Third World Planning Review

Waste and informal recycling activities in Hanoi, Vietnam

Third World Planning Review (2001), 23, (4), 405–429.

Abstract

There is scant evidence of ‘waste being wasted’ in Hanoi: food scraps from hotels and restaurants are collected for pig farms, and even mango seeds are recycled by shampoo manufacturers. Nevertheless, the increasing amount of waste collected and the increasing numbers of people working in the streets and dump sites present a major health and safety challenge that has been ignored by the municipality. This article describes how this recycling network collects, distributes and reprocesses all of the recyclable waste generated by the people of Hanoi each day. It argues that these activities should be supported by the public sector and suggests ways in which the informal sector could be encouraged to improve the solid waste management system in Hanoi.

Access Token
£25.00
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

ALI, S. M. (1997), Micro-enterprise Development for Primary Collection of Solid Waste (working paper), Loughborough, Water Engineering and Development Centre, Loughborough University. Micro-enterprise Development for Primary Collection of Solid Waste Google Scholar

ANDERSON, E. G. (1998), ‘Privatising management of solid waste in developing countries: the Malaysian experience’ (paper delivered to the Round Table on Urban Solid Waste Management conference—Inter-American Program for Environmental Technology Cooperation in the Key Industry Sector, Brazil). ‘Privatising management of solid waste in developing countries: the Malaysian experience’ Google Scholar

BARTONE, C. (1995), ‘The role of the private sector in developing countries: keys to success’ (paper presented to the ISWA Conference on Waste Management, Singapore, 24-25 September). ‘The role of the private sector in developing countries: keys to success’ Google Scholar

BARTONE, C. et al. (1994), Toward Environmental Strategies for Cities: Policy Considerations for Urban Environmental Management in Developing Countries (Urban Management Programme Policy Paper No. 18), Washington, DC, The World Bank. Toward Environmental Strategies for Cities: Policy Considerations for Urban Environmental Management in Developing Countries Google Scholar

BERSTEIN, J. D. (1993), Alternative Approaches to Pollution Control and Waste Management: Regulatory and Economic Instruments (Urban Management Program Discussion Paper No. 3), Washington, DC, The World Bank. Alternative Approaches to Pollution Control and Waste Management: Regulatory and Economic Instruments Google Scholar

BEUKERING, P. (1997), ‘Waste recovery in Bombay: a socio-economic and environmental assessment of different waste management options’, Third World Planning Review, 19, 163-87. ‘Waste recovery in Bombay: a socio-economic and environmental assessment of different waste management options’ Third World Planning Review 19 163 87 Google Scholar

BEUKERING, P. et al. (1999), Analysing Urban Solid Waste in Developing Countries: A Perspective on Bangalore, India (Working Paper No. 24), The Netherlands, CREED (Collaborative Research in the Economics of Environment and Development) and UWEP (Urban Waste Expertise Programme). Analysing Urban Solid Waste in Developing Countries: A Perspective on Bangalore, India Google Scholar

CHOWDHURY, T. and FUREDY, C. (1994), Urban Sustainability in the Third World: A Review of the Literature, Winnipeg, Institute of Urban Studies, University of Winnipeg. Urban Sustainability in the Third World: A Review of the Literature Google Scholar

COINTREAU-LEVINE, S. (1994), Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Services in Developing Countries: The Formal Sector (Urban Management Programme Discussion Paper No. 13), Washington, DC, The World Bank. Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Services in Developing Countries: The Formal Sector Google Scholar

COINTREAU-LEVINE, S. and KADT, M. (1991), ‘Living with garbage: cities learn to recycle’, Development Forum, Jan-Feb, 12-13. ‘Living with garbage: cities learn to recycle’ Development Forum 12 13 Google Scholar

DIGREGORIO, M. (1994), Urban Harvest: Recycling as a Peasant Industry in Northern Vietnam, Honolulu, East-West Center. Urban Harvest: Recycling as a Peasant Industry in Northern Vietnam Google Scholar

DIGREGORIO, M. et al. (1997), Linking Community and Small Enterprise Activities with Urban Waste Management (Research Project Paper), Hanoi, Centre for Natural Resources and Environmental Studies. Linking Community and Small Enterprise Activities with Urban Waste Management Google Scholar

