Town Planning Review

A values-based approach to heritage planning: raising awareness of the dark side of destruction and conservation

Town Planning Review (2013), 84, (5), 583–604.

Abstract

Values and a values-based approach to management and decision-making processes over cultural heritage are explored and critically reviewed. It is argued that a broader range of values, particularly those emanating from the ‘dark side’, should be accommodated into future values-based theory and practice if decisions are to be more comprehensive and transparent. The paper underlines the necessity for those working with cultural heritage, including within the arena of statutory land-use planning, to engage more deeply with cross-disciplinary and international perspectives on heritage values.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

AVRAMI, E., MASON, R. and DE LA TORRE, M. (eds) (2000), Values and Heritage Conservation, Los Angeles, The Getty Conservation Institute. Values and Heritage Conservation Google Scholar

BAUM, H. (2005), ‘Endnote: How Bad Structures Drive Communities - and Planners - Crazy’, Planning Theory and Practice, 6, 536-41. ‘Endnote: How Bad Structures Drive Communities - and Planners - Crazy’ Planning Theory and Practice 6 536 41 Google Scholar

BAUMEL, J. (1993), The destruction by war of cultural heritage in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina presented by the Committee of Culture and Information. Information report of the Council of Europe. http://assembly.coe.int/Documents/WorkingDocs/Doc93/EDOC6756.htm Google Scholar

BEAUMONT, J. (2009), ‘Contested Trans-national Heritage: The Demolition of Changi Prison, Singapore’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 15, 298-316. ‘Contested Trans-national Heritage: The Demolition of Changi Prison, Singapore’ International Journal of Heritage Studies 15 298 316 Google Scholar

BRIGGS, M. S. (1952), Goths and Vandals: A Study of the Destruction, Neglect and Preservation of Historical Buildings in England, London, Constable. Goths and Vandals: A Study of the Destruction, Neglect and Preservation of Historical Buildings in England Google Scholar

BRUCE, D. and CREIGHTON, O. (2006), ‘Contested Identities: The Dissonant Heritage of European Town Walls and Walled Towns’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 12, 234-54. ‘Contested Identities: The Dissonant Heritage of European Town Walls and Walled Towns’ International Journal of Heritage Studies 12 234 54 Google Scholar

BURR, V. (1995), An Introduction to Social Constructionism, London, Routledge. An Introduction to Social Constructionism Google Scholar

BYRNE, D. (1995), ‘Buddhist stupa and Thai social practice’, World Archaeology, 27, 266-81. ‘Buddhist stupa and Thai social practice’ World Archaeology 27 266 81 Google Scholar

CATHM (CONGRESS OF ARCHITECTS AND TECHNICIANS OF HISTORIC MONUMENTS) (1964), The International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites, Venice. Google Scholar

CHOAY, F. (2001), The Invention of the Historic Monument, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. The Invention of the Historic Monument Google Scholar

CHUNG, S.-J. (2005), ‘East Asian Values in Historic Conservation’, Journal of Architectural Conservation, 11, 55-70. ‘East Asian Values in Historic Conservation’ Journal of Architectural Conservation 11 55 70 Google Scholar

CLARK, K. (2002), ‘In small things remembered: significance and vulnerability in the management of Robben Island World Heritage Site’, in J. Schofield, W. G. Johnson and C. M. Beck (eds), Matériel Culture: The Archaeology of Twentieth Century Conflict, London, Routledge, 260-80. Matériel Culture: The Archaeology of Twentieth Century Conflict 260 80 Google Scholar

COLQUHOUN, A. (1982), ‘Thoughts on Riegl’, in K. Forster (ed.), Oppositions 25: Monument/Monumentality, New York, Rizzoli, 78-83. Oppositions 25: Monument/Monumentality 78 83 Google Scholar

COOPER, M. A. (2008), ‘This is not a Monument: Rhetorical Destruction and the Social Context of Cultural Resource Management’, Public Archaeology, 7, 17-30. ‘This is not a Monument: Rhetorical Destruction and the Social Context of Cultural Resource Management’ Public Archaeology 7 17 30 Google Scholar

DE LA TORRE, M. (2005), ‘Introduction’, in M. de la Torre (ed.), Heritage Values in Site Management: Four Case Studies, Los Angeles, The Getty Conservation Institute, 3-9. Heritage Values in Site Management: Four Case Studies 3 9 Google Scholar

DE LA TORRE, M. and MASON, R. (2002), ‘Introduction’, in M. de la Torre (ed.), Assessing the Values of Cultural Heritage, Los Angeles, The Getty Conservation Institute, 3-4. Assessing the Values of Cultural Heritage 3 4 Google Scholar

DELAFONS, J. (1997), Politics and Preservation: a Policy History of the Built Heritage, 1882-1996, London and New York, E. & F. N. Spon. Politics and Preservation: a Policy History of the Built Heritage, 1882-1996 Google Scholar

DOLFF-BONEKÄMPER, G. (2008), ‘Sites of Memory and Sites of Discord: Historic monuments as a medium for discussing conflict in Europe’, in G. Fairclough, R. Harrison, J. H. Jameson and J. Schofield (eds), The Heritage Reader, London, Routledge, 134-38. The Heritage Reader 134 38 Google Scholar

