Journal of Romance Studies

From page to screen/from screen to page

Collaborative narratives in twenty-first-century Italian fiction – The Wu Ming case

Journal of Romance Studies (2016), 16, (1), 39–61.

Abstract

This article examines collaborative narratives in twenty-first-century Italian fiction, with a special focus on the work of Wu Ming, a collective of five Italian writers who have challenged traditional authorship at a double level: in terms of individual authorship and, by extending their collaborative narrative practices to their readership in digital environments, in terms of author–reader relationship. While their creative output is mainly printed books, they have developed various forms of digital storytelling such as multimedia features of their novels, blogging, fan fiction, and social networking. How the concept of ‘collaborative narrative’ has evolved from print to digital storytelling is the leading question of my analysis. More specifically, by re-assessing the concepts of ‘authorship’ and ‘readership’, this article aims to explore what forms of interactivity and collaboration Wu Ming have developed to empower their readers in the construction of the narrative.

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Rettberg, Scott (2014) ‘Collaborative narratives’, in The Johns Hopkins Guide to Digital Media, ed. Marie-Laure Ryan, Lori Emerson and Benjamin J. Robertson (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press), 78–79. Collaborative narratives The Johns Hopkins Guide to Digital Media 78 79 Google Scholar

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Ryan, Marie-Laure (2005) ‘Peeling the Onion: Layers of interactivity in digital narrative texts’, black2.fri.uni-lj.si/humbug/files/doktorat-vaupotic/zotero/storage/CDQXGTTM/onion.html. Peeling the Onion: Layers of interactivity in digital narrative texts Google Scholar

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Ryan, Marie-Laure (2013) ‘Transmedial storytelling and transfictionality’. Poetics Today, 34(3), 361–388. Transmedial storytelling and transfictionality Poetics Today 34 361 388 Google Scholar

Ryan, Marie-Laure (2014) ‘Interactive narrative’, in The Johns Hopkins Guide to Digital Media, ed. Marie-Laure Ryan, Lori Emerson and Benjamin J. Robertson (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press), 292–297 Interactive narrative The Johns Hopkins Guide to Digital Media Google Scholar

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Sabot. Mama (2008) Perdas de fogu (Rome: E/O). Perdas de fogu Google Scholar

Sabot, Mama (2009) L’albero dei microchip (Rome: E/O). L’albero dei microchip Google Scholar

Sabot, Mama (2010) Donne a perdere (Rome: E/O). Donne a perdere Google Scholar

Sabot, Mama (2014) Padre nostro (Rome: E/O). Padre nostro Google Scholar

Scrittura Industriale Collettiva (2013) In territorio nemico (Rome: Minimum Fax) In territorio nemico Google Scholar

Walker Rettberg, Jill (2013) Blogging (Cambridge: Polity). Blogging Google Scholar

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Wu Ming (2000) Asce di Guerra (Turin: Einaudi). Asce di Guerra Google Scholar

Wu Ming (2002) 54 (Turin: Einaudi). 54 Google Scholar

Wu Ming (2007) Manituana (Turin: Einaudi). Manituana Google Scholar

Wu Ming (2008) Previsioni del tempo (Turin: Einaudi). Previsioni del tempo Google Scholar

Wu Ming (2009) Altai (Turin: Einaudi). Altai Google Scholar

Wu Ming (2011) Anatra all’arancia meccanica (Turin: Einaudi). Anatra all’arancia meccanica Google Scholar

Wu Ming (2014) L’armata dei sonnambuli (Turin: Einaudi). L’armata dei sonnambuli Google Scholar

Wu Ming (2015) Cantalamappa (Milan: Mondadori Electa). Cantalamappa Google Scholar

Wu Ming 1 (2015) Cent’anni a Nordest (Milan: Rizzoli). Cent’anni a Nordest Google Scholar

Wu Ming 1 and Roberto Santachiara (2013) Point Lenana (Turin: Einaudi). Point Lenana Google Scholar

Wu Ming 2 (2016) Il sentiero luminoso (Portogruaro: Ediciclo). Il sentiero luminoso Google Scholar

Wu Ming 2 and Antar Mohamed (2012) Timira (Turin: Einaudi). Timira Google Scholar

Wu Ming 4 (2010) L’eroe imperfetto (Milan: Bompiani). L’eroe imperfetto Google Scholar

