Journal of Romance Studies

The trials of translation: from global cultural flow to domestic relocation

Journal of Romance Studies (2011), 11, (1), 51–62.

Abstract

In the present age, terms such as fluidity, flow, flexibility have become a kind of password that gives easy access to understanding social, cultural and economic reality. And when people, ideas, images and capital are constantly ‘carried across’, it is no wonder that ‘translation’, too, has come to join in this epistemic toolkit. This article firstly summarizes and critiques some of the current uses of the metaphor of translation, assuming that many social practices in our daily life are often predicated on a consolidation of local identity rather than on unlimited global flows. One such practice is translation ‘proper’, particularly when it takes place in postcolonial contexts, and the concept regularly used to account for this process is ‘domestication’. In the second part of the article I look at the English translation of the collection of short stories Luuanda, first published by the Angolan writer Luandino Vieira in 1964 and translated into English in 1980, as an exemplary case study of the reterritorialization of a hybrid postcolonial text through a wholesale strategy of domestication.

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Adejunmobi, Moradewun (1998) ‘Translation and postcolonial identity: African writing in European languages’, The Translator 4.2, 163–81. Translation and postcolonial identity: African writing in European languages The Translator 4.2 163 81 Google Scholar

Appadurai, Arjun (1990) ‘Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy’, Theory, Culture & Society 7, 295–310. Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy Theory, Culture & Society 7 295 310 Google Scholar

Asad, Talal (1986) ‘The concept of cultural translation in British social anthropology’, in Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography, ed. James Clifford and George E. Marcus (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press), 142–64. The concept of cultural translation in British social anthropology Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography 142 64 Google Scholar

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Bandia, Paul Fadio (2003) ‘Postcolonialism and translation: the dialectic between theory and practice’, Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series 2, 129–42. Postcolonialism and translation: the dialectic between theory and practice Linguistica Antverpiensia 2 129 42 Google Scholar

Bandia, Paul Fadio (2006) ‘African Europhone literature and writing as translation’, in Translating Others, ed. Theo Hermans (Manchester: St Jerome), II, 349–61. African Europhone literature and writing as translation Translating Others 349 61 Google Scholar

Bandia, Paul Fadio (2008) Translation as Reparation: Writing and Translation in Postcolonial Africa (Manchester: St Jerome). Translation as Reparation: Writing and Translation in Postcolonial Africa Google Scholar

Bassnett, Susan (1998) ‘The translation turn in cultural studies’, in Constructing Cultures: Essays on Literary Translation, ed. Susan Bassnett and André Lefevere (Clevedon: Multilingual Matters), 123–40. The translation turn in cultural studies Constructing Cultures: Essays on Literary Translation 123 40 Google Scholar

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Bauman, Zygmunt (2003) ‘Utopia with no topos’, History of the Human Sciences 6.1, 11–24. Utopia with no topos History of the Human Sciences 6.1 11 24 Google Scholar

Berman, Antoine (2000) [1985] ‘Translation and the trials of the foreign’, in The Translation Studies Reader, ed. Lawrence Venuti (London and New York: Routledge), 284–97. Translation and the trials of the foreign The Translation Studies Reader 284 97 Google Scholar

Bhabha, Homi (1994) The Location of Culture (London and New York: Routledge). The Location of Culture Google Scholar

Buzelin, Hélène (2006) ‘Traduire l’hybridité littéraire : réflexions à partir du roman de Samuel Selvon: The Lonely Londoners’, Target 18.1, 91–119. Traduire l’hybridité littéraire : réflexions à partir du roman de Samuel Selvon: The Lonely Londoners Target 18.1 91 119 Google Scholar

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Chapdelaine, Annick (1994) ‘Transparence et retraduction des sociolectes dans The Hamlet de Faulkner’, TTR: traduction, terminologie, rédaction 7.2, 11–33. Transparence et retraduction des sociolectes dans The Hamlet de Faulkner The Hamlet 7.2 11 33 Google Scholar

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Cronin, Michael (2000) ‘History, translation, postcolonialism’, in Changing Terms: Translating in the Postcolonial Era, ed. Sherry Simon and Paul St-Pierre (Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press), 33–52. History, translation, postcolonialism Changing Terms: Translating in the Postcolonial Era 33 52 Google Scholar