ENGLISH HERITAGE (1997), Sustaining the Historic Environment, London, English Heritage. Google Scholar

FEILDEN, D. and JOKILEHTO, J. (1993), Management Guidelines for World Cultural Heritage Sites, Rome, ICCROM. Management Guidelines for World Cultural Heritage Sites Google Scholar

FERGUSON, L. (2008), Treasured Places: A Centenary, Edinburgh, Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. Treasured Places: A Centenary Google Scholar

FLYVBJERG, B. and RICHARDSON, T. (2002), ‘Planning and Foucault: In Search of the Dark Side of Planning Theory’, in P. Allmendinger and M. Tewdwr-Jones (eds), Planning Futures: New Directions for Planning Theory, London and New York, Routledge, 44-62. Planning Futures: New Directions for Planning Theory 44 62 Google Scholar

FORSTER, K. (1982), ‘Monument/Memory and the Mortality of Architecture’, in K. Forster (ed.), Oppositions 25: Monument/Monumentality, New York, Rizzoli, 1-19. Oppositions 25: Monument/Monumentality 1 19 Google Scholar

FREY, B. (1997), ‘Evaluating Cultural Property: The Economic Approach’, International Journal of Cultural Property, 6, 231-46. ‘Evaluating Cultural Property: The Economic Approach’ International Journal of Cultural Property 6 231 46 Google Scholar

GAMBONI, D. (1997), The Destruction of Art: Iconoclasm and Vandalism since the French Revolution, London, Reaktion Books. The Destruction of Art: Iconoclasm and Vandalism since the French Revolution Google Scholar

GIBSON, L. and PENDLEBURY, J. (2009), ‘Introduction: Valuing Historic Environments’, in L. Gibson and J. Pendlebury (eds), Valuing Historic Environments, Farnham, Ashgate, 1-16. Valuing Historic Environments 1 16 Google Scholar

GLENDINNING, M. (2003), ‘The Conservation Movement: A Cult of the Modern Age’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 13, 369-76. ‘The Conservation Movement: A Cult of the Modern Age’ Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 13 369 76 Google Scholar

GRAHAM, B., ASHWORTH, G. J. and TUNBRIDGE, J. E. (2000), A Geography of Heritage: Power, Culture and Economy, London, Arnold Press. A Geography of Heritage: Power, Culture and Economy Google Scholar

GRAHAM, B. and MCDOWELL, S. (2007), ‘Meaning in the Maze: the heritage of Long Kesh’, Cultural Geographies, 14, 343-68. ‘Meaning in the Maze: the heritage of Long Kesh’ Cultural Geographies 14 343 68 Google Scholar

HAJER, M. A. (2005), ‘Rebuilding Ground Zero. The Politics of Performance’, Planning Theory and Practice, 6, 445-64. ‘Rebuilding Ground Zero. The Politics of Performance’ Planning Theory and Practice 6 445 64 Google Scholar

HARDING, S. (1999), ‘Value, Obligation and Cultural Heritage’, Arizona State Law Journal, 31, 291-354. ‘Value, Obligation and Cultural Heritage’ Arizona State Law Journal 31 291 354 Google Scholar

HARRISON, R. (2010), ‘The politics of heritage’, in R. Harrison (ed.), Understanding the Politics of Heritage, Manchester and Milton Keynes, Manchester University Press, in association with the Open University. Understanding the Politics of Heritage Google Scholar

HARVEY, D. C. (2001), ‘Heritage Pasts and Heritage Presents: temporality, meaning and the scope of heritage studies’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 7, 319-38. ‘Heritage Pasts and Heritage Presents: temporality, meaning and the scope of heritage studies’ International Journal of Heritage Studies 7 319 38 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2003), ‘Collaborative Planning in Perspective’, Planning Theory, 2, 101-23. ‘Collaborative Planning in Perspective’ Planning Theory 2 101 23 Google Scholar

HOBSON, E. (2004), Conservation and Planning: Changing Values in Policy and Practice, London, Spon Press. Conservation and Planning: Changing Values in Policy and Practice Google Scholar

HOLTORF, C. (2005), ‘Iconoclasm: The Destruction and Loss of Heritage Reconsidered’, in G. Coulter-Smith (ed.), Art in the Age of Terrorism, London, Paul Holberton, 228-39. Art in the Age of Terrorism 228 39 Google Scholar

ICOMOS AUSTRALIA (1988), The Australian icomos Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance (The Burra Charter), Burra, Australia. Google Scholar

ICOMOS AUSTRALIA (1999), The Australian ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance (The Burra Charter), Burra, Australia. Google Scholar

JAMESON, J. H. (2008), ‘Presenting Archaeology to the Public, Then and Now: An Introduction’, in G. Fairclough, R. Harrison, J. H. Jameson, Jr. and J. Schofield (eds), The Heritage Reader, London and New York, Routledge, 427-56. The Heritage Reader 427 56 Google Scholar

JOHNSON, M. (2001), ‘Renovating Hue (Vietnam): authenticating destruction, reconstructing authenticity’, in R. Layton, P. G. Stone and J. Thomas (eds), Destruction and Conservation of Cultural Property, London and New York, Routledge, 75-92. Destruction and Conservation of Cultural Property 75 92 Google Scholar