DIGREGORIO, M. et al. (1999), Report on the Environment of Development in Industrialising Craft Villages, Hanoi, Centre for Natural Resources and Environmental Studies. Report on the Environment of Development in Industrialising Craft Villages Google Scholar

FERNANDEZ, A. (1993), ‘Public-private partnerships in solid waste management’, Regional Development Dialogue, 14, 3-21. ‘Public-private partnerships in solid waste management’ Regional Development Dialogue 14 3 21 Google Scholar

FUREDY, C. (1989), ‘Social considerations in solid waste management in Asian cities’, Regional Development Dialogue, 10, 13-38. ‘Social considerations in solid waste management in Asian cities’ Regional Development Dialogue 10 13 38 Google Scholar

FUREDY, C. (1990), ‘Social aspects of solid waste recovery in Asian cities’, Environmental Sanitation Reviews, 30, 17-33. ‘Social aspects of solid waste recovery in Asian cities’ Environmental Sanitation Reviews 30 17 33 Google Scholar

FUREDY, C. (1992), ‘Garbage: exploring non-conventional options in Asian cities’, Environment and Urbanization, 4, 52-60. ‘Garbage: exploring non-conventional options in Asian cities’ Environment and Urbanization 4 52 60 Google Scholar

FUREDY, C. (1994), ‘Solid wastes in the waste economy: socio-cultural aspects’ (paper presented to the Workshop on Waste Economy, Hanoi, 22-25 August). ‘Solid wastes in the waste economy: socio-cultural aspects’ Google Scholar

GAYE, M. and DIALLO, F. (1997), ‘Community participation in the management of the urban environment in Rufisque (Senegal)’, Environment and Urbanization, 9, 9-29. ‘Community participation in the management of the urban environment in Rufisque (Senegal)’ Environment and Urbanization 9 9 29 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

HARDOY, J. et al. (1992), Environmental Problems in Third World Cities, London, Earthscan. Environmental Problems in Third World Cities Google Scholar

HARDOY, J and SHUTERMAN, R. (2000), ‘New models for the privatisation of water and sanitation for the urban poor’, Environment and Urbanization, 12, 63-77. ‘New models for the privatisation of water and sanitation for the urban poor’ Environment and Urbanization 12 63 77 Google Scholar

HUYSMAN, M. (1994), ‘Waste picking as a survival strategy for women in Indian cities’, Environment and Urbanization, 6, 155-74. ‘Waste picking as a survival strategy for women in Indian cities’ Environment and Urbanization 6 155 74 Google Scholar

KLEE, R. J. (1999), The Role of Local Government (Research Paper for the UNDP Public-Private Partnership for the Urban Environment/Yale Collaborative Program), New Haven, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. The Role of Local Government Google Scholar

KLUNDERT, A. van de and LARDINOIS, I. (1995), ‘Community and private (formal and informal) sector involvement in municipal solid waste management in developing countries’ (paper presented to the Ittingen Workshop, Switzerland, 10-12 April). ‘Community and private (formal and informal) sector involvement in municipal solid waste management in developing countries’ Google Scholar

LAODONG (‘Labour Journal’—daily electronic newspaper), (1999), Hanoi, URL http://www.laodong.com.vn Google Scholar

LAPID, D. (1999), Solid Waste Management Privatisation in the Philippines and its Effect on Micro- and Small Enterprises (Discussion Paper), Manila, Centre for Advanced Philippine Studies, URL http://www.acepesa.or.cr/surco/discusphil.htm Google Scholar

LARDINOIS, I. (1998), Solid Waste Micro and Small Enterprises and Cooperatives in Latin America (UWEP Project Paper No. 3), Gouda, CREED (Collaborative Research in the Economics of Environment and Development) and UWEP (Urban Waste Expertise Programme). Solid Waste Micro and Small Enterprises and Cooperatives in Latin America Google Scholar

LE, T. (1993), Job Creation and Income Generation for Women, Hanoi, Social Science Publishing House. Job Creation and Income Generation for Women Google Scholar

