Town Planning Review

Abercrombie’s green-wedge vision for London: the County of London Plan 1943 and the Greater London Plan 1944

Town Planning Review (2015), 86, (5), 495–518.

Abstract

This paper analyses the role that the green wedges idea played in the main official reconstruction plans for London, the County of London Plan 1943 and the Greater London Plan 1944.1 Green wedges were theorised in the first decade of the twentieth century and discussed in multi-faceted ways up to the end of the Second World War. Despite having been prominent in many plans for London, they have been largely overlooked in planning history. This paper argues that green wedges were instrumental in these plans in the formulation of a more modern, sociable, healthier and greener peacetime London.

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ASHWORTH, W. (1954), The Genesis of Modern British Town Planning, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul. The Genesis of Modern British Town Planning Google Scholar

BULLOCK, N. (1994), ‘Ideals, priorities and harsh realities: reconstruction and the LCC, 1945–51’, Planning Perspectives, 9, 5–7, 87–101. Ideals, priorities and harsh realities: reconstruction and the LCC, 1945–51 Planning Perspectives 9 87 101 Google Scholar

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CARTER, E. J. and GOLDFINGER, E. (eds) (1945), The County of London Plan Explained by E. J. Carter and Erno Goldfinger, London, Penguin Books. The County of London Plan Explained by E. J. Carter and Erno Goldfinger Google Scholar

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CHERRY, G. (1988), The Evolution of British Town Planning: A History of Town Planning in the United Kingdom, Leighton Buzzard, L. Hill. The Evolution of British Town Planning: A History of Town Planning in the United Kingdom Google Scholar

CRACKNELL, M. (1943), ‘County of London Plan … a statement by the executive of the Town & Country Planning Association’, Town and Country Planning, 11, 118–27. County of London Plan … a statement by the executive of the Town & Country Planning Association Town and Country Planning 11 118 27 Google Scholar

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CULLINGWORTH, J. B. (1975), Reconstruction and Land Use Planning 1939–1947, London, HMSO. Reconstruction and Land Use Planning 1939–1947 Google Scholar

DAL CO, F. (1980), ‘From parks to the region’, in G. Ciucci (ed.), The American City: From the Civil War to the New Deal, London, Granada, 141–293. From parks to the region The American City: From the Civil War to the New Deal 141 293 Google Scholar

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FLINN, C. (2012), ‘“The city of our dreams”? The political and economic realities of rebuilding Britain’s blitzed cities, 1945–54’, Twentieth Century British History, 23, 221–45. “The city of our dreams”? The political and economic realities of rebuilding Britain’s blitzed cities, 1945–54 Twentieth Century British History 23 221 45 Google Scholar

FORSHAW, J. H. (1943), ‘Town planning and health. Mr Forshaw’s Chadwick Trust Lecture’, The Builder, November–December, 14–15. Town planning and health. Mr Forshaw’s Chadwick Trust Lecture The Builder 14 15 Google Scholar

FREESTONE, R. (2003), ‘Greenbelts in city and regional planning’, in K. Parsons (ed.), From Garden City to Green City: The Legacy of Ebenezer Howard, Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press, 67–98. Greenbelts in city and regional planning From Garden City to Green City: The Legacy of Ebenezer Howard 67 98 Google Scholar

GEDDES, P. (1915). Cities in Evolution: an Introduction to the Town Planning Movement and to the Study of Civics, London, Ernest Benn Limited. Cities in Evolution: an Introduction to the Town Planning Movement and to the Study of Civics Google Scholar

GIBSON, D. E. (1940), ‘Problems of building reconstruction’, The Builder, 159, 579. Problems of building reconstruction The Builder 159 579 Google Scholar

GOLD, J. (1995), ‘The MARS plans for London, 1933–1942’, Town Planning Review, 66, 243–67. The MARS plans for London, 1933–1942 Town Planning Review 66 243 67 Google Scholar

GREATER LONDON REGIONAL PLANNING COMMITTEE (GLRPC) (1929), First Report of the Greater London Regional Planning Committee, London, Knapp, Drewett & Sons. Google Scholar

GREATER LONDON REGIONAL PLANNING COMMITTEE (GLRPC) (1933), Second Report of the Greater London Regional Planning Committee, London, Knapp, Drewett & Sons. Google Scholar

HALL, P. and TEWDWR-JONES, M. (2011), Urban and Regional Planning, Abingdon, Routledge. Urban and Regional Planning Google Scholar

HASEGAWA, J. (1992), Replanning the Blitzed City Centre: a Comparative Study of Bristol, Coventry and Southampton 1941–1950, Buckingham, Open University Press. Replanning the Blitzed City Centre: a Comparative Study of Bristol, Coventry and Southampton 1941–1950 Google Scholar

HASEGAWA, J. (1999), ‘The rise and fall of reconstruction in 1940s Britain’, Twentieth Century British History, 10, 137–61. The rise and fall of reconstruction in 1940s Britain Twentieth Century British History 10 137 61 Google Scholar

