International Development Planning Review

Actors, networks and assemblages: local content, corruption and the politics of SME’s participation in Ghana’s oil and gas industry

International Development Planning Review (2019), 41, (2), 193–214.

Abstract

Local content policies are relevant policy tools that can ensure that natural resource extraction leads to the social and economic development of countries through local participation. With a focus on Ghana’s local content policy and small and medium-scale enterprises (SME)’s participation, this article highlights the complexities pertaining to the role of natural resource extraction in African economies. This work further reiterates the need to focus on actors, networks and assemblages, and the interrelation between social, material and ideational elements to better understand local participation in the extractive industries. The heterogeneous relations between actors and their constant reconfiguration creates a condition for bifurcated SME’s participation in Ghana’s oil and gas industry.

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References

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Ablo, A. D. (2015) ‘Local content and participation in Ghana’s oil and gas industry: can enterprise development make a difference?’ The Extractive Industries and Society, 2(2), 320–27. Google Scholar

Ablo, A. D. (2016) From local content to local participation? Exploring entrepreneurship in Ghana’s oil and gas industry, PhD, University of Bergen. Google Scholar

Ablo, A. D. (2017) ‘The micromechanisms of power in local content requirements and their constraints on Ghanaian SMEs in the oil and gas sector’, Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift – Norwegian Journal of Geography, 71(2), 67–78. Google Scholar

Ablo, A. D. (2018) ‘Scale, local content and the challenges of Ghanaians employment in the oil and gas industry’, Geoforum, 96, 181–89. Google Scholar

Ablo, A. D. and Overå, R. (2015) ‘Networks, trust and capital mobilisation: challenges of embedded local entrepreneurial strategies in Ghana’s oil and gas industry’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 53(03), 391–13. Google Scholar

Acemoglu, D. (2003) ‘Why not a political Coase theorem? Social conflict, commitment, and politics’, Journal of Comparative Economics, 31(4), 620–52. Google Scholar

Auty, R. M. (1994) ‘Industrial policy reform in six large newly industrializing countries: the resource curse thesis’, World Development, 22(1), 11–26. Google Scholar

Ayelazuno, J. (2014) ‘Oil wealth and the well-being of the subaltern classes in Sub-Saharan Africa: a critical analysis of the resource curse in Ghana’, Resources Policy, 40, 66–73. Google Scholar

Bacon, R. and Tordo, S. (2006) Experiences with oil funds: institutional and financial aspects, Washington DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

Bloch, R. and Owusu, G. (2012) ‘Linkages in Ghana’s gold mining industry: challenging the enclave thesis’, Resources Policy, 37(4), 434–42. Google Scholar

Boggs, J. S. and Rantisi, N. M. (2003) ‘The “relational turn” in economic geography’, Journal of Economic Geography, 3(2), 109–16. Google Scholar

Bridge, G. and Le Billon, P. (2013) Oil, Cambridge, Polity. Google Scholar

Bush, R. and Graham, H. (2014) ‘New African development?’ Review of African Political Economy, 41(Supplement 1), S1–S6. Google Scholar

Callon, M. (1999) ‘Actor-network theory: the market test’, The Sociological Review, 47(1_suppl), 181–95. Google Scholar

Campbell, B. (2003) ‘Factoring in governance is not enough. Mining codes in Africa, policy reform and corporate responsibility’, Minerals and Energy-Raw Materials Report, 18(3), 2–13. Google Scholar

Carmody, P. R. (2016) The new scramble for Africa, Cambridge, Polity. Google Scholar

Chitor, B. (2012) Ghana’s transitional oil and gas industry: legal, corporate and environmental aspects, Accra, Chitor. Google Scholar

Collier, P. (2010) ‘The political economy of natural resources’, Social Research, 77(4), 1105–32. Google Scholar

Cressman, D. (2009) ‘A brief overview of actor-network theory: punctualization, heterogeneous engineering and translation’, Burnaby, Canada, Simon Fraser University. Google Scholar

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de Oliveira, R. S. (2007) Oil and politics in the Gulf of Guinea, Columbia, Hurst. Google Scholar

