Town Planning Review

Introduction: Strategic spatial planning in uncertainty: theory and exploratory practice

Town Planning Review (2011), 82, (5), 481–501.

Abstract

The papers in this issue develop practical and theoretical ideas about strategic spatial planning in uncertainty. This Introduction contextualises the papers in terms of spatial planning and the uncertainties that planning practitioners face as they attempt to cope with the messiness of strategy-making and implementation. The authors explain their understanding of post-structuralism and how it differs from the pragmatist theoretical foundations of other scholars. The five papers are introduced through the use of recurring themes. The Introduction concludes by proposing that post-structuralist ideas can work to improve planning practice in conditions of uncertainty, provided that key elements are in place.

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ABBOTT, J. (2005), 'Understanding and managing the unknown', Journal of Planning Education and Research, 24, 237–51. Understanding and managing the unknown Journal of Planning Education and Research 24 237 51 Google Scholar

ABBOTT, J. (2009), 'Planning for complex metropolitan regions: a better future or a more certain one?', Journal of Planning Education and Research, 28, 503–17. Planning for complex metropolitan regions: a better future or a more certain one? Journal of Planning Education and Research 28 503 17 Google Scholar

ALBRECHTS, L. (2004), 'Strategic (spatial) planning re-examined', Environment and Planning B, Planning and Design, 31, 743–58. Strategic (spatial) planning re-examined Environment and Planning B, Planning and Design 31 743 58 Google Scholar

ALBRECHTS, L. (2005), 'Creativity as a drive for change', Planning Theory, 4, 247–69. Creativity as a drive for change Planning Theory 4 247 69 Google Scholar

ALBRECHTS, L. (2010), 'Enhancing creativity and action orientation in planning', in Hillier J. and Healey P. (eds), The Ashgate Research Companion to Planning Theory: Conceptual Challenges for Spatial Planning, Farnham, Ashgate, 215–32. Google Scholar

ALBRECHTS, L. and VAN DEN BROECK, J. (2004), 'From discourse to facts: the case of the ROM project in Ghent, Belgium', Town Planning Review, 75, 127–50. From discourse to facts: the case of the ROM project in Ghent, Belgium Town Planning Review 75 127 50 Google Scholar

AUCKLAND REGIONAL GROWTH FORUM (2007), 'Auckland Sustainability Framework: an agenda for the future', Auckland, AGRF, www.aucklandoneplan.org.nz/subsites/fms/OnePlan Google Scholar

BALDUCCI, A. (2008), 'Constructing (spatial) strategies in complex environments', in J. van den Broeck, F. Moulaert and S. Oosterlynck (eds), Empowering the Planning Fields: Ethics, Creativity and Action, Leuven, Acco, 79–99. Constructing (spatial) strategies in complex environments Empowering the Planning Fields: Ethics, Creativity and Action Leuven, Acco 79 99 Google Scholar

BEAUREGARD, R. (2000), 'Neither embedded nor embodied: critical pragmatism and identity politics', in M. Burayidi (ed.), Urban Planning in a Multicultural Society, Westport, CT, Praeger, 53–66. Neither embedded nor embodied: critical pragmatism and identity politics Urban Planning in a Multicultural Society Westport, CT, Praeger 53 66 Google Scholar

BERGSON, H. [1934] (1946), The Creative Mind (trans. M. Andison), New York, Carol Publishing Group. Google Scholar

BERTOLINI, L. (2010), 'Coping with the irreducible uncertainties of planning: an evolutionary approach', in J. Hillier and P. Healey (eds), The Ashgate Research Companion to Planning Theory: Conceptual Challenges for Spatial Planning, Farnham, Ashgate, 413–24. Google Scholar

BEVIR, M. and RHODES, R. (2006), Governance Stories, London, Routledge. Governance Stories Google Scholar