JOKILEHTO, J. (1999), A History of Architectural Conservation, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann. A History of Architectural Conservation Google Scholar

JOKILEHTO, J. (2006), ‘World Heritage: Defining the outstanding universal value’, City and Time, 2, 1-10. ‘World Heritage: Defining the outstanding universal value’ City and Time 2 1 10 Google Scholar

JONES, S. (2010), ‘Negotiating Authentic Objects and Authentic Selves: Beyond the Deconstruction of Authenticity’, Journal of Material Culture, 15, 181-203. ‘Negotiating Authentic Objects and Authentic Selves: Beyond the Deconstruction of Authenticity’ Journal of Material Culture 15 181 203 Google Scholar

LAMBOURNE, N. (2001), War Damage in Western Europe: The Destruction of Historic Monuments During the Second World War, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press. War Damage in Western Europe: The Destruction of Historic Monuments During the Second World War Google Scholar

LIPE, W. D. (1984), ‘Value and Meaning in Cultural Resources’, in H. Cleere (ed.), Approaches to the Archaeological Heritage, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1-11. Approaches to the Archaeological Heritage 1 11 Google Scholar

LOWENTHAL, D. (1998), The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History Google Scholar

M'BAYE, K. (1994), Destruction of Cultural Property Report, Annex XI to the Final Report of the United Nations Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780 (1992), S/1994/674/Add.2/Vol.V, 28 December 1994 http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/comexpert/ANX/XI.htm Google Scholar

MASON, R. (2002), ‘Assessing Values in Conserving Planning: Methodological Issues and Choices’, in M. de la Torre (ed.), Assessing the Values of Cultural Heritage, Los Angeles, The Getty Conservation Institute, 5-30. Assessing the Values of Cultural Heritage 5 30 Google Scholar

MASON, R. (2006), ‘Theoretical and Practical Arguments for Values-Centered Preservation’, CRM: The Journal of Heritage Stewardship, 3, 21-48. ‘Theoretical and Practical Arguments for Values-Centered Preservation’ CRM: The Journal of Heritage Stewardship 3 21 48 Google Scholar

MASON, R. (2008), ‘Be Interested and Beware: Joining Economic Valuation and Heritage Conservation’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 14, 303-18. ‘Be Interested and Beware: Joining Economic Valuation and Heritage Conservation’ International Journal of Heritage Studies 14 303 18 Google Scholar

MATERO, F. (2006), ‘Loss, Compensation and Authenticity in Architectural Conservation’, Journal of Architectural Conservation, 12, 71-90. ‘Loss, Compensation and Authenticity in Architectural Conservation’ Journal of Architectural Conservation 12 71 90 Google Scholar

MCDOWELL, S. (2008), ‘Heritage, memory and identity’, in B. Graham and P. Howard (eds), The Ashgate Research Companion to Heritage and Identity, Farnham, Ashgate, 37-53. The Ashgate Research Companion to Heritage and Identity 37 53 Google Scholar

MESKELL, L. (2002), ‘Negative Heritage and Past Mastering in Archaeology’, Anthropological Quarterly, 75, 557-74. ‘Negative Heritage and Past Mastering in Archaeology’ Anthropological Quarterly 75 557 74 Google Scholar

MIELE, C. (2005), From William Morris: Building Conservation and the Arts and Crafts Cult of Authenticity 1877-1939, New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press. From William Morris: Building Conservation and the Arts and Crafts Cult of Authenticity 1877-1939 Google Scholar

MORRIS, W. (1996/1877), ‘Manifesto of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings’, in N. Stanley-Price, M. K. J. Talley and A. M. Vaccaro (eds), Historical and Philosophical Issues on the Conservation of Cultural Heritage, Los Angeles, The Getty Conservation Institute, 319-21. Historical and Philosophical Issues on the Conservation of Cultural Heritage 319 21 Google Scholar

NANCY, J.-L. (2005), ‘The Insufficiency of "Values" and the Necessity of "Sense"’, Journal for Cultural Research, 9, 437-41. ‘The Insufficiency of "Values" and the Necessity of "Sense"’ Journal for Cultural Research 9 437 41 Google Scholar

NEILL, W. J. V. (2006), ‘Return to Titanic and lost in the Maze: the search for representation of "post conflict" Belfast’, Space and Polity, 10, 109-20. ‘Return to Titanic and lost in the Maze: the search for representation of "post conflict" Belfast’ Space and Polity 10 109 20 Google Scholar

PALMER, R. (2009), ‘Preface’, in D. Therond and A. Trigona (eds), Heritage and Beyond, Strasbourg, Council of Europe Publishing, 7-8. Heritage and Beyond 7 8 Google Scholar

PECKHAM, R. S. (2003), ‘Introduction: The Politics of Heritage and Public Culture’, in R. S. Peckham (ed.), Rethinking Heritage: Cultures and Politics in Europe, London, Tauris, 1-16. Rethinking Heritage: Cultures and Politics in Europe 1 16 Google Scholar

PENDLEBURY, J. (2009), Conservation in the Age of Consensus, New York, Routledge. Conservation in the Age of Consensus Google Scholar

PENDLEBURY, J. (2012), ‘Conservation values, the authorised heritage discourse and the conservation-planning assemblage’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, iFirst article, 1-19. ‘Conservation values, the authorised heritage discourse and the conservation-planning assemblage’ International Journal of Heritage Studies 1 19 Google Scholar