Donyiyah, S. K. (2013) ‘Managing the extractive resource’, in K. Appiah-Adu (ed.), Governance of the petroleum sector in an emerging developing economy, Farnham, Gower Publishing, 9–25. Google Scholar

Erling, R. (2006) ‘Escaping the resource curse and the Dutch disease? When and why Norway caught up with and forged ahead of its neighbours’, American Journal of Economics, 65(3), 605–40. Google Scholar

Fafchamps, M. (2003) Market institutions in sub-Saharan Africa: theory and evidence, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Google Scholar

Fløysand, A. and Jakobsen, S.-E. (2010) ‘The complexity of innovation: a relational turn’, Progress in Human Geography, 35(3), 328–44. Google Scholar

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Gluckler, J. (2007) ‘Economic geography and the evolution of networks’, Journal of Economic Geography, 7(5), 619–34. Google Scholar

Gyimah-Boadi, E. and Prempeh, H. K. (2012) ‘Oil, politics, and Ghana’s democracy’, Journal of Democracy, 23(3), 94–108. Google Scholar

Haarstad, H. (2014) ‘Cross-scalar dynamics of the resource curse: constraints on local participation in the Bolivian gas sector’, The Journal of Development Studies, 50(7), 977–90. Google Scholar

Haarstad, H. and Wanvik, T. I. (2016) ‘Carbonscapes and beyond: conceptualizing the instability of oil landscapes’, Progress in Human Geography, 41(4), 432–50. Google Scholar

Harvey, D. and Braun, B. (1996) Justice, nature and the geography of difference, Malden, MA, Blackwell. Google Scholar

Humphreys, M. (2005) ‘Natural resources, conflict, and conflict resolution uncovering the mechanisms’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49(4), 508–37. Google Scholar

Humphreys, M., Sachs, J. and Stiglitz, J. E. (2007) Escaping the resource curse, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Karl, T. L. (2007) ‘Oil-led development: social, political, and economic consequences’, Encyclopedia of Energy, 4, 661–72. Google Scholar

Klueh, U. H., Pastor, G., Segura, A. and Zarate, W. (2007) Inter-sectoral linkages and local content in extractive industries and beyond-the case of São Tomé and Príncipe, IMF Working Papers, 1–49, Washington, DC, International Monetary Fund. Google Scholar

Latour, B. (1996) ‘On actor-network theory: a few clarifications’, Soziale Welt, 47(4), 369–81. Google Scholar

Latour, B. (1999) ‘On recalling ANT’, The Sociological Review, 47(S1), 15–25. Google Scholar

Latour, B. (2003) ‘Is re-modernization occurring-and if so, how to prove it? A commentary on Ulrich Beck’, Theory, Culture and Society, 20(2), 35–48. Google Scholar

Latour, B. (2005) Reassembling the social: an introduction to actor-network-theory, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

Law, J. (1992) ‘Notes on the theory of the actor-network: ordering, strategy, and heterogeneity’, Systems Practice, 5(4), 379–93. Google Scholar

Law, J. (1999) ‘After Ant: complexity, naming and topology’, The Sociological Review, 47(1_suppl), 1–14. Google Scholar

Massey, D. (1999) ‘Space-time, “science” and the relationship between physical geography and human geography’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 24(3), 261–76. Google Scholar

Matthew, R. A., Brown, O. and Jensen, D. (2009) From conflict to peacebuilding: the role of natural resources and the environment, Nairobi, UNEP/Earthprint. Google Scholar

McCaskie, T. C. (2008) ‘The United States, Ghana and oil: global and local perspectives’, African Affairs, 107(428), 313–32. Google Scholar

McNeish, J.-A. and Logan, O. (2012) Flammable societies: studies on the socio-economics of oil and gas, London, Pluto Press. Google Scholar

Mehlum, H., Moene, K. and Torvik, R. (2006) ‘Institutions and the resource curse’, The Economic Journal, 116(508), 1–20. Google Scholar