Duarte, João Ferreira (ed.) (2008) A cultura entre tradução e etnografia (Lisbon: Vega). A cultura entre tradução e etnografia Google Scholar

Eagleton, Terry (2000) The Idea of Culture (Oxford: Blackwell). The Idea of Culture Google Scholar

Egerer, Claudia (2001) ‘Ambivalent geographies: the exotic as domesticated Other’, Third Text 55, 15–28. Ambivalent geographies: the exotic as domesticated Other Third Text 55 15 28 Google Scholar

Ferreira, Manuel (1980) ‘“Luuanda”/Sociedade Portuguesa de Escritores – um caso de agressão ideológica’, in Luandino: José Luandino Vieira e a sua obra (estudos, testemunhos, entrevistas), ed. Michel Laban et al. (Lisbon: Edições 70), 105–16. “Luuanda”/Sociedade Portuguesa de Escritores – um caso de agressão ideológica Luandino: José Luandino Vieira e a sua obra (estudos, testemunhos, entrevistas) 105 16 Google Scholar

Gyasi, Kwaku Addae (1999) ‘Writing as translation: African literature and the challenges of translation’, Research in African Literatures 30.2, 75–87. Writing as translation: African literature and the challenges of translation Research in African Literatures 30.2 75 87 Google Scholar

Hamilton, Russell G. (1991) ‘Lusophone literature in Africa: language and literature in Portuguese-writing Africa’, Callaloo 14.2, 313–23. Lusophone literature in Africa: language and literature in Portuguese-writing Africa Callaloo 14.2 313 23 Google Scholar

Hermans, Theo (1985) ‘Images of translation: metaphor and imagery in the Renaissance discourse on translation’, in The Manipulation of Literature: Studies in Literary Translation, ed. Theo Hermans (London and Sydney: Croom Helm), 103–35. Images of translation: metaphor and imagery in the Renaissance discourse on translation The Manipulation of Literature: Studies in Literary Translation 103 35 Google Scholar

Jordan, Shirley Ann (2002) ‘Ethnographic encounters: the process of cultural translation’, Language and Intercultural Communication 2.2, 96–110. Ethnographic encounters: the process of cultural translation Language and Intercultural Communication 2.2 96 110 Google Scholar

Lane-Mercier, Gillian (1998) ‘Le travail sur la lettre: politique de décentrement ou tactique de réappropriation?’, TTR: traduction, terminologie, rédaction 11.1, 65–88. Le travail sur la lettre: politique de décentrement ou tactique de réappropriation? TTR: traduction, terminologie, rédaction 11.1 65 88 Google Scholar

Leite, Ana Mafalda (1996) ‘Angola’, in The Post-colonial Literature of Lusophone Africa, ed. Patrick Chabal et al. (London: Hurst & Company), 103–64. Angola The Post-colonial Literature of Lusophone Africa 103 64 Google Scholar

Martín Ruano, M. Rosario (2003) ‘Bringing the Other back home: the translation of (un) familiar hybridity’, Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series 2, 192–204. Bringing the Other back home: the translation of (un) familiar hybridity Linguistica Antverpiensia 2 192 204 Google Scholar

Mehrez, Samia (1992) ‘Translation and the postcolonial experience: the francophone North African text’, in Rethinking Translation: Discourse, Subjectivity, Ideology, ed. Lawrence Venuti (London and New York: Routledge), 120–38. Translation and the postcolonial experience: the francophone North African text Rethinking Translation: Discourse, Subjectivity, Ideology 120 38 Google Scholar

Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o (1986) Decolonizing the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature (Oxford, Nairobi and Portsmouth: James Currey and Heinemann). Decolonizing the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature Google Scholar

Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o (2003) ‘Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o in conversation with Harish Trivedi’, Wasafiri 18.40, 5–10. Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o in conversation with Harish Trivedi Wasafiri 18.40 5 10 Google Scholar