RAKOCZY, L. (2008), ‘Introduction’, in L. Rakoczy (ed.), Archaeology of Destruction, Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 1-5. Archaeology of Destruction, Newcastle upon Tyne 1 5 Google Scholar

RIEDLMAYER, A. (2002), Destruction of cultural heritage in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1992-1996. A Post-War Survey of Selected Municipalities. Expert Report commissioned by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. http://hague.bard.edu/reports/BosHeritageReport-AR.pdf Google Scholar

RIEGL, A. (1996/1903), ‘The Modern Cult of Monuments: Its Essence and Its Development’, in N. Stanley-Price, M. K. J. Talley and A. M. Vaccaro (eds), Historical and Philosophical Issues on the Conservation of Cultural Heritage, Los Angeles, The Getty Conservation Institute, 69-83. Historical and Philosophical Issues on the Conservation of Cultural Heritage 69 83 Google Scholar

SCHOFIELD, J. (2008), ‘Heritage Management, Theory and Practice’, in R. Harrison et al. (eds), The Heritage Reader, London, Routledge, 15-30. The Heritage Reader 15 30 Google Scholar

SMITH, G. G., MESSINGER, P. M. and SODERLAND, H. A. (eds) (2010), Heritage Values in Contemporary Society, Walnut Creek, Left Coast Press. Heritage Values in Contemporary Society Google Scholar

SMITH, L. (2006), Uses of Heritage, London, Routledge. Uses of Heritage Google Scholar

STANLEY-PRICE, N. (2005), ‘The thread of continuity: cultural heritage in postwar recovery’, in N. Stanley-Price (ed.), Cultural Heritage in Postwar Recovery, Rome, ICCROM (International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property), 1-16. Cultural Heritage in Postwar Recovery 1 16 Google Scholar

STARN, R. (2002), ‘Authenticity and historic preservation: towards an authentic history’, History of the Human Sciences, 15, 1-16. ‘Authenticity and historic preservation: towards an authentic history’ History of the Human Sciences 15 1 16 Google Scholar

STARN, R. (2005), ‘Book Review: Architectural Imitations: Reproductions and Pastiches in East and West’, Future Anterior, 2, 75-82. ‘Book Review: Architectural Imitations: Reproductions and Pastiches in East and West’ Future Anterior 2 75 82 Google Scholar

TAIT, M. and WHILE, A. (2009), ‘Ontology and the conservation of built heritage’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 27, 721-37. ‘Ontology and the conservation of built heritage’ Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 27 721 37 Google Scholar

THROSBY, D. (2006), ‘The value of cultural heritage: what can economics tell us?’, in K. Clark (ed.), Capturing the Public Value of Heritage, London, English Heritage, 40-3. Capturing the Public Value of Heritage 40 3 Google Scholar

THYS-ŞENOCAK, L. and ASLAN, C. (2008), ‘Narratives of Destruction and Construction: The Complex Cultural Heritage of the Gallipoli Peninsula’, in L. Rakoczy (ed.), Archaeology of Destruction, Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 29-47. Archaeology of Destruction 29 47 Google Scholar

TUNBRIDGE, J. E. (1984), ‘Whose heritage to conserve? Cross-cultural reflections on political dominance and urban heritage conservation’, Canadian Geographer, 28, 171-80. ‘Whose heritage to conserve? Cross-cultural reflections on political dominance and urban heritage conservation’ Canadian Geographer 28 171 80 Google Scholar

TUNBRIDGE, J. E. and ASHWORTH, G. (1996), Dissonant Heritage: The Management of the Past as a Resource in Conflict, Chichester, John Wiley & Sons. Dissonant Heritage: The Management of the Past as a Resource in Conflict Google Scholar

UNESCO (UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANISATION) (1972), Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (The World Heritage Convention), Paris. Google Scholar

WATERTON, E. (2008), ‘Invisible Identities: Destroying the Heritage of Cawood Castle’, in L. Rakoczy (ed.), Archaeology of Destruction, Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 107-27. Archaeology of Destruction, Newcastle upon Tyne 107 27 Google Scholar

WATERTON, E., SMITH L. and CAMPBELL, G. (2006), ‘The Utility of Discourse Analysis to Heritage Studies: The Burra Charter and Social Inclusion’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 12, 339-55. ‘The Utility of Discourse Analysis to Heritage Studies: The Burra Charter and Social Inclusion’ International Journal of Heritage Studies 12 339 55 Google Scholar

WORTHING, D. and BOND, S. (2007), Managing Built Heritage: The Role of Cultural Significance, London, Wiley-Blackwell. Managing Built Heritage: The Role of Cultural Significance Google Scholar

WRIGHT, P. (1985), On Living in an Old Country, London, Verso. On Living in an Old Country Google Scholar

YIFTACHEL, O. (1998), ‘Planning and Social Control: Exploring the Dark Side’, Journal of Planning Literature, 12, 395-406. ‘Planning and Social Control: Exploring the Dark Side’ Journal of Planning Literature 12 395 406 Google Scholar