Ministry of Energy. (2013) Petroleum (local content and local participation) regulations, 2013, (L. I. 2204), http://www.petrocom.gov.gh/pdfs/13-Local-Content-and-Local-Participation-Regulations-L_I-2204.pdf (accessed 10 March 2017). Google Scholar

Mohan, G. and Asante, K. P. (2015) Transnational capital and the political settlement of Ghana’s oil economy, Working paper 49, ESID, http://www.effective-states.org/working-paper-49/ (accessed 10 March 2017). Google Scholar

Murdoch, J. (1998) ‘The spaces of actor-network theory’ Geoforum, 29(4), 357–74. Google Scholar

Murdoch, J. (2005) Post-structuralist geography: a guide to relational space, London, Sage. Google Scholar

National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (2011) Deep water: the Gulf oil disaster and the future of offshore drilling, GPO, https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-OILCOMMISSION/pdf/GPO-OILCOMMISSION.pdf (accessed 10 March 2017). Google Scholar

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Obeng-Odoom, F. (2014a) ‘Measuring what? “Success” and “failure” in Ghana’s oil industry’, Society and Natural Resources, 27(6), 656–70. Google Scholar

Obeng-Odoom, F. (2014b) Oiling the urban economy: land, labour, capital, and the state in Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana, Vol. 1, London and New York, Routledge. Google Scholar

Ogden, L., Heynen, N., Oslender, U., West, P., Kassam, K.-A. and Robbins, P. (2013) ‘Global assemblages, resilience, and earth stewardship in the Anthropocene’, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 11(7), 341–47. Google Scholar

Ovadia, J. S. (2012) ‘The dual nature of local content in Angola’s oil and gas industry: development vs. elite accumulation’, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 30(3), 395–417. Google Scholar

Ovadia, J. S. (2016) The petro-developmental state in Africa: Making oil work in Angola, Nigeria and the Gulf of Guinea, London, Hurst. Google Scholar

Overå, R. (2017) ‘Local navigations in a global industry: the gendered nature of entrepreneurship in Ghana’s oil and gas service sector’, The Journal of Development Studies, 53(3), 361–74. Google Scholar

Panford, K. (2017) Africa’s natural resources and underdevelopment: how Ghana’s petroleum can create sustainable economic prosperity, New York, Springer. Google Scholar

Ramdoo, I. (2015) Unpacking local content requirements in the extractive sector: what implications for the global trade and investment frameworks, ICTSD and WEF, http://e15initiative.org/publications/unpacking-local-content-requirements-in-the-extractive-sector-what-implications-for-the-global-trade-and-investment-frameworks/ (accessed 10 March 2017). Google Scholar

Ross, M. L. (2004) ‘How do natural resources influence civil war? Evidence from thirteen cases’, International Organization, 58(1), 35–67. Google Scholar

Rosser, A. (2006) ‘Escaping the resource curse’, New Political Economy, 11, 557–70. Google Scholar

Sachs, J. D. and Warner, A. M. (1995) Natural resource abundance and economic growth, National Bureau of Economic Research, https://www.nber.org/papers/w5398 (accessed 10 March 2017). Google Scholar

Sala-i-Martin, X. and Subramanian, A. (2003) Addressing the natural resource curse: an illustration from Nigeria, Working paper, NBER, https://www.nber.org/papers/w9804 (accessed 10 March 2017). Google Scholar

Siakwah, P. (2017a) ‘Actor-network theory, globalised assemblages and the impact of oil on agriculture and industry in Ghana’, The Extractive Industries and Society, 4(3), 462–72. Google Scholar

Siakwah, P. (2017b) ‘Are natural resource windfalls a blessing or a curse in democratic settings? Globalised assemblages and the problematic impacts of oil on Ghana’s development’, Resources Policy, 52, 122–33. Google Scholar

Siakwah, P. (2017c) ‘Political economy of the resource curse in Africa revisited: the curse as a product and a function of globalised hydrocarbon assemblage’, Development and Society, 46(1), 83–112. Google Scholar