BLANCO, H. (1994), How to Think about Social Problems: American Pragmatism and the Idea of Planning, Westport, CT, Greenwood Press. How to Think about Social Problems: American Pragmatism and the Idea of Planning Google Scholar

BROWN, S. (2006), 'The determination of life', Theory, Culture and Society, 23, 331–32. The determination of life Theory, Culture and Society 23 331 32 Google Scholar

BRUTON, M. and FISHER, E. (1980), 'Policy symposium: the future of development plans', Town Planning Review, 51, 131–52. Policy symposium: the future of development plans Town Planning Review 51 131 52 Google Scholar

CEMAT (EUROPEAN CONFERENCE OF MINISTERS RESPONSIBLE FOR REGIONAL/SPATIAL PLANNING) (1983), Chartre Européenne de l'Amenagement du Territoire (Chartre de Torremolinos), adopted 20/05/1983, Strasbourg, Council of Europe, www.siseministeerium.ee/public/terr.harta.ingrtf.rtf Google Scholar

CHRISTENSEN, K. (1985), 'Coping with uncertainty in planning', Journal of the American Planning Association, 51, 63–73. Coping with uncertainty in planning Journal of the American Planning Association 51 63 73 Google Scholar

CHRISTENSEN, K. (1999), Cities and Complexity, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. Cities and Complexity Google Scholar

COMMITTEE FOR PERTH (2009), 'Submission on Directions 2031 – Draft Spatial Framework for Perth and Peel', 26/08/2009, www.committeeforperth.com.au/directions%2031%20 Submission.pdf Google Scholar

CONNOLLY, W. E. (2002), Neuropolitics: Thinking, Culture, Speed, Minneapolis, MN, Minnesota University Press. Neuropolitics: Thinking, Culture, Speed Google Scholar

DELEUZE, G. (1987), 'Sur Leibniz, Cours Vincennes, St Denis', www.webdeleuze.com/php/liste_texte.php?groupe=Leibniz Google Scholar

DELEUZE, G. (1997), Essays Critical and Clinical (trans. D. W. Smith and M. Greco), Minneapolis, MN, Minnesota University Press. Google Scholar

DELEUZE, G. and GUATTARI, F. [1980] (1987), A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia (trans. B. Massumi), London, Athlone Press. Google Scholar

DELEUZE, G. and GUATTARI, F. [1991] (1994), What Is Philosophy? (trans. H. Tomlinson and G. Burchill), London, Verso. Google Scholar

DE ROO, G. (2010), 'Planning and complexity: an introduction', in G. de Roo and E. Silva (eds), A Planner's Encounter with Complexity, Farnham, Ashgate, 1–18. Google Scholar

DE ROO, G. and PORTER, G. (eds) (2007), Fuzzy Planning, Aldershot, Ashgate. Fuzzy Planning Google Scholar

DOUCET, I. (2008), '[Centrality] and/or Cent][rality: a matter of placing the boundaries', in G. Maciocco (ed.), Urban Landscape Perspectives, New York, Springer, 93–123. Google Scholar

ECCLES, D. and BRYANT, T. (2006), Statutory Planning in Victoria (3rd edn), Sydney, Federation Press. Google Scholar

FERGUSON, K. (2007), William James: Politics in the Pluriverse, Plymouth, Rowman and Littlefield. William James: Politics in the Pluriverse Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (1989), Planning in the Face of Power, Berkeley, CA, University of California Press. Planning in the Face of Power Google Scholar

FRAME, B. and BROWN, J. (2008), 'Developing post-normal technologies for sustainability', Ecological Economics, 65, 225–41. Developing post-normal technologies for sustainability Ecological Economics 65 225 41 Google Scholar

FRIEDMANN, J. (2004), 'Strategic spatial planning and the longer range', Planning Theory and Practice, 5, 50–6. Strategic spatial planning and the longer range Planning Theory and Practice 5 50 6 Google Scholar