ZANCHETI, S. M. and JOKILEHTO, J. (1997), ‘Values and Urban Conservation Planning: Some Reflections on Principles and Definitions’, Journal of Architectural Conservation, 1, 37-51. ‘Values and Urban Conservation Planning: Some Reflections on Principles and Definitions’ Journal of Architectural Conservation 1 37 51 Google Scholar

AVRAMI, E., MASON, R. and DE LA TORRE, M. (eds) (2000), Values and Heritage Conservation, Los Angeles, The Getty Conservation Institute. Values and Heritage Conservation Google Scholar

BAUM, H. (2005), ‘Endnote: How Bad Structures Drive Communities - and Planners - Crazy’, Planning Theory and Practice, 6, 536-41. ‘Endnote: How Bad Structures Drive Communities - and Planners - Crazy’ Planning Theory and Practice 6 536 41 Google Scholar

BAUMEL, J. (1993), The destruction by war of cultural heritage in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina presented by the Committee of Culture and Information. Information report of the Council of Europe. http://assembly.coe.int/Documents/WorkingDocs/Doc93/EDOC6756.htm Google Scholar

BEAUMONT, J. (2009), ‘Contested Trans-national Heritage: The Demolition of Changi Prison, Singapore’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 15, 298-316. ‘Contested Trans-national Heritage: The Demolition of Changi Prison, Singapore’ International Journal of Heritage Studies 15 298 316 Google Scholar

BRIGGS, M. S. (1952), Goths and Vandals: A Study of the Destruction, Neglect and Preservation of Historical Buildings in England, London, Constable. Goths and Vandals: A Study of the Destruction, Neglect and Preservation of Historical Buildings in England Google Scholar

BRUCE, D. and CREIGHTON, O. (2006), ‘Contested Identities: The Dissonant Heritage of European Town Walls and Walled Towns’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 12, 234-54. ‘Contested Identities: The Dissonant Heritage of European Town Walls and Walled Towns’ International Journal of Heritage Studies 12 234 54 Google Scholar

BURR, V. (1995), An Introduction to Social Constructionism, London, Routledge. An Introduction to Social Constructionism Google Scholar

BYRNE, D. (1995), ‘Buddhist stupa and Thai social practice’, World Archaeology, 27, 266-81. ‘Buddhist stupa and Thai social practice’ World Archaeology 27 266 81 Google Scholar

CATHM (CONGRESS OF ARCHITECTS AND TECHNICIANS OF HISTORIC MONUMENTS) (1964), The International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites, Venice. Google Scholar

CHOAY, F. (2001), The Invention of the Historic Monument, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. The Invention of the Historic Monument Google Scholar

CHUNG, S.-J. (2005), ‘East Asian Values in Historic Conservation’, Journal of Architectural Conservation, 11, 55-70. ‘East Asian Values in Historic Conservation’ Journal of Architectural Conservation 11 55 70 Google Scholar

CLARK, K. (2002), ‘In small things remembered: significance and vulnerability in the management of Robben Island World Heritage Site’, in J. Schofield, W. G. Johnson and C. M. Beck (eds), Matériel Culture: The Archaeology of Twentieth Century Conflict, London, Routledge, 260-80. Matériel Culture: The Archaeology of Twentieth Century Conflict 260 80 Google Scholar

COLQUHOUN, A. (1982), ‘Thoughts on Riegl’, in K. Forster (ed.), Oppositions 25: Monument/Monumentality, New York, Rizzoli, 78-83. Oppositions 25: Monument/Monumentality 78 83 Google Scholar

COOPER, M. A. (2008), ‘This is not a Monument: Rhetorical Destruction and the Social Context of Cultural Resource Management’, Public Archaeology, 7, 17-30. ‘This is not a Monument: Rhetorical Destruction and the Social Context of Cultural Resource Management’ Public Archaeology 7 17 30 Google Scholar

DE LA TORRE, M. (2005), ‘Introduction’, in M. de la Torre (ed.), Heritage Values in Site Management: Four Case Studies, Los Angeles, The Getty Conservation Institute, 3-9. Heritage Values in Site Management: Four Case Studies 3 9 Google Scholar

DE LA TORRE, M. and MASON, R. (2002), ‘Introduction’, in M. de la Torre (ed.), Assessing the Values of Cultural Heritage, Los Angeles, The Getty Conservation Institute, 3-4. Assessing the Values of Cultural Heritage 3 4 Google Scholar

DELAFONS, J. (1997), Politics and Preservation: a Policy History of the Built Heritage, 1882-1996, London and New York, E. & F. N. Spon. Politics and Preservation: a Policy History of the Built Heritage, 1882-1996 Google Scholar

DOLFF-BONEKÄMPER, G. (2008), ‘Sites of Memory and Sites of Discord: Historic monuments as a medium for discussing conflict in Europe’, in G. Fairclough, R. Harrison, J. H. Jameson and J. Schofield (eds), The Heritage Reader, London, Routledge, 134-38. The Heritage Reader 134 38 Google Scholar

ENGLISH HERITAGE (1997), Sustaining the Historic Environment, London, English Heritage. Google Scholar

FEILDEN, D. and JOKILEHTO, J. (1993), Management Guidelines for World Cultural Heritage Sites, Rome, ICCROM. Management Guidelines for World Cultural Heritage Sites Google Scholar