Siakwah, P. (2018) ‘Actors, networks, and globalised assemblages: rethinking oil, the environment and conflict in Ghana’, Energy Research and Social Science, 38, 68–76. Google Scholar

Swyngedouw, E. (2004) ‘Globalisation or “glocalisation”? Networks, territories and rescaling’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 17(1), 25–48. Google Scholar

van Gyampo, R. E. (2011) ‘Saving Ghana from its oil: a critical assessment of preparations so far made’, Africa Today, 57(4), 48–69. Google Scholar

Watts, M. (2004) ‘Resource curse? Governmentality, oil and power in the Niger Delta, Nigeria’, Geopolitics, 9(1), 50–80. Google Scholar

Watts, M. (2005) ‘Righteous oil? Human rights, the oil complex, and corporate social responsibility’, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 30(1), 373–407. Google Scholar

Watts, M. (2013) ‘Oil talk’, Development and Change, 44(4), 1013–26. Google Scholar

World Bank (2009) Economy-wide impact of oil discovery in Ghana, World Bank, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTGHANA/Resources/Economy-Wide_Impact_of_Oil_Discovery_in_Ghana.pdf (accessed 10 March 2017). Google Scholar

Yeung, H. W. (2002) Towards a relational economic geography: old wine in new bottles, Paper presented at the 98th Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, 19–23 March, Los Angeles, USA. Google Scholar

Yoshino, Y. (2011) Industrial clusters and micro and small enterprises in Africa: from survival to growth, Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

Abor, J. and Quartey, P. (2010) ‘Issues in SME development in Ghana and South Africa’, International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 39(6), 215–28. Google Scholar

Ablo, A. D. (2015) ‘Local content and participation in Ghana’s oil and gas industry: can enterprise development make a difference?’ The Extractive Industries and Society, 2(2), 320–27. Google Scholar

Ablo, A. D. (2016) From local content to local participation? Exploring entrepreneurship in Ghana’s oil and gas industry, PhD, University of Bergen. Google Scholar

Ablo, A. D. (2017) ‘The micromechanisms of power in local content requirements and their constraints on Ghanaian SMEs in the oil and gas sector’, Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift – Norwegian Journal of Geography, 71(2), 67–78. Google Scholar

Ablo, A. D. (2018) ‘Scale, local content and the challenges of Ghanaians employment in the oil and gas industry’, Geoforum, 96, 181–89. Google Scholar

Ablo, A. D. and Overå, R. (2015) ‘Networks, trust and capital mobilisation: challenges of embedded local entrepreneurial strategies in Ghana’s oil and gas industry’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 53(03), 391–13. Google Scholar

Acemoglu, D. (2003) ‘Why not a political Coase theorem? Social conflict, commitment, and politics’, Journal of Comparative Economics, 31(4), 620–52. Google Scholar

Auty, R. M. (1994) ‘Industrial policy reform in six large newly industrializing countries: the resource curse thesis’, World Development, 22(1), 11–26. Google Scholar

Ayelazuno, J. (2014) ‘Oil wealth and the well-being of the subaltern classes in Sub-Saharan Africa: a critical analysis of the resource curse in Ghana’, Resources Policy, 40, 66–73. Google Scholar

Bacon, R. and Tordo, S. (2006) Experiences with oil funds: institutional and financial aspects, Washington DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

Bloch, R. and Owusu, G. (2012) ‘Linkages in Ghana’s gold mining industry: challenging the enclave thesis’, Resources Policy, 37(4), 434–42. Google Scholar

Boggs, J. S. and Rantisi, N. M. (2003) ‘The “relational turn” in economic geography’, Journal of Economic Geography, 3(2), 109–16. Google Scholar

Bridge, G. and Le Billon, P. (2013) Oil, Cambridge, Polity. Google Scholar

Bush, R. and Graham, H. (2014) ‘New African development?’ Review of African Political Economy, 41(Supplement 1), S1–S6. Google Scholar

Callon, M. (1999) ‘Actor-network theory: the market test’, The Sociological Review, 47(1_suppl), 181–95. Google Scholar