HEWITT, L. (2011), ‘Towards a greater urban geography: regional planning and associational networks in London during the early Twentieth Century’, Planning Perspectives, 26, 551–68. Towards a greater urban geography: regional planning and associational networks in London during the early Twentieth Century Planning Perspectives 26 551 68 Google Scholar

KENT, E. C. and SAMUELY, F. J. (1945), ‘London: the regional plan – an analysis of Sir Patrick Abercrombie’s scheme, The Architects’ Journal, November, 313–26. London: the regional plan – an analysis of Sir Patrick Abercrombie’s scheme The Architects’ Journal Google Scholar

LANCHESTER, H. V. (1941), ‘An architect’s view of reconstruction: the large city’, The Builder, 161, 569. An architect’s view of reconstruction: the large city The Builder 161 569 Google Scholar

LANCHESTER, H. V. (1943), ‘Replanning London’, The Builder, 165, 41. Replanning London The Builder 165 41 Google Scholar

LARKHAM, P. J. and ADAMS, D. (2011), ‘The post-war reconstruction planning of London: a wider perspective’ (Working Paper Series No. 8), Birmingham, Birmingham City University. The post-war reconstruction planning of London: a wider perspective Google Scholar

LARKHAM, P. J. and LILLEY, K. D. (2001), Planning the ‘City of Tomorrow’. British Reconstruction Planning, 1939–1952: An Annotated Bibliography, Pickering, Inch’s Books. Planning the ‘City of Tomorrow’. British Reconstruction Planning, 1939–1952: An Annotated Bibliography Google Scholar

LATHAM, C. (1942), ‘The planning problems of London: Lord Latham’s survey’, The Builder, 162, 421–3. The planning problems of London: Lord Latham The Builder 162 421 3 Google Scholar

LEMES DE OLIVEIRA, F. (2013), ‘Green wedges’, London Society Journal, 465, 11–13. Green wedges London Society Journal 465 11 13 Google Scholar

LEMES DE OLIVEIRA, F. (2014), ‘Green wedges: origins and development in Britain’, Planning Perspectives, 29, 357–79. Green wedges: origins and development in Britain Planning Perspectives 29 357 79 Google Scholar

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MARMARAS, E. and SUTCLIFFE, A. (1994), ‘Planning for post-war London: the three independent plans, 1942–3’, Planning Perspectives, 9, 431–53. Planning for post-war London: the three independent plans, 1942–3 Planning Perspectives 9 431 53 Google Scholar

MINISTRY OF WORKS AND PLANNING (1942), Report of the Committee on Land Utilization in Rural Areas (Scott Report), Cmd 6378, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

MOORE, V. (2012), A Practical Approach to Planning Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press. A Practical Approach to Planning Law Google Scholar

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 Google Scholar

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 Google Scholar

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NEW TOWNS COMMITTEE (1946), Final Report of the New Towns Committee (Command paper 6876). Google Scholar

PEPLER, G. (1923), ‘Open spaces’, Town Planning Review, 10, 11–24. Open spaces Town Planning Review 10 11 24 Google Scholar

PURDOM, C. B. (1945), How Should we Rebuild London?, London, J. M. Dent & Sons. How Should we Rebuild London? Google Scholar

REISS, R. L. (1943), ‘The London Plan and satellite town. Address to Town and Country Planning Association’, The Builder, September, 254. The London Plan and satellite town. Address to Town and Country Planning Association The Builder Google Scholar

SHEAIL, J. (1981), Rural Conservation in Inter-War Britain, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Rural Conservation in Inter-War Britain Google Scholar

SILKIN, L. (1943), ‘London replanned: decentralization of industry and population’, The Times, 13 July, 5. London replanned: decentralization of industry and population The Times 5 Google Scholar

SUTCLIFFE, A. (1981a), British Town Planning: the Formative Years, Leicester, Leicester University Press. British Town Planning: the Formative Years Google Scholar

SUTCLIFFE, A. (1981b). Towards the Planned City: Germany, Britain, the United States and France, 1780–1914, Oxford, Basil Blackwell. Towards the Planned City: Germany, Britain, the United States and France, 1780–1914 Google Scholar

THE BUILDER (1942a), ‘In parliament: replanning of London’, The Builder, 162, 563. Google Scholar

THE BUILDER (1942b), ‘Town and country planning’, The Builder, 162, 333. Google Scholar

THE BUILDER (1944), ‘The Greater London Plan’, The Builder, 167, 465–9. Google Scholar

THE ESTATES GAZETTE (1944), ‘The Greater London: Professor Abercrombie outline’, The Estates Gazette, December 16, 550–51. Google Scholar

TIRATSOO, N. (2000), ‘The reconstruction of blitzed British cities 1945–55: myths and reality’, Contemporary British History, 14, 27–44. The reconstruction of blitzed British cities 1945–55: myths and reality Contemporary British History 14 27 44 Google Scholar