FERGUSON, L. (2008), Treasured Places: A Centenary, Edinburgh, Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. Treasured Places: A Centenary Google Scholar

FLYVBJERG, B. and RICHARDSON, T. (2002), ‘Planning and Foucault: In Search of the Dark Side of Planning Theory’, in P. Allmendinger and M. Tewdwr-Jones (eds), Planning Futures: New Directions for Planning Theory, London and New York, Routledge, 44-62. Planning Futures: New Directions for Planning Theory 44 62 Google Scholar

FORSTER, K. (1982), ‘Monument/Memory and the Mortality of Architecture’, in K. Forster (ed.), Oppositions 25: Monument/Monumentality, New York, Rizzoli, 1-19. Oppositions 25: Monument/Monumentality 1 19 Google Scholar

FREY, B. (1997), ‘Evaluating Cultural Property: The Economic Approach’, International Journal of Cultural Property, 6, 231-46. ‘Evaluating Cultural Property: The Economic Approach’ International Journal of Cultural Property 6 231 46 Google Scholar

GAMBONI, D. (1997), The Destruction of Art: Iconoclasm and Vandalism since the French Revolution, London, Reaktion Books. The Destruction of Art: Iconoclasm and Vandalism since the French Revolution Google Scholar

GIBSON, L. and PENDLEBURY, J. (2009), ‘Introduction: Valuing Historic Environments’, in L. Gibson and J. Pendlebury (eds), Valuing Historic Environments, Farnham, Ashgate, 1-16. Valuing Historic Environments 1 16 Google Scholar

GLENDINNING, M. (2003), ‘The Conservation Movement: A Cult of the Modern Age’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 13, 369-76. ‘The Conservation Movement: A Cult of the Modern Age’ Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 13 369 76 Google Scholar

GRAHAM, B., ASHWORTH, G. J. and TUNBRIDGE, J. E. (2000), A Geography of Heritage: Power, Culture and Economy, London, Arnold Press. A Geography of Heritage: Power, Culture and Economy Google Scholar

GRAHAM, B. and MCDOWELL, S. (2007), ‘Meaning in the Maze: the heritage of Long Kesh’, Cultural Geographies, 14, 343-68. ‘Meaning in the Maze: the heritage of Long Kesh’ Cultural Geographies 14 343 68 Google Scholar

HAJER, M. A. (2005), ‘Rebuilding Ground Zero. The Politics of Performance’, Planning Theory and Practice, 6, 445-64. ‘Rebuilding Ground Zero. The Politics of Performance’ Planning Theory and Practice 6 445 64 Google Scholar

HARDING, S. (1999), ‘Value, Obligation and Cultural Heritage’, Arizona State Law Journal, 31, 291-354. ‘Value, Obligation and Cultural Heritage’ Arizona State Law Journal 31 291 354 Google Scholar

HARRISON, R. (2010), ‘The politics of heritage’, in R. Harrison (ed.), Understanding the Politics of Heritage, Manchester and Milton Keynes, Manchester University Press, in association with the Open University. Understanding the Politics of Heritage Google Scholar

HARVEY, D. C. (2001), ‘Heritage Pasts and Heritage Presents: temporality, meaning and the scope of heritage studies’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 7, 319-38. ‘Heritage Pasts and Heritage Presents: temporality, meaning and the scope of heritage studies’ International Journal of Heritage Studies 7 319 38 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2003), ‘Collaborative Planning in Perspective’, Planning Theory, 2, 101-23. ‘Collaborative Planning in Perspective’ Planning Theory 2 101 23 Google Scholar

HOBSON, E. (2004), Conservation and Planning: Changing Values in Policy and Practice, London, Spon Press. Conservation and Planning: Changing Values in Policy and Practice Google Scholar

HOLTORF, C. (2005), ‘Iconoclasm: The Destruction and Loss of Heritage Reconsidered’, in G. Coulter-Smith (ed.), Art in the Age of Terrorism, London, Paul Holberton, 228-39. Art in the Age of Terrorism 228 39 Google Scholar

ICOMOS AUSTRALIA (1988), The Australian icomos Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance (The Burra Charter), Burra, Australia. Google Scholar

ICOMOS AUSTRALIA (1999), The Australian ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance (The Burra Charter), Burra, Australia. Google Scholar

JAMESON, J. H. (2008), ‘Presenting Archaeology to the Public, Then and Now: An Introduction’, in G. Fairclough, R. Harrison, J. H. Jameson, Jr. and J. Schofield (eds), The Heritage Reader, London and New York, Routledge, 427-56. The Heritage Reader 427 56 Google Scholar

JOHNSON, M. (2001), ‘Renovating Hue (Vietnam): authenticating destruction, reconstructing authenticity’, in R. Layton, P. G. Stone and J. Thomas (eds), Destruction and Conservation of Cultural Property, London and New York, Routledge, 75-92. Destruction and Conservation of Cultural Property 75 92 Google Scholar

JOKILEHTO, J. (1999), A History of Architectural Conservation, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann. A History of Architectural Conservation Google Scholar

JOKILEHTO, J. (2006), ‘World Heritage: Defining the outstanding universal value’, City and Time, 2, 1-10. ‘World Heritage: Defining the outstanding universal value’ City and Time 2 1 10 Google Scholar