Campbell, B. (2003) ‘Factoring in governance is not enough. Mining codes in Africa, policy reform and corporate responsibility’, Minerals and Energy-Raw Materials Report, 18(3), 2–13. Google Scholar

Carmody, P. R. (2016) The new scramble for Africa, Cambridge, Polity. Google Scholar

Chitor, B. (2012) Ghana’s transitional oil and gas industry: legal, corporate and environmental aspects, Accra, Chitor. Google Scholar

Collier, P. (2010) ‘The political economy of natural resources’, Social Research, 77(4), 1105–32. Google Scholar

Cressman, D. (2009) ‘A brief overview of actor-network theory: punctualization, heterogeneous engineering and translation’, Burnaby, Canada, Simon Fraser University. Google Scholar

Damman, S., Akon-Yamga, G. and Mohammed, K. (2011) Developing local content: knowledge, attitude and practice among Ghanaian supply companies, Trondheim and Accra: SINTEF-STEPRI. Google Scholar

de Oliveira, R. S. (2007) Oil and politics in the Gulf of Guinea, Columbia, Hurst. Google Scholar

Donyiyah, S. K. (2013) ‘Managing the extractive resource’, in K. Appiah-Adu (ed.), Governance of the petroleum sector in an emerging developing economy, Farnham, Gower Publishing, 9–25. Google Scholar

Erling, R. (2006) ‘Escaping the resource curse and the Dutch disease? When and why Norway caught up with and forged ahead of its neighbours’, American Journal of Economics, 65(3), 605–40. Google Scholar

Fafchamps, M. (2003) Market institutions in sub-Saharan Africa: theory and evidence, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Google Scholar

Fløysand, A. and Jakobsen, S.-E. (2010) ‘The complexity of innovation: a relational turn’, Progress in Human Geography, 35(3), 328–44. Google Scholar

Frankel, J. A. (2010) The natural resource curse: a survey. National Bureau of Economic Research, https://www.nber.org/papers/w15836 (accessed 10 March 2017). Google Scholar

Ghazvinian, J. (2008) Untapped: the scramble for Africa’s oil, Boston, MA, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Google Scholar

Gluckler, J. (2007) ‘Economic geography and the evolution of networks’, Journal of Economic Geography, 7(5), 619–34. Google Scholar

Gyimah-Boadi, E. and Prempeh, H. K. (2012) ‘Oil, politics, and Ghana’s democracy’, Journal of Democracy, 23(3), 94–108. Google Scholar

Haarstad, H. (2014) ‘Cross-scalar dynamics of the resource curse: constraints on local participation in the Bolivian gas sector’, The Journal of Development Studies, 50(7), 977–90. Google Scholar

Haarstad, H. and Wanvik, T. I. (2016) ‘Carbonscapes and beyond: conceptualizing the instability of oil landscapes’, Progress in Human Geography, 41(4), 432–50. Google Scholar

Harvey, D. and Braun, B. (1996) Justice, nature and the geography of difference, Malden, MA, Blackwell. Google Scholar

Humphreys, M. (2005) ‘Natural resources, conflict, and conflict resolution uncovering the mechanisms’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49(4), 508–37. Google Scholar

Humphreys, M., Sachs, J. and Stiglitz, J. E. (2007) Escaping the resource curse, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Karl, T. L. (2007) ‘Oil-led development: social, political, and economic consequences’, Encyclopedia of Energy, 4, 661–72. Google Scholar

Klueh, U. H., Pastor, G., Segura, A. and Zarate, W. (2007) Inter-sectoral linkages and local content in extractive industries and beyond-the case of São Tomé and Príncipe, IMF Working Papers, 1–49, Washington, DC, International Monetary Fund. Google Scholar

Latour, B. (1996) ‘On actor-network theory: a few clarifications’, Soziale Welt, 47(4), 369–81. Google Scholar

Latour, B. (1999) ‘On recalling ANT’, The Sociological Review, 47(S1), 15–25. Google Scholar

Latour, B. (2003) ‘Is re-modernization occurring-and if so, how to prove it? A commentary on Ulrich Beck’, Theory, Culture and Society, 20(2), 35–48. Google Scholar