Pratt, Mary Louise (2002) ‘Reflections on modernity and globality’, in Representações do Real na Modernidade, ed. Helena C. Buescu and João Ferreira Duarte (Lisbon: Colibri and Carvalhão), 61–76. Reflections on modernity and globality Representações do Real na Modernidade 61 76 Google Scholar

Pym, Anthony (2010) Exploring Translation Theories (London and New York: Routledge). Exploring Translation Theories Google Scholar

Rushdie, Salmon (1992) Imaginary Homelands: Essays and Criticism 1981–91 (London: Granta Books in Association with Penguin Books). Imaginary Homelands: Essays and Criticism 1981–91 Google Scholar

Snell-Hornby, Mary (2003) ‘Re-creating the hybrid text: postcolonial Indian writings and the European scene’, Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series 2, 171–89. Re-creating the hybrid text: postcolonial Indian writings and the European scene Linguistica Antverpiensia 2 171 89 Google Scholar

Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty (2005) ‘Translation as culture’, in In Translation: Reflections, Refractions, Transformations, ed. Paul St-Pierre and Prafulla Chandra Kar (Delhi: Pencraft International), 238–50. Translation as culture In Translation: Reflections, Refractions, Transformations 238 50 Google Scholar

Torop, Peeter (2003) ‘Intersemiosis and intersemiotic translation’, in Translation, Translation, ed. Susan Petrilli (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi), 271–82. Intersemiosis and intersemiotic translation Translation, Translation 271 82 Google Scholar

Trivedi, Harish (2005) ‘Translating culture vs. cultural translation’, in In Translation: Reflections, Refractions, Transformations, ed. Paul St-Pierre and Prafulla Chandra Kar (Delhi: Pencraft International), 251–62. Translating culture vs. cultural translation In Translation: Reflections, Refractions, Transformations 251 62 Google Scholar

Tymoczko, Maria (1999) ‘Post-colonial writing and literary translation’, in Post-colonial Translation: Theory and Practice, ed. Susan Bassnett and Harish Trivedi (London and New York: Routledge), 19–40. Post-colonial writing and literary translation Post-colonial Translation: Theory and Practice 19 40 Google Scholar

Tymoczko, Maria (2000) ‘Translations of themselves: the contours of postcolonial fiction’, in Changing Terms: Translating in the Postcolonial Era, ed. Sherry Simon and Paul St-Pierre (Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press), 147–63. Translations of themselves: the contours of postcolonial fiction Changing Terms: Translating in the Postcolonial Era 147 63 Google Scholar

Vieira, José Luandino (1980) Luuanda: Short Stories of Angola, trans. Tamara Bender (London: Heinemann). Luuanda: Short Stories of Angola Google Scholar

Vieira, José Luandino (2004) [1964], Luuanda: estórias (Lisbon: Caminho). Luuanda: estórias Google Scholar

Voloshinov, Valentin Nikolaevich (1973) Marxism and the Philosophy of Language, trans. Ladislav Matejka and Irwin Robert Titunik (New York and London: Seminar Press). Marxism and the Philosophy of Language Google Scholar

Wohlfart, Irmengard (2009) ‘Investigating a double translation of culture: the English-Maori classic postcolonial text Potiki and its German translation’, Target 21.2, 265–88. Investigating a double translation of culture: the English-Maori classic postcolonial text Potiki and its German translation Target 21.2 265 88 Google Scholar

Young, Charmaine (2009) ‘Translating the third culture: the translation of aspects of Senegalese culture in selected literary works by Ousmane Sembène’, in Translation Studies in Africa, ed. Judith Inggs and Libby Meintjes (London and New York: Continuum), 110–35. Translating the third culture: the translation of aspects of Senegalese culture in selected literary works by Ousmane Sembène Translation Studies in Africa 110 35 Google Scholar

Zabus, Chantal (2007) [1991] The African Palimpsest: Indigenization of Language in the West African Europhone Novel (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi). The African Palimpsest: Indigenization of Language in the West African Europhone Novel Google Scholar

Adejunmobi, Moradewun (1998) ‘Translation and postcolonial identity: African writing in European languages’, The Translator 4.2, 163–81. Translation and postcolonial identity: African writing in European languages The Translator 4.2 163 81 Google Scholar