Wu Ming 4 (2013) Difendere la terra di mezzo (Milan: Bompiani). Difendere la terra di mezzo Google Scholar

Wu Ming 4 (2013) Il piccolo regno (Milan: Bompiani). Il piccolo regno Google Scholar

Zen, Kai (2007) La strategia dell’ariete (Milan: Mondadori). La strategia dell’ariete Google Scholar

Zen, Kai (2008), Romanzo Totale. www.kaizenlab.it/rt2008/?page_id=10. Google Scholar

Agaraff, Paolo (2003) Le rane di Ko Samui (Milan: Pequod). Le rane di Ko Samui Google Scholar

Agaraff, Paolo (2006) Il sangue non è acqua (Milan: Pequod). Il sangue non è acqua Google Scholar

Agaraff, Paolo (2009) I ciccioni esplosivi (Tolentino: Edizioni Montag). I ciccioni esplosivi Google Scholar

Agaraff, Paolo (2010) Il quinto cilindro (Tolentino: Edizioni Montag). Il quinto cilindro Google Scholar

Babette Factory (2005) 2005 dopo Cristo (Turin: Einaudi). 2005 dopo Cristo Google Scholar

Barthes, Roland ([1967] 1981) ‘The death of the author’, in Theories of Authorship: A Reader, ed. John Caughie (London: Routledge), 208–213. The death of the author Theories of Authorship: A Reader 208 213 Google Scholar

Beer, David (2013) Popular Culture and New Media (London: Palgrave Macmillan). Popular Culture and New Media Google Scholar

Bell, Alice, Astrid Ensslin and Hans Kristian Rustad (eds) (2014) Analysing Digital Fiction (Routledge: London). Analysing Digital Fiction Google Scholar

Benedetti, Carla (2005) The Empty Cage: Inquiry into the Mysterious Disappearance of the Author (New York: Cornell University Press). The Empty Cage: Inquiry into the Mysterious Disappearance of the Author Google Scholar

Blissett, Luther (1999) Q (Milan: Feltrinelli). Q Google Scholar

Bolter, David Jay (1990) Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing (Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates). Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing Google Scholar

Bolter, David and Richard Grusin (2001) Remediation: Understanding New Media (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). Remediation: Understanding New Media Google Scholar

Boscolo, Claudia (2011) ‘Lettura e narrazione in rete: Esempio di un commentario critico’, Ibridamenti, 10 November. Lettura e narrazione in rete: Esempio di un commentario critico Ibridamenti Google Scholar

D’Afro, Pelagio (2013) L’acqua tace (Milan: Pequod). L’acqua tace Google Scholar

D’Afro, Pelagio (2014) Putteniere Blues (Milan: Lite Editions). Putteniere Blues Google Scholar

D’Afro, Pelagio (2015) Pillole di cattiveria (Milan: Pequod). Pillole di cattiveria Google Scholar

Derakhshan, Hossein (2016) ‘Who killed the hyperlink?’ civichall.org/civicist/who-killed-the-hyperlink (accessed 4 July 2016). Who killed the hyperlink? Google Scholar

Eco, Umberto (1962), Opera aperta (Milan: Bompiani). Opera aperta Google Scholar

Fiske, John (1989) Reading the Popular (London: Unwin Hyman). Reading the Popular Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel ([1969] 1981) ‘What is an author?’, in Theories of Authorship: A Reader, ed. John Caughie (London: Routledge), 282–291. What is an author? Theories of Authorship: A Reader 282 291 Google Scholar

Grishakova, Marina and Marie-Laure Ryan (eds) (2010) Intermediality and Storytelling (Berlin: De Gruyter). Intermediality and Storytelling Google Scholar

Gruppo dei dieci (1929) Lo zar non è morto (Rome: Edizioni dei dieci). Lo zar non è morto Google Scholar

Gruppo di drammaturgia 2 (1974) Il gorilla quadrumàno (Milan: Feltrinelli). Il gorilla quadrumàno Google Scholar

Hall, Stuart (1980) Culture, Media, Language (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Culture, Media, Language Google Scholar

Herman, David, Manfred Jahn and Marie-Laure Ryan (eds) (2005) Routledge Encyclopedia of Narrative Theory (London: Routledge). Routledge Encyclopedia of Narrative Theory Google Scholar

Jenkins, Henry (2006) Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide (New York: New York University Press). Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide Google Scholar