GOUGH, N. (2007), 'Geophilosophy, rhizomes and mosquitoes: becoming nomadic in global science education research', in B. Atweh, A. Calabrese Barton, M. Borba, N. Gough, C. Keitel, C. Vistro-Yu and R. Vithal (eds), Internationalisation and Globalisation in Mathematics and Science Education, Berlin, Springer, 52–77. Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2006), Collaborative Planning (2nd edn), Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan. Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2007), Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies: Towards a Relational Planning for Our Times, London, Routledge. Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies: Towards a Relational Planning for Our Times Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2008), 'Making choices that matter: the practical art of situated strategic judgement in spatial strategy-making', in J. van den Broeck, F. Moulaert and S. Oosterlynck (eds), Empowering the Planning Fields: Ethics, Creativity and Action, Leuven, Acco, 23–41. Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2009a), 'In search of the "strategic" in spatial strategy making', Planning Theory and Practice, 10, 439–57. In search of the "strategic" in spatial strategy making Planning Theory and Practice 10 439 57 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2009b), 'The pragmatic tradition in planning thought', Journal of Planning Education and Research, 28, 277–92. The pragmatic tradition in planning thought Journal of Planning Education and Research 28 277 92 Google Scholar

HILLIER, J. (2005), 'Straddling the poststructuralist abyss: between transcendence and immanence?', Planning Theory, 4, 271–99. Straddling the poststructuralist abyss: between transcendence and immanence? Planning Theory 4 271 99 Google Scholar

HILLIER, J. (2007), Stretching Beyond the Horizon: A Multiplanar Theory of Spatial Planning and Governance, Aldershot, Ashgate. Stretching Beyond the Horizon: A Multiplanar Theory of Spatial Planning and Governance Google Scholar

HILLIER, J. (2010), 'Introduction', in J. Hillier and P. Healey (eds), The Ashgate Research Companion to Planning Theory: Conceptual Challenges for Spatial Planning, Farnham, Ashgate, 1–34. Google Scholar

HOCH, C. (1984a), 'Doing good and being right: the pragmatic connection in planning theory', Journal of the American Planning Association, 50, 335–45. Doing good and being right: the pragmatic connection in planning theory Journal of the American Planning Association 50 335 45 Google Scholar

HOCH, C. (1984b), 'Pragmatism, power and planning', Journal of Planning Education and Research, 4, 86–95. Pragmatism, power and planning Journal of Planning Education and Research 4 86 95 Google Scholar

HONG KONG DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING (2002), Hong Kong 2030, Planning Vision and Strategy, Stage 2, Public Consultation Report, Hong Kong, HKDP. Google Scholar

JAMES, W. (1904), 'A world of pure experience', Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods, 1, 533–43; 561–70. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

LAW, J. (2004), After Method: Mess in Social Science Research, London/New York, Routledge. After Method: Mess in Social Science Research Google Scholar

LGPMC (LOCAL GOVERNMENT and PLANNING MINISTERS' COUNCIL) (2009), National Planning Systems Principles, Canberra, LGPMC, www.lgpmcouncil.gov.au/publications/files/National%20 Planning%20Systems%20Principles.pdf Google Scholar

LINDBLOM, C. E. (1975), 'The sociology of planning: thought and social interaction', in M. Bornstein (ed.), Economic Planning East and West, Cambridge, MA, Ballinger. The sociology of planning: thought and social interaction Economic Planning East and West Google Scholar

MURDOCH, J. (2006), Post-structuralist Geography, London, Sage. Post-structuralist Geography Google Scholar

PL∅GER, J. (2010), 'Urbanity, (neo)vitalism and becoming', in J. Hillier and P. Healey (eds), The Ashgate Research Companion to Planning Theory: Conceptual Challenges for Spatial Planning, Farnham, Ashgate, 319–41. Google Scholar

RHEINBERGER, H.-J. (1997), Towards a History of Epistemic Things: Synthesising Proteins in the Test Tube, Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press. Towards a History of Epistemic Things: Synthesising Proteins in the Test Tube Google Scholar

