Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Ser para otro: Máscaras, Fresa y Chocolate y la retórica de la metáfora homosexual

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (2011), 88, (7), 811–828.

Abstract

En Cuba de los años 60, la homosexualidad se convirtió en un problema político cuyas consecuencias van desde el exilio hasta el suicidio u el homicidio de homosexuales. La película de Tomás Gutiérrez Alea, Fresa y chocolate (1993), y la novela de Leonardo Padura Fuentes, Máscaras (1994) abordan dichos temas. Este ensayo analiza el uso metafórico que se hace de la imagen homosexual en estas dos obras. El objetivo es explicar cómo el poder de la metáfora homosexual reside en la capacidad de utilizar la debilitada imagen gay – i.e. sus mitos y estereotipos – para hacerlos colapsar a través de su propia representación. Asimismo, se sostiene que el homosexual, como un Asterión, representa cualquier tipo de disidencia o diferencia socio-política o cultural. De esta manera, la metaforización de la figura homosexual permite explorar no sólo la identidad interior del homosexual sino también su reconocimiento exterior. Este tropo traslada la subjetividad homosexual de la esfera privada a la pública, al imaginario colectivo, y allí proyecta la imagen del homosexual, del hombre gay, como un homo politicus. La metáfora se constituye así en el espacio inmediato en donde la identidad gay es reconocida públicamente.

This essay explores the metaphoric use of the homosexual image in two Cuban works: Tomás Gutiérrez Alea's Strawberry and Chocolate (1993), and Leonardo Padura Fuentes' Havana Red (1994). The homosexual metaphor criticizes the political abuses perpetrated upon any political dissident while debunking some myths about homosexuality and Cuban sexual politics. This metaphor functions as a means of translation to queer identities. It trans-locates the outward homosexual identity from the imaginary collective towards an intermediate space where an inward identification could also be grasped. The metaphor is the intermediate space in which homosexuals become visible as homo politicus. As a result, the homosexual identity is publicly visualized by means of the metaphor and it leads the recognition of the homosexual to a new stage.

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Gavilano, Lorena Cuya