TRYSTAN EDWARDS, A. (1943). ‘A Plan for “Greater London”’, The Builder, 165, 128–9. A Plan for “Greater London” The Builder 165 128 9 Google Scholar

TUBBS, R. (1942). Living in Cities, London, Penguin. Living in Cities Google Scholar

VEJRE, H., PRINDAHL, J., BRANDT, J. (2007), ‘The Copenhagen Finger Plan: Keeping a Green Space Structure by a Simple Planning Metaphor’, in B. Pedroli, A. Van Doorn, G. De Blust, M. L. Paracchini, D. Wascher, F. B. Bunce (eds), Europe’s Living Landscapes. Essays on Exploring Our Identity in the Countryside, Zeist, Wageningen/KNNV Publishing, 311–28. The Copenhagen Finger Plan: Keeping a Green Space Structure by a Simple Planning Metaphor Europe’s Living Landscapes. Essays on Exploring Our Identity in the Countryside 311 28 Google Scholar

WAE (1943–7), ‘Book reviews: The County of London Plan’, Town Planning Review, 19, 38–41. Google Scholar

WARD, S. (2002), Planning the Twentieth-Century City: The Advanced Capitalist World, Chichester, Wiley. Planning the Twentieth-Century City: The Advanced Capitalist World Google Scholar

WARD, S. (2004), Planning and Urban Change, London, Sage. Planning and Urban Change Google Scholar

WATSON, J. P. and ABERCROMBIE, P. (1943), A Plan for Plymouth: The Report Prepared for the City Council, Plymouth, Underhill. A Plan for Plymouth: The Report Prepared for the City Council Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE, P. (1912), ‘Town planning in Greater London: the need for co-operation’, Town Planning Review, 2, 261–80. Town planning in Greater London: the need for co-operation Town Planning Review 2 261 80 Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE, P. (1933), Town and Country Planning, London, Oxford University Press. Town and Country Planning Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE, P. (1945), Greater London Plan 1944, London, HMSO. Greater London Plan 1944 Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE, P. and FORSHAW, J. (1943), County of London Plan Prepared for the LCC, 1943, London, Macmillan. County of London Plan Prepared for the LCC, 1943 Google Scholar

AMATI, M. and YOKOHARI, M. (1997), ‘The establishment of the London greenbelt’, Planning Perspectives, 6, 311–37. The establishment of the London greenbelt Planning Perspectives 6 311 37 Google Scholar

ASHWORTH, W. (1954), The Genesis of Modern British Town Planning, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul. The Genesis of Modern British Town Planning Google Scholar

BULLOCK, N. (1994), ‘Ideals, priorities and harsh realities: reconstruction and the LCC, 1945–51’, Planning Perspectives, 9, 5–7, 87–101. Ideals, priorities and harsh realities: reconstruction and the LCC, 1945–51 Planning Perspectives 9 87 101 Google Scholar

BULLOCK, N. (2002), Building the Post-War World –Modern Architecture and Reconstruction in Britain, London, Routledge. Building the Post-War World –Modern Architecture and Reconstruction in Britain Google Scholar

CARTER, E. J. and GOLDFINGER, E. (eds) (1945), The County of London Plan Explained by E. J. Carter and Erno Goldfinger, London, Penguin Books. The County of London Plan Explained by E. J. Carter and Erno Goldfinger Google Scholar

CHERRY, G. (1975), Environmental Planning 1939-1969, Volume II – National Parks and Recreation in the Countryside, London, HMSO. Environmental Planning 1939-1969, Volume II – National Parks and Recreation in the Countryside Google Scholar

CHERRY, G. (1988), The Evolution of British Town Planning: A History of Town Planning in the United Kingdom, Leighton Buzzard, L. Hill. The Evolution of British Town Planning: A History of Town Planning in the United Kingdom Google Scholar

CRACKNELL, M. (1943), ‘County of London Plan … a statement by the executive of the Town & Country Planning Association’, Town and Country Planning, 11, 118–27. County of London Plan … a statement by the executive of the Town & Country Planning Association Town and Country Planning 11 118 27 Google Scholar

CRAMPTON, A. W. (1941), ‘Town planning and reconstruction, to the editor of The Builder’, The Builder, 160, 4–5. Town planning and reconstruction, to the editor of The Builder The Builder 160 4 5 Google Scholar

CULLINGWORTH, J. B. (1975), Reconstruction and Land Use Planning 1939–1947, London, HMSO. Reconstruction and Land Use Planning 1939–1947 Google Scholar

DAL CO, F. (1980), ‘From parks to the region’, in G. Ciucci (ed.), The American City: From the Civil War to the New Deal, London, Granada, 141–293. From parks to the region The American City: From the Civil War to the New Deal 141 293 Google Scholar

DÜMPELMANN, S. (2005), ‘The park international: park system planning as an international phenomenon at the beginning of the Twentieth Century’, GHI Bulletin, Fall, 75–86. The park international: park system planning as an international phenomenon at the beginning of the Twentieth Century GHI Bulletin 75 86 Google Scholar

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de Oliveira, Fabiano Lemes