LE, T. (1994), Vietnamese Women in Rural and Agricultural Development: Policy for a Gender-Sensitive Approach, Hanoi, Centre for Family and Women's Studies. Vietnamese Women in Rural and Agricultural Development: Policy for a Gender-Sensitive Approach Google Scholar

LEE, Y. F. (1992), An Overview of Solid Waste Management Privatisation Experiences in Asia and the Pacific (East-West Centre Paper), Honolulu, East-West Centre. An Overview of Solid Waste Management Privatisation Experiences in Asia and the Pacific Google Scholar

LEE, Y. F. (1993), Rethinking Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy in Developing Countries in the Humid Tropics: Lessons from the International Water Decade, Honolulu, East-West Centre. Rethinking Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy in Developing Countries in the Humid Tropics: Lessons from the International Water Decade Google Scholar

LEE, Y. F. (1997), ‘The privatisation of solid waste infrastructure and services in Asia’, Third World Planning Review, 19, 139-61. ‘The privatisation of solid waste infrastructure and services in Asia’ Third World Planning Review 19 139 61 Google Scholar

LEITMANN, J. et al. (1992), ‘Environmental management and urban development: issues and options for Third World cities’, Environment and Urbanization, 4, 131-40. ‘Environmental management and urban development: issues and options for Third World cities’ Environment and Urbanization 4 131 40 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

MAI, T. H. (1999), ‘Environmental problems in the traditional craft villages surrounding Hanoi City’, Science, Technology and Environment, 5, 11-13. ‘Environmental problems in the traditional craft villages surrounding Hanoi City’ Science, Technology and Environment 5 11 13 Google Scholar

MANGAL, S. (1998), Participation and the Public-Private Interface in Urban Environmental Management (Background Paper for UNDP Public-Private Partnership for the Urban Environment/Yale Collaborative Program), New Haven, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. Participation and the Public-Private Interface in Urban Environmental Management Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

MEDINA, M. (1997), Informal Recycling and Collection of Solid Wastes in Developing Countries: Issues and Opportunities (Working Paper No. 24), Tokyo, United Nations University/Institute of Advanced Studies. Informal Recycling and Collection of Solid Wastes in Developing Countries: Issues and Opportunities Google Scholar

MEHRA, R. et al. (1996), ‘Women in waste collection and recycling in Ho Chi Minh City’, Population and Environment, 18, 187-201. ‘Women in waste collection and recycling in Ho Chi Minh City’ Population and Environment 18 187 201 Google Scholar

MG (Municipal Government of Hanoi) (2001), URL http://www.thudo.gov.vn Google Scholar

MILLER, C. (1999), Communities and Public-Private Partnership: Theory and Roles Related to the Provision of Water and Sanitation (Research Paper for UNDP Public-Private Partnership for the Urban Environment/Yale Collaborative Program), New Haven, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. Communities and Public-Private Partnership: Theory and Roles Related to the Provision of Water and Sanitation Google Scholar

MITLIN, D. and THOMPSON, J. (1995), ‘Participatory approaches in urban areas: strengthening civil society or reinforcing the status quo?’, Environment and Urbanization, 7, 231-50. ‘Participatory approaches in urban areas: strengthening civil society or reinforcing the status quo?’ Environment and Urbanization 7 231 50 Google Scholar

MOC (Ministry of Construction) (1994), Hanoi Data Book, Hanoi, National Institute for Urban and Rural Planning. Google Scholar

MONINGKA, L. (2000), Community Participation in Solid Waste Management: Factors Favouring the Sustainability of Community Participation—A Literature Review (Urban Waste Expertise Programme Occasional Paper), Gouda, Netherlands Development Assistance. Community Participation in Solid Waste Management: Factors Favouring the Sustainability of Community Participation—A Literature Review Google Scholar

MUTIZWA-MANGIZA, N. (2001), ‘Enabling the informal sector’, Habitat Debate, 7, 22-23. ‘Enabling the informal sector’ Habitat Debate 7 22 23 Google Scholar