JONES, S. (2010), ‘Negotiating Authentic Objects and Authentic Selves: Beyond the Deconstruction of Authenticity’, Journal of Material Culture, 15, 181-203. ‘Negotiating Authentic Objects and Authentic Selves: Beyond the Deconstruction of Authenticity’ Journal of Material Culture 15 181 203 Google Scholar

LAMBOURNE, N. (2001), War Damage in Western Europe: The Destruction of Historic Monuments During the Second World War, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press. War Damage in Western Europe: The Destruction of Historic Monuments During the Second World War Google Scholar

LIPE, W. D. (1984), ‘Value and Meaning in Cultural Resources’, in H. Cleere (ed.), Approaches to the Archaeological Heritage, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1-11. Approaches to the Archaeological Heritage 1 11 Google Scholar

LOWENTHAL, D. (1998), The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History Google Scholar

M'BAYE, K. (1994), Destruction of Cultural Property Report, Annex XI to the Final Report of the United Nations Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780 (1992), S/1994/674/Add.2/Vol.V, 28 December 1994 http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/comexpert/ANX/XI.htm Google Scholar

MASON, R. (2002), ‘Assessing Values in Conserving Planning: Methodological Issues and Choices’, in M. de la Torre (ed.), Assessing the Values of Cultural Heritage, Los Angeles, The Getty Conservation Institute, 5-30. Assessing the Values of Cultural Heritage 5 30 Google Scholar

MASON, R. (2006), ‘Theoretical and Practical Arguments for Values-Centered Preservation’, CRM: The Journal of Heritage Stewardship, 3, 21-48. ‘Theoretical and Practical Arguments for Values-Centered Preservation’ CRM: The Journal of Heritage Stewardship 3 21 48 Google Scholar

MASON, R. (2008), ‘Be Interested and Beware: Joining Economic Valuation and Heritage Conservation’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 14, 303-18. ‘Be Interested and Beware: Joining Economic Valuation and Heritage Conservation’ International Journal of Heritage Studies 14 303 18 Google Scholar

MATERO, F. (2006), ‘Loss, Compensation and Authenticity in Architectural Conservation’, Journal of Architectural Conservation, 12, 71-90. ‘Loss, Compensation and Authenticity in Architectural Conservation’ Journal of Architectural Conservation 12 71 90 Google Scholar

MCDOWELL, S. (2008), ‘Heritage, memory and identity’, in B. Graham and P. Howard (eds), The Ashgate Research Companion to Heritage and Identity, Farnham, Ashgate, 37-53. The Ashgate Research Companion to Heritage and Identity 37 53 Google Scholar

MESKELL, L. (2002), ‘Negative Heritage and Past Mastering in Archaeology’, Anthropological Quarterly, 75, 557-74. ‘Negative Heritage and Past Mastering in Archaeology’ Anthropological Quarterly 75 557 74 Google Scholar

MIELE, C. (2005), From William Morris: Building Conservation and the Arts and Crafts Cult of Authenticity 1877-1939, New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press. From William Morris: Building Conservation and the Arts and Crafts Cult of Authenticity 1877-1939 Google Scholar

MORRIS, W. (1996/1877), ‘Manifesto of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings’, in N. Stanley-Price, M. K. J. Talley and A. M. Vaccaro (eds), Historical and Philosophical Issues on the Conservation of Cultural Heritage, Los Angeles, The Getty Conservation Institute, 319-21. Historical and Philosophical Issues on the Conservation of Cultural Heritage 319 21 Google Scholar

NANCY, J.-L. (2005), ‘The Insufficiency of "Values" and the Necessity of "Sense"’, Journal for Cultural Research, 9, 437-41. ‘The Insufficiency of "Values" and the Necessity of "Sense"’ Journal for Cultural Research 9 437 41 Google Scholar

NEILL, W. J. V. (2006), ‘Return to Titanic and lost in the Maze: the search for representation of "post conflict" Belfast’, Space and Polity, 10, 109-20. ‘Return to Titanic and lost in the Maze: the search for representation of "post conflict" Belfast’ Space and Polity 10 109 20 Google Scholar

PALMER, R. (2009), ‘Preface’, in D. Therond and A. Trigona (eds), Heritage and Beyond, Strasbourg, Council of Europe Publishing, 7-8. Heritage and Beyond 7 8 Google Scholar

PECKHAM, R. S. (2003), ‘Introduction: The Politics of Heritage and Public Culture’, in R. S. Peckham (ed.), Rethinking Heritage: Cultures and Politics in Europe, London, Tauris, 1-16. Rethinking Heritage: Cultures and Politics in Europe 1 16 Google Scholar

PENDLEBURY, J. (2009), Conservation in the Age of Consensus, New York, Routledge. Conservation in the Age of Consensus Google Scholar

PENDLEBURY, J. (2012), ‘Conservation values, the authorised heritage discourse and the conservation-planning assemblage’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, iFirst article, 1-19. ‘Conservation values, the authorised heritage discourse and the conservation-planning assemblage’ International Journal of Heritage Studies 1 19 Google Scholar

RAKOCZY, L. (2008), ‘Introduction’, in L. Rakoczy (ed.), Archaeology of Destruction, Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 1-5. Archaeology of Destruction, Newcastle upon Tyne 1 5 Google Scholar