ROBBINS, E. (1998), 'Thinking the city multiple', Harvard Architecture Review, 10, 36–45. Thinking the city multiple Harvard Architecture Review 10 36 45 Google Scholar

RORTY, R. (1982), Consequences of Pragmatism, Minneapolis, MN, Minnesota University Press. Consequences of Pragmatism Google Scholar

SEARLE, G. and BUNKER, R. (2010), 'Metropolitan strategic planning: an Australian paradigm?', Planning Theory, 9, 163–80. Metropolitan strategic planning: an Australian paradigm? Planning Theory 9 163 80 Google Scholar

SIMONSEN, K. (2004), 'Networks, flows and fluids – reimagining spatial analysis', Environment and Planning A, 36, 1333–37. Networks, flows and fluids – reimagining spatial analysis Environment and Planning A 36 1333 37 Google Scholar

THRIFT, N. (2004), 'Summoning life', in P. Cloke, P. Crang and M. Goodwin (eds), Envisioning Human Geographies, London, Arnold, 81–103. Google Scholar

VAN WEZEMAEL, J. (2010), 'Urban governance and social complexity', in G. de Roo and E. Silva (eds), A Planner's Encounter with Complexity, Farnham, Ashgate, 283–307. Google Scholar

VERMA, N. (1998), Similarities, Connections, Systems, Lanham, MD, Lexington Books. Similarities, Connections, Systems Google Scholar

WAGENAAR, H. and COOK, S. (2003), 'Understanding policy practices: action, dialectic and deliberation in policy analysis', in M. Hajer and H. Wagenaar (eds), Deliberative Policy Analysis: Understanding Governance in the Network Society, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 139–71. Google Scholar

WAHL, J. (1920), Les Philosophes Pluralistes, Paris, Alcan. Les Philosophes Pluralistes Google Scholar

ZAMBERLIN, M. (2006), Rhizosphere: Gilles Deleuze and the 'Minor' American Writings of William James, W. E. B. DuBois, Gertrude Stein, Jean Toomer and William Faulkner, New York, CRC Press. Rhizosphere: Gilles Deleuze and the 'Minor' American Writings of William James, W. E. B. DuBois, Gertrude Stein, Jean Toomer and William Faulkner Google Scholar

ABBOTT, J. (2005), 'Understanding and managing the unknown', Journal of Planning Education and Research, 24, 237–51. Understanding and managing the unknown Journal of Planning Education and Research 24 237 51 Google Scholar

ABBOTT, J. (2009), 'Planning for complex metropolitan regions: a better future or a more certain one?', Journal of Planning Education and Research, 28, 503–17. Planning for complex metropolitan regions: a better future or a more certain one? Journal of Planning Education and Research 28 503 17 Google Scholar

ALBRECHTS, L. (2004), 'Strategic (spatial) planning re-examined', Environment and Planning B, Planning and Design, 31, 743–58. Strategic (spatial) planning re-examined Environment and Planning B, Planning and Design 31 743 58 Google Scholar

ALBRECHTS, L. (2005), 'Creativity as a drive for change', Planning Theory, 4, 247–69. Creativity as a drive for change Planning Theory 4 247 69 Google Scholar

ALBRECHTS, L. (2010), 'Enhancing creativity and action orientation in planning', in Hillier J. and Healey P. (eds), The Ashgate Research Companion to Planning Theory: Conceptual Challenges for Spatial Planning, Farnham, Ashgate, 215–32. Google Scholar

ALBRECHTS, L. and VAN DEN BROECK, J. (2004), 'From discourse to facts: the case of the ROM project in Ghent, Belgium', Town Planning Review, 75, 127–50. From discourse to facts: the case of the ROM project in Ghent, Belgium Town Planning Review 75 127 50 Google Scholar