MWANGI, S. W. (2000), ‘Partnership in urban environmental management: an approach to solving environmental problems in Nakuru, Kenya’, Environment and Urbanization, 12, 77-92. ‘Partnership in urban environmental management: an approach to solving environmental problems in Nakuru, Kenya’ Environment and Urbanization 12 77 92 Google Scholar

OGU, V. I. (2000), ‘Private sector participation and municipal waste management in Benin City, Nigeria’, Environment and Urbanization, 12, 103-17. ‘Private sector participation and municipal waste management in Benin City, Nigeria’ Environment and Urbanization 12 103 17 Google Scholar

OJEDA-BENITEZ S. et al. (2000), ‘The potential for recycling household waste: a case study from Mexicali, Mexico’, Environment and Urbanization, 12, 163-73. ‘The potential for recycling household waste: a case study from Mexicali, Mexico’ Environment and Urbanization 12 163 73 Google Scholar

PARENTEAU, R. (1996) (ed.), Habitat et Environment Urbain au Viět-nam, Paris, Karthala. Habitat et Environment Urbain au Viět-nam Google Scholar

PLUMMER, J. and SLATER, R. (2001), Just Managing the Solid Waste Management Partnership in Biratnagar, Nepal (Working Paper No. 442/02 for the British Department for International Development/University of Birmingham/UNDP Public-Private Partnership for the Urban Environment Program), London, GHK International. Just Managing the Solid Waste Management Partnership in Biratnagar, Nepal Google Scholar

POERBO, H. (1991), ‘Urban solid waste management in Bandung: towards an integrated resource recovery system’, Environment and Urbanization, 3, 60-69. ‘Urban solid waste management in Bandung: towards an integrated resource recovery system’ Environment and Urbanization 3 60 69 Google Scholar

POST, J. (1999), ‘The problems and potentials of privatising solid waste management in Kumasi, Ghana’, Habitat International, 23, 201-15. ‘The problems and potentials of privatising solid waste management in Kumasi, Ghana’ Habitat International 23 201 15 Google Scholar

RAPTEN, K. L. (1998), Community Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries: The Role of the Informal Sector (Research Clinic Paper FES No. 895), New Haven, Connecticut, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. Community Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries: The Role of the Informal Sector Google Scholar

SCHUBERLER, P. et al. (1996), Conceptual Framework for Municipal Solid Waste Management in Low-income Countries (Working Paper), UNDP/UNCHS/World Bank/Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) Collaborative Program on Municipal Solid Waste Management in Low-income Countries, Gallen, Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in Technology and Management. Conceptual Framework for Municipal Solid Waste Management in Low-income Countries Google Scholar

STERTENLEIB, R. and TRICHE, T. (1990), Non-government Delivery of Urban Solid Waste Collection Services (Technical Paper No. 2), Washington, DC, The World Bank. Non-government Delivery of Urban Solid Waste Collection Services Google Scholar

TO, D. H. et al. (2000), Su bien doi cua lang xa Vietnam ngay nay o dong bang song Hong (‘Changes to Vietnamese villages within the Red River delta’), Hanoi, National Centre of Social Sciences/Institute of Social Studies, Social Science Publishing House. Su bien doi cua lang xa Vietnam ngay nay o dong bang song Hong Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (1997), Governance, Washington, DC, American Writing. Google Scholar

UNDP Vietnam (1998a), Annual Report 1998, Hanoi, Social Development Unit. Google Scholar

UNDP Vietnam (1998b), The Dynamics of Internal Migration in Viet Nam (Technical Advisory Paper), Hanoi, UNDP. Google Scholar

UNDP Vietnam (2000), Hanoi: An Urban Profile, Hanoi, UNDP. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

VU, T. A. and TRAN, T. V. A. (1997), Kinh te ho: Lich su va trien vong phat trien (Household Economy: History and Potential for Development), Hanoi, National Centre of Social Sciences (Hanoi) and University of British Columbia (Canada), Social Science Publishing House. Kinh te ho: Lich su va trien vong phat trien Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (1992), World Development Report 1992: Development and the Environment, Washington, DC, The World Bank. Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (1999), What a Waste: Solid Waste Management in Asia (Working Paper), Urban Development Sector Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region, Washington, DC, The World Bank. Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Ngo, Dao