimates of burnt flints from the Palaeolithic site of Tabun Cave, Israel. Journal of Human Evolution 45:401-409. Reassessment of TL age estimates of burnt flints from the Palaeolithic site of Tabun Cave, Israel Journal of Human Evolution 45 401 409 Google Scholar

Mercier, N, Valladas, H, Frojet, L, Joron, JL, Ryess, JL, Weiner, S, Goldberg, P, Meignen, L, Bar-Yosef, O, Belfer-Cohen, A, Chech, M, Kuhn, SL, Stiner, MC, Tillier, AM, Arensburg, B & Vandermeersch, B 2007. Hayonim Cave: a TL-based chronology for this Levantine Mousterian sequence. Journal of Archaeological Science 34:1064-1077. Hayonim Cave: a TL-based chronology for this Levantine Mousterian sequence Journal of Archaeological Science 34 1064 1077 Google Scholar

Milo, RG 1998. Evidence for hominid predation at Klasies River Mouth, South Africa, and its implications for the behavior of early modern humans. Journal of Archaeological Science 25:99-133. Evidence for hominid predation at Klasies River Mouth, South Africa, and its implications for the behavior of early modern humans Journal of Archaeological Science 25 99 133 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Neuville, H 1951. Le Paleolithique et le Mesolithique du desert du Judee. Archives de Musee de Paleontologie Humaine memoire 24. Paris: Masson et Cie. Le Paleolithique et le Mesolithique du desert du Judee Google Scholar

Plisson, H & Beyries, S 1998. Pointes ou outils triangulaires? Donees fonctionnelles dans le Mousterian levantin. Paleorient 24:5-24. Pointes ou outils triangulaires? Donees fonctionnelles dans le Mousterian levantin Paleorient 24 5 24 Google Scholar

Rink, WJ, Richter, D, Schwarcz, HP, Marks, AE, Monigal, K & Kaufman, D 2003. Age of the Middle Palaeolithic Site of Rosh Ein Mor, Central Negev, Israel: Implications for the Age Range of the Early Levantine Mousterian of the Levantine Corridor. Journal of Archaeological Science 30:195-204. Age of the Middle Palaeolithic Site of Rosh Ein Mor, Central Negev, Israel: Implications for the Age Range of the Early Levantine Mousterian of the Levantine Corridor Journal of Archaeological Science 30 195 204 Google Scholar

Rink, WJ, Schwarcz, HP, Weiner, S, Goldberg, P, Meignen, L & Bar-Yosef, O 2004. Age of the Mousterian Industry at Hayonim Cave, Northern Israel, Using Electron Spin Resonance and 230Th/234U Methods. Journal of Archaeological Science 31:953-964. Age of the Mousterian Industry at Hayonim Cave, Northern Israel, Using Electron Spin Resonance and 230Th/234U Methods Journal of Archaeological Science 31 953 964 Google Scholar

Rolland, N & Dibble, HL 1990. A new synthesis of Middle Paleolithic variability. American Antiquity 55:480-499. A new synthesis of Middle Paleolithic variability American Antiquity 55 480 499 Google Scholar

Ronen, A 1979. Paleolithic Industries. In Horowitz, A (ed) The Quaternary of Israel. New York: Academic Press:296-307. The Quaternary of Israel 296 307 Google Scholar

Ronen, A, Gisis, I & Tchernikov, I 2011. The Mugharan tradition revisited. In Le Tensorer, JM, Jagher, R & Otte, M (eds) The Lower and Middle Paleolithic in the Middle East and neighbouring regions. ERAUL 126:59-66. The Lower and Middle Paleolithic in the Middle East and neighbouring regions 126 59 66 Google Scholar

Rust, A 1950. Die Hohlenfunde von Jabrud (Syrien). Neumünster: Karl Wachholtz. Die Hohlenfunde von Jabrud (Syrien) Google Scholar

Shea, JJ 1988. Spear points from the Middle Palaeolithic of the Levant. Journal of Field Archaeology 15:441-450. Spear points from the Middle Palaeolithic of the Levant Journal of Field Archaeology 15 441 450 Google Scholar