Appadurai, Arjun (1990) ‘Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy’, Theory, Culture & Society 7, 295–310. Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy Theory, Culture & Society 7 295 310 Google Scholar

Asad, Talal (1986) ‘The concept of cultural translation in British social anthropology’, in Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography, ed. James Clifford and George E. Marcus (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press), 142–64. The concept of cultural translation in British social anthropology Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography 142 64 Google Scholar

Bachmann-Medick, Doris (2009) ‘Introduction: the translational turn’, Translation Studies 2.1, 2–16. Introduction: the translational turn Translation Studies 2.1 2 16 Google Scholar

Bandia, Paul Fadio (1994) ‘On translating Pidgins and Creoles in African literature’, TTR: traduction, terminologie, rédaction 7.2, 93–114. On translating Pidgins and Creoles in African literature TTR: traduction, terminologie, rédaction 7.2 93 114 Google Scholar

Bandia, Paul Fadio (2003) ‘Postcolonialism and translation: the dialectic between theory and practice’, Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series 2, 129–42. Postcolonialism and translation: the dialectic between theory and practice Linguistica Antverpiensia 2 129 42 Google Scholar

Bandia, Paul Fadio (2006) ‘African Europhone literature and writing as translation’, in Translating Others, ed. Theo Hermans (Manchester: St Jerome), II, 349–61. African Europhone literature and writing as translation Translating Others 349 61 Google Scholar

Bandia, Paul Fadio (2008) Translation as Reparation: Writing and Translation in Postcolonial Africa (Manchester: St Jerome). Translation as Reparation: Writing and Translation in Postcolonial Africa Google Scholar

Bassnett, Susan (1998) ‘The translation turn in cultural studies’, in Constructing Cultures: Essays on Literary Translation, ed. Susan Bassnett and André Lefevere (Clevedon: Multilingual Matters), 123–40. The translation turn in cultural studies Constructing Cultures: Essays on Literary Translation 123 40 Google Scholar

Bauman, Zygmunt (2000) Liquid Modernity (Cambridge: Polity Press). Liquid Modernity Google Scholar

Bauman, Zygmunt (2003) ‘Utopia with no topos’, History of the Human Sciences 6.1, 11–24. Utopia with no topos History of the Human Sciences 6.1 11 24 Google Scholar

Berman, Antoine (2000) [1985] ‘Translation and the trials of the foreign’, in The Translation Studies Reader, ed. Lawrence Venuti (London and New York: Routledge), 284–97. Translation and the trials of the foreign The Translation Studies Reader 284 97 Google Scholar

Bhabha, Homi (1994) The Location of Culture (London and New York: Routledge). The Location of Culture Google Scholar

Buzelin, Hélène (2006) ‘Traduire l’hybridité littéraire : réflexions à partir du roman de Samuel Selvon: The Lonely Londoners’, Target 18.1, 91–119. Traduire l’hybridité littéraire : réflexions à partir du roman de Samuel Selvon: The Lonely Londoners Target 18.1 91 119 Google Scholar

Carbonell i Cortès, Ovidi (2003) ‘Semiotic alteration in translation: othering, stereotyping and hybridization in contemporary translations from Arabic into Spanish and Catalan’, Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series 2, 145–59. Semiotic alteration in translation: othering, stereotyping and hybridization in contemporary translations from Arabic into Spanish and Catalan Linguistica Antverpiensia 2 145 59 Google Scholar

Chan, Leo Tak-Hung (2002) ‘Translating bilinguality: theorizing translation in the post-Babelian era’, The Translator 8.1, 49–72. Translating bilinguality: theorizing translation in the post-Babelian era The Translator 8.1 49 72 Google Scholar

Chapdelaine, Annick (1994) ‘Transparence et retraduction des sociolectes dans The Hamlet de Faulkner’, TTR: traduction, terminologie, rédaction 7.2, 11–33. Transparence et retraduction des sociolectes dans The Hamlet de Faulkner The Hamlet 7.2 11 33 Google Scholar

Chesterman, Andrew (2001) ‘Proposal for a Hieronymic oath’, The Translator 7.2, 139–54. Proposal for a Hieronymic oath The Translator 7.2 139 54 Google Scholar