AUCKLAND REGIONAL GROWTH FORUM (2007), 'Auckland Sustainability Framework: an agenda for the future', Auckland, AGRF, www.aucklandoneplan.org.nz/subsites/fms/OnePlan Google Scholar

BALDUCCI, A. (2008), 'Constructing (spatial) strategies in complex environments', in J. van den Broeck, F. Moulaert and S. Oosterlynck (eds), Empowering the Planning Fields: Ethics, Creativity and Action, Leuven, Acco, 79–99. Constructing (spatial) strategies in complex environments Empowering the Planning Fields: Ethics, Creativity and Action Leuven, Acco 79 99 Google Scholar

BEAUREGARD, R. (2000), 'Neither embedded nor embodied: critical pragmatism and identity politics', in M. Burayidi (ed.), Urban Planning in a Multicultural Society, Westport, CT, Praeger, 53–66. Neither embedded nor embodied: critical pragmatism and identity politics Urban Planning in a Multicultural Society Westport, CT, Praeger 53 66 Google Scholar

BERGSON, H. [1934] (1946), The Creative Mind (trans. M. Andison), New York, Carol Publishing Group. Google Scholar

BERTOLINI, L. (2010), 'Coping with the irreducible uncertainties of planning: an evolutionary approach', in J. Hillier and P. Healey (eds), The Ashgate Research Companion to Planning Theory: Conceptual Challenges for Spatial Planning, Farnham, Ashgate, 413–24. Google Scholar

BEVIR, M. and RHODES, R. (2006), Governance Stories, London, Routledge. Governance Stories Google Scholar

BLANCO, H. (1994), How to Think about Social Problems: American Pragmatism and the Idea of Planning, Westport, CT, Greenwood Press. How to Think about Social Problems: American Pragmatism and the Idea of Planning Google Scholar

BROWN, S. (2006), 'The determination of life', Theory, Culture and Society, 23, 331–32. The determination of life Theory, Culture and Society 23 331 32 Google Scholar

BRUTON, M. and FISHER, E. (1980), 'Policy symposium: the future of development plans', Town Planning Review, 51, 131–52. Policy symposium: the future of development plans Town Planning Review 51 131 52 Google Scholar

CEMAT (EUROPEAN CONFERENCE OF MINISTERS RESPONSIBLE FOR REGIONAL/SPATIAL PLANNING) (1983), Chartre Européenne de l'Amenagement du Territoire (Chartre de Torremolinos), adopted 20/05/1983, Strasbourg, Council of Europe, www.siseministeerium.ee/public/terr.harta.ingrtf.rtf Google Scholar

CHRISTENSEN, K. (1985), 'Coping with uncertainty in planning', Journal of the American Planning Association, 51, 63–73. Coping with uncertainty in planning Journal of the American Planning Association 51 63 73 Google Scholar

CHRISTENSEN, K. (1999), Cities and Complexity, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. Cities and Complexity Google Scholar

COMMITTEE FOR PERTH (2009), 'Submission on Directions 2031 – Draft Spatial Framework for Perth and Peel', 26/08/2009, www.committeeforperth.com.au/directions%2031%20 Submission.pdf Google Scholar

CONNOLLY, W. E. (2002), Neuropolitics: Thinking, Culture, Speed, Minneapolis, MN, Minnesota University Press. Neuropolitics: Thinking, Culture, Speed Google Scholar

DELEUZE, G. (1987), 'Sur Leibniz, Cours Vincennes, St Denis', www.webdeleuze.com/php/liste_texte.php?groupe=Leibniz Google Scholar

DELEUZE, G. (1997), Essays Critical and Clinical (trans. D. W. Smith and M. Greco), Minneapolis, MN, Minnesota University Press. Google Scholar

DELEUZE, G. and GUATTARI, F. [1980] (1987), A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia (trans. B. Massumi), London, Athlone Press. Google Scholar