RIEDLMAYER, A. (2002), Destruction of cultural heritage in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1992-1996. A Post-War Survey of Selected Municipalities. Expert Report commissioned by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. http://hague.bard.edu/reports/BosHeritageReport-AR.pdf Google Scholar

RIEGL, A. (1996/1903), ‘The Modern Cult of Monuments: Its Essence and Its Development’, in N. Stanley-Price, M. K. J. Talley and A. M. Vaccaro (eds), Historical and Philosophical Issues on the Conservation of Cultural Heritage, Los Angeles, The Getty Conservation Institute, 69-83. Historical and Philosophical Issues on the Conservation of Cultural Heritage 69 83 Google Scholar

SCHOFIELD, J. (2008), ‘Heritage Management, Theory and Practice’, in R. Harrison et al. (eds), The Heritage Reader, London, Routledge, 15-30. The Heritage Reader 15 30 Google Scholar

SMITH, G. G., MESSINGER, P. M. and SODERLAND, H. A. (eds) (2010), Heritage Values in Contemporary Society, Walnut Creek, Left Coast Press. Heritage Values in Contemporary Society Google Scholar

SMITH, L. (2006), Uses of Heritage, London, Routledge. Uses of Heritage Google Scholar

STANLEY-PRICE, N. (2005), ‘The thread of continuity: cultural heritage in postwar recovery’, in N. Stanley-Price (ed.), Cultural Heritage in Postwar Recovery, Rome, ICCROM (International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property), 1-16. Cultural Heritage in Postwar Recovery 1 16 Google Scholar

STARN, R. (2002), ‘Authenticity and historic preservation: towards an authentic history’, History of the Human Sciences, 15, 1-16. ‘Authenticity and historic preservation: towards an authentic history’ History of the Human Sciences 15 1 16 Google Scholar

STARN, R. (2005), ‘Book Review: Architectural Imitations: Reproductions and Pastiches in East and West’, Future Anterior, 2, 75-82. ‘Book Review: Architectural Imitations: Reproductions and Pastiches in East and West’ Future Anterior 2 75 82 Google Scholar

TAIT, M. and WHILE, A. (2009), ‘Ontology and the conservation of built heritage’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 27, 721-37. ‘Ontology and the conservation of built heritage’ Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 27 721 37 Google Scholar

THROSBY, D. (2006), ‘The value of cultural heritage: what can economics tell us?’, in K. Clark (ed.), Capturing the Public Value of Heritage, London, English Heritage, 40-3. Capturing the Public Value of Heritage 40 3 Google Scholar

THYS-ŞENOCAK, L. and ASLAN, C. (2008), ‘Narratives of Destruction and Construction: The Complex Cultural Heritage of the Gallipoli Peninsula’, in L. Rakoczy (ed.), Archaeology of Destruction, Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 29-47. Archaeology of Destruction 29 47 Google Scholar

TUNBRIDGE, J. E. (1984), ‘Whose heritage to conserve? Cross-cultural reflections on political dominance and urban heritage conservation’, Canadian Geographer, 28, 171-80. ‘Whose heritage to conserve? Cross-cultural reflections on political dominance and urban heritage conservation’ Canadian Geographer 28 171 80 Google Scholar

TUNBRIDGE, J. E. and ASHWORTH, G. (1996), Dissonant Heritage: The Management of the Past as a Resource in Conflict, Chichester, John Wiley & Sons. Dissonant Heritage: The Management of the Past as a Resource in Conflict Google Scholar

UNESCO (UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANISATION) (1972), Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (The World Heritage Convention), Paris. Google Scholar

WATERTON, E. (2008), ‘Invisible Identities: Destroying the Heritage of Cawood Castle’, in L. Rakoczy (ed.), Archaeology of Destruction, Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 107-27. Archaeology of Destruction, Newcastle upon Tyne 107 27 Google Scholar

WATERTON, E., SMITH L. and CAMPBELL, G. (2006), ‘The Utility of Discourse Analysis to Heritage Studies: The Burra Charter and Social Inclusion’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 12, 339-55. ‘The Utility of Discourse Analysis to Heritage Studies: The Burra Charter and Social Inclusion’ International Journal of Heritage Studies 12 339 55 Google Scholar

WORTHING, D. and BOND, S. (2007), Managing Built Heritage: The Role of Cultural Significance, London, Wiley-Blackwell. Managing Built Heritage: The Role of Cultural Significance Google Scholar

WRIGHT, P. (1985), On Living in an Old Country, London, Verso. On Living in an Old Country Google Scholar

YIFTACHEL, O. (1998), ‘Planning and Social Control: Exploring the Dark Side’, Journal of Planning Literature, 12, 395-406. ‘Planning and Social Control: Exploring the Dark Side’ Journal of Planning Literature 12 395 406 Google Scholar

ZANCHETI, S. M. and JOKILEHTO, J. (1997), ‘Values and Urban Conservation Planning: Some Reflections on Principles and Definitions’, Journal of Architectural Conservation, 1, 37-51. ‘Values and Urban Conservation Planning: Some Reflections on Principles and Definitions’ Journal of Architectural Conservation 1 37 51 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

McClelland, Andrew

Peel, Deborah

Hayes, Christa-Maria

Montgomery, Ian