Klaiber, Isabell (2014) ‘Wreading together: The double plot of collaborative digital fiction’, in Analysing Digital Fiction, ed. Alice Bell, Astrid Ensslin and Hans Kristian Rustad (New York: Routledge), 124–140. Wreading together: The double plot of collaborative digital fiction Analysing Digital Fiction 124 140 Google Scholar

Landow, George (1992) Hypertext: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press). Hypertext: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology Google Scholar

Levy, Pierre (1997) Cyberculture, trans. R. Bonnano (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press). Cyberculture Google Scholar

Louchart, Sandy and Ruth Aylett (2003) ‘Toward a narrative theory of virtual reality’, Virtual Reality 7, 2–9. Toward a narrative theory of virtual reality Virtual Reality 7 2 9 Google Scholar

Löwgren, Jonas and Bo Reimer (2013) Collaborative Media: Production, Consumption, and Design Interventions (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). Collaborative Media: Production, Consumption, and Design Interventions Google Scholar

Milani, Don Lorenzo et al. (Scuola di Barbiana) (1967) Lettera a una professoressa (Florence: Libreria Editrice Fiorentina) Lettera a una professoressa Google Scholar

Murray, Janet (1997) Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace (New York: Free Press). Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace Google Scholar

Mechant, Peter and Jan Van Looy (2014) ‘Interactivity’, in The Johns Hopkins Guide to Digital Media, ed. Marie-Laure Ryan, Lori Emerson and Benjamin J. Robertson (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press), pp. 202–204. Interactivity The Johns Hopkins Guide to Digital Media 202 204 Google Scholar

Page, Ruth (2010) ‘Interactivity and interaction: Text and talk in online communities’, in Intermediality and Storytelling, ed. Marina Grishakova and Marie-Laure Ryan (Berlin: De Gruyter), 208–231. Interactivity and interaction: Text and talk in online communities Intermediality and Storytelling 208 231 Google Scholar

Page, Ruth (2012) Stories and Social Media: Identities and Interaction (New York: Routledge). Stories and Social Media: Identities and Interaction Google Scholar

Piga, Emanuela (2014) ‘Comunità, intelligenza connettiva e letteratura: dall’open source all’opera aperta in Wu Ming’, in Transmedia: Storia, memoria e narrazioni attraverso i media, ed. Clodagh Brook and Emanuela Patti (Milan: Mimesis), 55–77. Comunità, intelligenza connettiva e letteratura: dall’open source all’opera aperta in Wu Ming Transmedia: Storia, memoria e narrazioni attraverso i media 55 77 Google Scholar

Rancière, Jacques (2010) ‘The death of the author or the life of the artist?’ in Chronicles of Consensual Times (London: Continuum), 101–105. The death of the author or the life of the artist? Chronicles of Consensual Times 101 105 Google Scholar

Rettberg, Scott (2005), ‘All together now: Collective knowledge, collective narratives, and architectures of participation’ in Digital Experience: Design, Aesthetics, Practice, Proceedings of the 2005 DAC Conference. IT University of Copenhagen, 99–109, retts.net/documents/cnarrativeDAC.pdf. All together now: Collective knowledge, collective narratives, and architectures of participation Digital Experience: Design, Aesthetics, Practice, Proceedings of the 2005 DAC Conference Google Scholar

Rettberg, Scott (2011) ‘All together now: Hypertexts, collective narratives, and online collective knowledge communities’, in New Narratives: Stories and Storytelling in the Digital Age, ed. Ruth Page and Bronwen Thomas (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press), 187–204. All together now: Hypertexts, collective narratives, and online collective knowledge communities New Narratives: Stories and Storytelling in the Digital Age 187 204 Google Scholar

Rettberg, Scott (2014) ‘Collaborative narratives’, in The Johns Hopkins Guide to Digital Media, ed. Marie-Laure Ryan, Lori Emerson and Benjamin J. Robertson (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press), 78–79. Collaborative narratives The Johns Hopkins Guide to Digital Media 78 79 Google Scholar

Rose, Frank (2011) The Art of Immersion (New York: W.W. Norton & Co.). The Art of Immersion Google Scholar

Ryan, Marie-Laure (2005) ‘Peeling the Onion: Layers of interactivity in digital narrative texts’, black2.fri.uni-lj.si/humbug/files/doktorat-vaupotic/zotero/storage/CDQXGTTM/onion.html. Peeling the Onion: Layers of interactivity in digital narrative texts Google Scholar