Cronin, Michael (2000) ‘History, translation, postcolonialism’, in Changing Terms: Translating in the Postcolonial Era, ed. Sherry Simon and Paul St-Pierre (Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press), 33–52. History, translation, postcolonialism Changing Terms: Translating in the Postcolonial Era 33 52 Google Scholar

Duarte, João Ferreira (ed.) (2008) A cultura entre tradução e etnografia (Lisbon: Vega). A cultura entre tradução e etnografia Google Scholar

Eagleton, Terry (2000) The Idea of Culture (Oxford: Blackwell). The Idea of Culture Google Scholar

Egerer, Claudia (2001) ‘Ambivalent geographies: the exotic as domesticated Other’, Third Text 55, 15–28. Ambivalent geographies: the exotic as domesticated Other Third Text 55 15 28 Google Scholar

Ferreira, Manuel (1980) ‘“Luuanda”/Sociedade Portuguesa de Escritores – um caso de agressão ideológica’, in Luandino: José Luandino Vieira e a sua obra (estudos, testemunhos, entrevistas), ed. Michel Laban et al. (Lisbon: Edições 70), 105–16. “Luuanda”/Sociedade Portuguesa de Escritores – um caso de agressão ideológica Luandino: José Luandino Vieira e a sua obra (estudos, testemunhos, entrevistas) 105 16 Google Scholar

Gyasi, Kwaku Addae (1999) ‘Writing as translation: African literature and the challenges of translation’, Research in African Literatures 30.2, 75–87. Writing as translation: African literature and the challenges of translation Research in African Literatures 30.2 75 87 Google Scholar

Hamilton, Russell G. (1991) ‘Lusophone literature in Africa: language and literature in Portuguese-writing Africa’, Callaloo 14.2, 313–23. Lusophone literature in Africa: language and literature in Portuguese-writing Africa Callaloo 14.2 313 23 Google Scholar

Hermans, Theo (1985) ‘Images of translation: metaphor and imagery in the Renaissance discourse on translation’, in The Manipulation of Literature: Studies in Literary Translation, ed. Theo Hermans (London and Sydney: Croom Helm), 103–35. Images of translation: metaphor and imagery in the Renaissance discourse on translation The Manipulation of Literature: Studies in Literary Translation 103 35 Google Scholar

Jordan, Shirley Ann (2002) ‘Ethnographic encounters: the process of cultural translation’, Language and Intercultural Communication 2.2, 96–110. Ethnographic encounters: the process of cultural translation Language and Intercultural Communication 2.2 96 110 Google Scholar

Lane-Mercier, Gillian (1998) ‘Le travail sur la lettre: politique de décentrement ou tactique de réappropriation?’, TTR: traduction, terminologie, rédaction 11.1, 65–88. Le travail sur la lettre: politique de décentrement ou tactique de réappropriation? TTR: traduction, terminologie, rédaction 11.1 65 88 Google Scholar

Leite, Ana Mafalda (1996) ‘Angola’, in The Post-colonial Literature of Lusophone Africa, ed. Patrick Chabal et al. (London: Hurst & Company), 103–64. Angola The Post-colonial Literature of Lusophone Africa 103 64 Google Scholar

Martín Ruano, M. Rosario (2003) ‘Bringing the Other back home: the translation of (un) familiar hybridity’, Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series 2, 192–204. Bringing the Other back home: the translation of (un) familiar hybridity Linguistica Antverpiensia 2 192 204 Google Scholar

Mehrez, Samia (1992) ‘Translation and the postcolonial experience: the francophone North African text’, in Rethinking Translation: Discourse, Subjectivity, Ideology, ed. Lawrence Venuti (London and New York: Routledge), 120–38. Translation and the postcolonial experience: the francophone North African text Rethinking Translation: Discourse, Subjectivity, Ideology 120 38 Google Scholar

Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o (1986) Decolonizing the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature (Oxford, Nairobi and Portsmouth: James Currey and Heinemann). Decolonizing the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature Google Scholar

Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o (2003) ‘Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o in conversation with Harish Trivedi’, Wasafiri 18.40, 5–10. Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o in conversation with Harish Trivedi Wasafiri 18.40 5 10 Google Scholar