Shea, JJ 1989. A functional Study of the Lithic industries associated with Hominid fossils in the Kebara and Qafzeh Caves, Israel. In Mellars, P & Stringer, C (eds) The Human Revolution. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press:611-625. The Human Revolution 611 625 Google Scholar

Shea, JJ 1993. Lithic use-wear evidence for hunting by Neandertals and Early Modern Humans from the Levantine Mousterian. In Peterkin, GL, Bricker, H & Mellars, PA (eds) Hunting and Animal Exploitation in the Later Paleolithic and Mesolithic of Eurasia. Washington: American Anthropological Association:11-24. Hunting and Animal Exploitation in the Later Paleolithic and Mesolithic of Eurasia 11 24 Google Scholar

Shea, JJ 2003. The Middle Paleolithic of the East Mediterranean Levant. Journal of World Prehistory 17:313-394. The Middle Paleolithic of the East Mediterranean Levant Journal of World Prehistory 17 313 394 Google Scholar

Shea, JJ, Davis, Z & Brown, K 2001. Experimental tests of Middle Palaeolithic spear points using a calibrated crossbow. Journal of Archaeological Science 28:807-816. Experimental tests of Middle Palaeolithic spear points using a calibrated crossbow Journal of Archaeological Science 28 807 816 Google Scholar

Shimelmitz, R, Barkai, R & Gopher, A 2011. Systematic blade production at late Lower Paleolithic (400-200 kyr) Qesem Cave, Israel. Journal of Human Evolution 61:458-479. Systematic blade production at late Lower Paleolithic (400-200 kyr) Qesem Cave, Israel Journal of Human Evolution 61 458 479 Google Scholar

Shimelmitz, R & Kuhn, SL 2013. Early Mousterian Levallois Technology in Unit IX of Tabun Cave. PaleoAnthropology 2013:1-27 Early Mousterian Levallois Technology in Unit IX of Tabun Cave PaleoAnthropology 2013 1 27 Google Scholar

Speth, JD 2004. Hunting pressure, subsistence intensification and demographic change in the Levantine Late Middle Palaeolithic. In Goren-Inbar, N & Speth, JD (eds) Human Palaeoecology in the Levantine Corridor. Oxford: Oxbow Press:149-166. Human Palaeoecology in the Levantine Corridor 149 166 Google Scholar

Speth, JD 2006. Housekeeping, Neandertal-style: hearth placement and midden formation in Kebara Cave (Israel). In Hovers, E & Kuhn, SL (eds) Transitions before the Transition: Evolution and Stability in the Middle Palaeolithic and Middle Stone Age. New York: Springer:171-188. Transitions before the Transition: Evolution and Stability in the Middle Palaeolithic and Middle Stone Age 171 188 Google Scholar

Speth, JD & Clark, J 2006. Hunting and overhunting in the Levantine Late Middle Palaeolithic. Before Farming 3:1-42. Hunting and overhunting in the Levantine Late Middle Palaeolithic Before Farming 3 1 42 Google Scholar

Yaroshevich, A, Zaidner, Y & Weinstein-Evron, M in press. Evidence of hunting weapon variability in the Early Middle Paleolithic of the Levant. A view from Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel. In Iovita, R & Sano, K (eds) Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Study of Stone Age Weaponry. Springer, Dodrecht: Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology Book Series. Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Study of Stone Age Weaponry Google Scholar

Yeshurun, R, Bar-Oz, G & Weinstein-Evron, M 2007. Modern Hunting Behavior in the Early Middle Paleolithic: faunal remains from Misliya Cave, 316 Mount Carmel, Israel. Journal of Human Evolution 53:656-677. Modern Hunting Behavior in the Early Middle Paleolithic: faunal remains from Misliya Cave, 316 Mount Carmel, Israel Journal of Human Evolution 53 656 677 Google Scholar