Ryan, Marie-Laure (2011) ‘The interactive onion: Layers of user participation in digital narrative texts’, in New Narratives: Stories and Storytelling in the Digital Age, ed. Ruth Page and Bronwen Thomas (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press), 35–62. The interactive onion: Layers of user participation in digital narrative texts New Narratives: Stories and Storytelling in the Digital Age 35 62 Google Scholar

Ryan, Marie-Laure (2013) ‘Transmedial storytelling and transfictionality’. Poetics Today, 34(3), 361–388. Transmedial storytelling and transfictionality Poetics Today 34 361 388 Google Scholar

Ryan, Marie-Laure (2014) ‘Interactive narrative’, in The Johns Hopkins Guide to Digital Media, ed. Marie-Laure Ryan, Lori Emerson and Benjamin J. Robertson (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press), 292–297 Interactive narrative The Johns Hopkins Guide to Digital Media Google Scholar

Thoburn Nicholas (2011) ‘To conquer the anonymous: Authorship and myth in the Wu Ming Foundation’, Cultural Critique 78: 119–150. To conquer the anonymous: Authorship and myth in the Wu Ming Foundation Cultural Critique 78 119 150 Google Scholar

Sabot. Mama (2008) Perdas de fogu (Rome: E/O). Perdas de fogu Google Scholar

Sabot, Mama (2009) L’albero dei microchip (Rome: E/O). L’albero dei microchip Google Scholar

Sabot, Mama (2010) Donne a perdere (Rome: E/O). Donne a perdere Google Scholar

Sabot, Mama (2014) Padre nostro (Rome: E/O). Padre nostro Google Scholar

Scrittura Industriale Collettiva (2013) In territorio nemico (Rome: Minimum Fax) In territorio nemico Google Scholar

Walker Rettberg, Jill (2013) Blogging (Cambridge: Polity). Blogging Google Scholar

Watkin, Christopher (2015) ‘Rewriting the death of the author: Rancièrian reflections’, Philosophy and Literature 39: 32–46. Rewriting the death of the author: Rancièrian reflections Philosophy and Literature 39 32 46 Google Scholar

Wenger, Etienne (1998) Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity Google Scholar

Wu Ming (2000) Asce di Guerra (Turin: Einaudi). Asce di Guerra Google Scholar

Wu Ming (2002) 54 (Turin: Einaudi). 54 Google Scholar

Wu Ming (2007) Manituana (Turin: Einaudi). Manituana Google Scholar

Wu Ming (2008) Previsioni del tempo (Turin: Einaudi). Previsioni del tempo Google Scholar

Wu Ming (2009) Altai (Turin: Einaudi). Altai Google Scholar

Wu Ming (2011) Anatra all’arancia meccanica (Turin: Einaudi). Anatra all’arancia meccanica Google Scholar

Wu Ming (2014) L’armata dei sonnambuli (Turin: Einaudi). L’armata dei sonnambuli Google Scholar

Wu Ming (2015) Cantalamappa (Milan: Mondadori Electa). Cantalamappa Google Scholar

Wu Ming 1 (2015) Cent’anni a Nordest (Milan: Rizzoli). Cent’anni a Nordest Google Scholar

Wu Ming 1 and Roberto Santachiara (2013) Point Lenana (Turin: Einaudi). Point Lenana Google Scholar

Wu Ming 2 (2016) Il sentiero luminoso (Portogruaro: Ediciclo). Il sentiero luminoso Google Scholar

Wu Ming 2 and Antar Mohamed (2012) Timira (Turin: Einaudi). Timira Google Scholar

Wu Ming 4 (2010) L’eroe imperfetto (Milan: Bompiani). L’eroe imperfetto Google Scholar

Wu Ming 4 (2013) Difendere la terra di mezzo (Milan: Bompiani). Difendere la terra di mezzo Google Scholar

Wu Ming 4 (2013) Il piccolo regno (Milan: Bompiani). Il piccolo regno Google Scholar

Zen, Kai (2007) La strategia dell’ariete (Milan: Mondadori). La strategia dell’ariete Google Scholar

Zen, Kai (2008), Romanzo Totale. www.kaizenlab.it/rt2008/?page_id=10. Google Scholar

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Patti, Emanuela