Before Farming

Specialisation & diversification

animal exploitation strategies in the terminal Pleistocene, Mediterranean Turkey

Before Farming (2009), 2009, (3), 1–17.

Abstract

The results of a zooarchaeological analysis on seven archaeofaunal assemblages from Karain B and Öküzini caves help us to develop a high-resolution picture of Terminal Pleistocene animal exploitation patterns (ca 20,000-13,500 calibrated BP) in the western Taurus Mountains of Mediterranean Turkey. The Epipalaeolithic subsistence in this area can be characterised as stable specialised caprine hunting complemented by fallow deer hunting between 19,800 and 13,900 years ago. A trend toward ‘relatively’ broader dietary breadth is evident by 13,900 with the addition of high-yield tertiary taxa such as roe deer and wild boar, small- and fast-moving taxa such as hare and partridge, and small- and slow-moving taxa such as tortoise. The observed trend of a shift in species at Karain B and Öküzini, however, took place during the environmentally more favourable Bølling/Allerød (BA) climate optimum. Thus, dietary expansion can be seen as a result of the availability, accessibility, predictability, and abundance of both high- and low-yield animal taxa. Given the geographically restricted and thus somewhat biased nature of archaeological research in the Near East, new data from the poorly-known Turkish Epipalaeolithic provide researchers with new opportunities to study human adaptations through the Terminal Pleistocene and Early Holocene.

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Atici, Levent