Pratt, Mary Louise (2002) ‘Reflections on modernity and globality’, in Representações do Real na Modernidade, ed. Helena C. Buescu and João Ferreira Duarte (Lisbon: Colibri and Carvalhão), 61–76. Reflections on modernity and globality Representações do Real na Modernidade 61 76 Google Scholar

Pym, Anthony (2010) Exploring Translation Theories (London and New York: Routledge). Exploring Translation Theories Google Scholar

Rushdie, Salmon (1992) Imaginary Homelands: Essays and Criticism 1981–91 (London: Granta Books in Association with Penguin Books). Imaginary Homelands: Essays and Criticism 1981–91 Google Scholar

Snell-Hornby, Mary (2003) ‘Re-creating the hybrid text: postcolonial Indian writings and the European scene’, Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series 2, 171–89. Re-creating the hybrid text: postcolonial Indian writings and the European scene Linguistica Antverpiensia 2 171 89 Google Scholar

Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty (2005) ‘Translation as culture’, in In Translation: Reflections, Refractions, Transformations, ed. Paul St-Pierre and Prafulla Chandra Kar (Delhi: Pencraft International), 238–50. Translation as culture In Translation: Reflections, Refractions, Transformations 238 50 Google Scholar

Torop, Peeter (2003) ‘Intersemiosis and intersemiotic translation’, in Translation, Translation, ed. Susan Petrilli (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi), 271–82. Intersemiosis and intersemiotic translation Translation, Translation 271 82 Google Scholar

Trivedi, Harish (2005) ‘Translating culture vs. cultural translation’, in In Translation: Reflections, Refractions, Transformations, ed. Paul St-Pierre and Prafulla Chandra Kar (Delhi: Pencraft International), 251–62. Translating culture vs. cultural translation In Translation: Reflections, Refractions, Transformations 251 62 Google Scholar

Tymoczko, Maria (1999) ‘Post-colonial writing and literary translation’, in Post-colonial Translation: Theory and Practice, ed. Susan Bassnett and Harish Trivedi (London and New York: Routledge), 19–40. Post-colonial writing and literary translation Post-colonial Translation: Theory and Practice 19 40 Google Scholar

Tymoczko, Maria (2000) ‘Translations of themselves: the contours of postcolonial fiction’, in Changing Terms: Translating in the Postcolonial Era, ed. Sherry Simon and Paul St-Pierre (Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press), 147–63. Translations of themselves: the contours of postcolonial fiction Changing Terms: Translating in the Postcolonial Era 147 63 Google Scholar

Vieira, José Luandino (1980) Luuanda: Short Stories of Angola, trans. Tamara Bender (London: Heinemann). Luuanda: Short Stories of Angola Google Scholar

Vieira, José Luandino (2004) [1964], Luuanda: estórias (Lisbon: Caminho). Luuanda: estórias Google Scholar

Voloshinov, Valentin Nikolaevich (1973) Marxism and the Philosophy of Language, trans. Ladislav Matejka and Irwin Robert Titunik (New York and London: Seminar Press). Marxism and the Philosophy of Language Google Scholar

Wohlfart, Irmengard (2009) ‘Investigating a double translation of culture: the English-Maori classic postcolonial text Potiki and its German translation’, Target 21.2, 265–88. Investigating a double translation of culture: the English-Maori classic postcolonial text Potiki and its German translation Target 21.2 265 88 Google Scholar

Young, Charmaine (2009) ‘Translating the third culture: the translation of aspects of Senegalese culture in selected literary works by Ousmane Sembène’, in Translation Studies in Africa, ed. Judith Inggs and Libby Meintjes (London and New York: Continuum), 110–35. Translating the third culture: the translation of aspects of Senegalese culture in selected literary works by Ousmane Sembène Translation Studies in Africa 110 35 Google Scholar

Zabus, Chantal (2007) [1991] The African Palimpsest: Indigenization of Language in the West African Europhone Novel (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi). The African Palimpsest: Indigenization of Language in the West African Europhone Novel Google Scholar

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Duarte, João Ferreira