Valladas, H, Mercier, N, Hershkovitz, I, Zaidner, Y, Tsatskin, A, Yeshurun, R, Vialettes, L, Joron, JL, Reyss, JL & Weinstein-Evron, M. 2013. Dating the Lower-Middle Paleolithic transition in the Levant: a view from Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel. Submitted to Journal of Human Evolution 65: 585-593. Dating the Lower-Middle Paleolithic transition in the Levant: a view from Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel Journal of Human Evolution 65 585 593 Google Scholar

Villa, P & Lenoir, M 2006. Hunting weapons of the Middle Stone Age and the Middle Palaeolithic: spear points from Sibudu, Rose Cottage and Bouheben. South African Humanities 18: 89-122. Hunting weapons of the Middle Stone Age and the Middle Palaeolithic: spear points from Sibudu, Rose Cottage and Bouheben South African Humanities 18 89 122 Google Scholar

Villa, P, Soressi, M, Henshilwood, CS & Mourre, V 2009a. The Still Bay points of Blombos Cave (South Africa). Journal of Archaeological Science 36:441-460. The Still Bay points of Blombos Cave (South Africa) Journal of Archaeological Science 36 441 460 Google Scholar

Villa, P, Boscato, P, Ranaldo, F & Ronchitelli, A 2009b. Stone tools for the hunt: points with impact scars from a Middle Paleolithic site in southern Italy. Journal of Archaeological Science 36:850-859. Stone tools for the hunt: points with impact scars from a Middle Paleolithic site in southern Italy Journal of Archaeological Science 36 850 859 Google Scholar

Villa, P & Soriano, S 2010. Hunting weapons of Neandertals and Early Modern Humans in South Africa. Journal of Anthropological Research 66:5-39. Hunting weapons of Neandertals and Early Modern Humans in South Africa Journal of Anthropological Research 66 5 39 Google Scholar

Weinstein-Evron, M & Tsatskin, A 1994. The Jamal Cave is not empty: Recent excavations in the Mount Carmel Caves, Israel. Paléorient, 20/2:119-128. The Jamal Cave is not empty: Recent excavations in the Mount Carmel Caves, Israel Paléorient 20 119 128 Google Scholar

Weinstein-Evron, M, Bar-Oz, G, Zaidner, Y, Tsatskin, A, Druck, D, Porat, N & Hershkovitz, I 2003. Introducing Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel: a new continuous Lower/Middle Paleolithic sequence in the Levant. Eurasian Prehistory 1(1):31-55. Introducing Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel: a new continuous Lower/Middle Paleolithic sequence in the Levant Eurasian Prehistory 1 31 55 Google Scholar

Weinstein-Evron, M, Tsatskin, A, Bar-Oz, G, Yeshurun, R, Shachak-Gross, R, Weiner, S, Lev-Yadun, S, Frumkin, A & Zaidner, Y 2012. A window onto Early Middle Paleolithic human occupational layers: The case of Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel. PaleoAnthropology 2012:202-228. A window onto Early Middle Paleolithic human occupational layers: The case of Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel PaleoAnthropology 2012 202 228 Google Scholar

Wojtczak, D 2011. Hummal (Central Syria) and its eponymous industry. In Le Tensorer, JM, Jagher, R & Otte, M (eds) The Lower and Middle Paleolithic in the Middle East and neighbouring regions. ERAUL 126:289-308. The Lower and Middle Paleolithic in the Middle East and neighbouring regions 126 289 308 Google Scholar

Zaidner, Y, Druck, D, Nadler, M & Weinstein-Evron, M 2005. The Acheulo-Yabrudian of Jamal Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 35:93-116. The Acheulo-Yabrudian of Jamal Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 35 93 116 Google Scholar

Zaidner, Y, Druck, D & Weinstein-Evron, M 2006. Acheulo-Yabrudian handaxes from Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel. In: Goren-Inbar, N & Sharon, G (eds) Axe Age: Acheulian Toolmaking - from Quarry to Discard. Oxford: Equinox Publishers. Axe Age: Acheulian Toolmaking - from Quarry to Discard Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Zaidner, Yossi

Weinstein-Evron, Mina