Latour, B. (2005) Reassembling the social: an introduction to actor-network-theory, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

Law, J. (1992) ‘Notes on the theory of the actor-network: ordering, strategy, and heterogeneity’, Systems Practice, 5(4), 379–93. Google Scholar

Law, J. (1999) ‘After Ant: complexity, naming and topology’, The Sociological Review, 47(1_suppl), 1–14. Google Scholar

Massey, D. (1999) ‘Space-time, “science” and the relationship between physical geography and human geography’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 24(3), 261–76. Google Scholar

Matthew, R. A., Brown, O. and Jensen, D. (2009) From conflict to peacebuilding: the role of natural resources and the environment, Nairobi, UNEP/Earthprint. Google Scholar

McCaskie, T. C. (2008) ‘The United States, Ghana and oil: global and local perspectives’, African Affairs, 107(428), 313–32. Google Scholar

McNeish, J.-A. and Logan, O. (2012) Flammable societies: studies on the socio-economics of oil and gas, London, Pluto Press. Google Scholar

Mehlum, H., Moene, K. and Torvik, R. (2006) ‘Institutions and the resource curse’, The Economic Journal, 116(508), 1–20. Google Scholar

Ministry of Energy. (2013) Petroleum (local content and local participation) regulations, 2013, (L. I. 2204), http://www.petrocom.gov.gh/pdfs/13-Local-Content-and-Local-Participation-Regulations-L_I-2204.pdf (accessed 10 March 2017). Google Scholar

Mohan, G. and Asante, K. P. (2015) Transnational capital and the political settlement of Ghana’s oil economy, Working paper 49, ESID, http://www.effective-states.org/working-paper-49/ (accessed 10 March 2017). Google Scholar

Murdoch, J. (1998) ‘The spaces of actor-network theory’ Geoforum, 29(4), 357–74. Google Scholar

Murdoch, J. (2005) Post-structuralist geography: a guide to relational space, London, Sage. Google Scholar

National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (2011) Deep water: the Gulf oil disaster and the future of offshore drilling, GPO, https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-OILCOMMISSION/pdf/GPO-OILCOMMISSION.pdf (accessed 10 March 2017). Google Scholar

Obeng-Odoom, F. (2013) ‘Resource curse or blessing in Africa’s oil cities? Empirical evidence from Sekondi-Takoradi, West Africa’, City, Culture and Society, 4(4), 229–40. Google Scholar

Obeng-Odoom, F. (2014a) ‘Measuring what? “Success” and “failure” in Ghana’s oil industry’, Society and Natural Resources, 27(6), 656–70. Google Scholar

Obeng-Odoom, F. (2014b) Oiling the urban economy: land, labour, capital, and the state in Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana, Vol. 1, London and New York, Routledge. Google Scholar

Ogden, L., Heynen, N., Oslender, U., West, P., Kassam, K.-A. and Robbins, P. (2013) ‘Global assemblages, resilience, and earth stewardship in the Anthropocene’, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 11(7), 341–47. Google Scholar

Ovadia, J. S. (2012) ‘The dual nature of local content in Angola’s oil and gas industry: development vs. elite accumulation’, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 30(3), 395–417. Google Scholar

Ovadia, J. S. (2016) The petro-developmental state in Africa: Making oil work in Angola, Nigeria and the Gulf of Guinea, London, Hurst. Google Scholar

Overå, R. (2017) ‘Local navigations in a global industry: the gendered nature of entrepreneurship in Ghana’s oil and gas service sector’, The Journal of Development Studies, 53(3), 361–74. Google Scholar

Panford, K. (2017) Africa’s natural resources and underdevelopment: how Ghana’s petroleum can create sustainable economic prosperity, New York, Springer. Google Scholar

Ramdoo, I. (2015) Unpacking local content requirements in the extractive sector: what implications for the global trade and investment frameworks, ICTSD and WEF, http://e15initiative.org/publications/unpacking-local-content-requirements-in-the-extractive-sector-what-implications-for-the-global-trade-and-investment-frameworks/ (accessed 10 March 2017). Google Scholar

Ross, M. L. (2004) ‘How do natural resources influence civil war? Evidence from thirteen cases’, International Organization, 58(1), 35–67. Google Scholar

Rosser, A. (2006) ‘Escaping the resource curse’, New Political Economy, 11, 557–70. Google Scholar

Sachs, J. D. and Warner, A. M. (1995) Natural resource abundance and economic growth, National Bureau of Economic Research, https://www.nber.org/papers/w5398 (accessed 10 March 2017). Google Scholar

Sala-i-Martin, X. and Subramanian, A. (2003) Addressing the natural resource curse: an illustration from Nigeria, Working paper, NBER, https://www.nber.org/papers/w9804 (accessed 10 March 2017). Google Scholar

Siakwah, P. (2017a) ‘Actor-network theory, globalised assemblages and the impact of oil on agriculture and industry in Ghana’, The Extractive Industries and Society, 4(3), 462–72. Google Scholar

Siakwah, P. (2017b) ‘Are natural resource windfalls a blessing or a curse in democratic settings? Globalised assemblages and the problematic impacts of oil on Ghana’s development’, Resources Policy, 52, 122–33. Google Scholar

Siakwah, P. (2017c) ‘Political economy of the resource curse in Africa revisited: the curse as a product and a function of globalised hydrocarbon assemblage’, Development and Society, 46(1), 83–112. Google Scholar

Siakwah, P. (2018) ‘Actors, networks, and globalised assemblages: rethinking oil, the environment and conflict in Ghana’, Energy Research and Social Science, 38, 68–76. Google Scholar

Swyngedouw, E. (2004) ‘Globalisation or “glocalisation”? Networks, territories and rescaling’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 17(1), 25–48. Google Scholar

van Gyampo, R. E. (2011) ‘Saving Ghana from its oil: a critical assessment of preparations so far made’, Africa Today, 57(4), 48–69. Google Scholar

Watts, M. (2004) ‘Resource curse? Governmentality, oil and power in the Niger Delta, Nigeria’, Geopolitics, 9(1), 50–80. Google Scholar

Watts, M. (2005) ‘Righteous oil? Human rights, the oil complex, and corporate social responsibility’, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 30(1), 373–407. Google Scholar

Watts, M. (2013) ‘Oil talk’, Development and Change, 44(4), 1013–26. Google Scholar

World Bank (2009) Economy-wide impact of oil discovery in Ghana, World Bank, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTGHANA/Resources/Economy-Wide_Impact_of_Oil_Discovery_in_Ghana.pdf (accessed 10 March 2017). Google Scholar

Yeung, H. W. (2002) Towards a relational economic geography: old wine in new bottles, Paper presented at the 98th Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, 19–23 March, Los Angeles, USA. Google Scholar

Yoshino, Y. (2011) Industrial clusters and micro and small enterprises in Africa: from survival to growth, Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

Abor, J. and Quartey, P. (2010) ‘Issues in SME development in Ghana and South Africa’, International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 39(6), 215–28. Google Scholar

Abor, J. and Quartey, P. (2010) ‘Issues in SME development in Ghana and South Africa’, International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 39(6), 215–28. Google Scholar

Ablo, A. D. (2015) ‘Local content and participation in Ghana’s oil and gas industry: can enterprise development make a difference?’ The Extractive Industries and Society, 2(2), 320–27. Google Scholar

Ablo, A. D. (2015) ‘Local content and participation in Ghana’s oil and gas industry: can enterprise development make a difference?’ The Extractive Industries and Society, 2(2), 320–27. Google Scholar

Ablo, A. D. (2016) From local content to local participation? Exploring entrepreneurship in Ghana’s oil and gas industry, PhD, University of Bergen. Google Scholar

Ablo, A. D. (2016) From local content to local participation? Exploring entrepreneurship in Ghana’s oil and gas industry, PhD, University of Bergen. Google Scholar

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Ablo, Austin Dziwornu