DELEUZE, G. and GUATTARI, F. [1991] (1994), What Is Philosophy? (trans. H. Tomlinson and G. Burchill), London, Verso. Google Scholar

DE ROO, G. (2010), 'Planning and complexity: an introduction', in G. de Roo and E. Silva (eds), A Planner's Encounter with Complexity, Farnham, Ashgate, 1–18. Google Scholar

DE ROO, G. and PORTER, G. (eds) (2007), Fuzzy Planning, Aldershot, Ashgate. Fuzzy Planning Google Scholar

DOUCET, I. (2008), '[Centrality] and/or Cent][rality: a matter of placing the boundaries', in G. Maciocco (ed.), Urban Landscape Perspectives, New York, Springer, 93–123. Google Scholar

ECCLES, D. and BRYANT, T. (2006), Statutory Planning in Victoria (3rd edn), Sydney, Federation Press. Google Scholar

FERGUSON, K. (2007), William James: Politics in the Pluriverse, Plymouth, Rowman and Littlefield. William James: Politics in the Pluriverse Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (1989), Planning in the Face of Power, Berkeley, CA, University of California Press. Planning in the Face of Power Google Scholar

FRAME, B. and BROWN, J. (2008), 'Developing post-normal technologies for sustainability', Ecological Economics, 65, 225–41. Developing post-normal technologies for sustainability Ecological Economics 65 225 41 Google Scholar

FRIEDMANN, J. (2004), 'Strategic spatial planning and the longer range', Planning Theory and Practice, 5, 50–6. Strategic spatial planning and the longer range Planning Theory and Practice 5 50 6 Google Scholar

GOUGH, N. (2007), 'Geophilosophy, rhizomes and mosquitoes: becoming nomadic in global science education research', in B. Atweh, A. Calabrese Barton, M. Borba, N. Gough, C. Keitel, C. Vistro-Yu and R. Vithal (eds), Internationalisation and Globalisation in Mathematics and Science Education, Berlin, Springer, 52–77. Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2006), Collaborative Planning (2nd edn), Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan. Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2007), Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies: Towards a Relational Planning for Our Times, London, Routledge. Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies: Towards a Relational Planning for Our Times Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2008), 'Making choices that matter: the practical art of situated strategic judgement in spatial strategy-making', in J. van den Broeck, F. Moulaert and S. Oosterlynck (eds), Empowering the Planning Fields: Ethics, Creativity and Action, Leuven, Acco, 23–41. Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2009a), 'In search of the "strategic" in spatial strategy making', Planning Theory and Practice, 10, 439–57. In search of the "strategic" in spatial strategy making Planning Theory and Practice 10 439 57 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2009b), 'The pragmatic tradition in planning thought', Journal of Planning Education and Research, 28, 277–92. The pragmatic tradition in planning thought Journal of Planning Education and Research 28 277 92 Google Scholar

HILLIER, J. (2005), 'Straddling the poststructuralist abyss: between transcendence and immanence?', Planning Theory, 4, 271–99. Straddling the poststructuralist abyss: between transcendence and immanence? Planning Theory 4 271 99 Google Scholar

HILLIER, J. (2007), Stretching Beyond the Horizon: A Multiplanar Theory of Spatial Planning and Governance, Aldershot, Ashgate. Stretching Beyond the Horizon: A Multiplanar Theory of Spatial Planning and Governance Google Scholar

HILLIER, J. (2010), 'Introduction', in J. Hillier and P. Healey (eds), The Ashgate Research Companion to Planning Theory: Conceptual Challenges for Spatial Planning, Farnham, Ashgate, 1–34. Google Scholar

HOCH, C. (1984a), 'Doing good and being right: the pragmatic connection in planning theory', Journal of the American Planning Association, 50, 335–45. Doing good and being right: the pragmatic connection in planning theory Journal of the American Planning Association 50 335 45 Google Scholar

HOCH, C. (1984b), 'Pragmatism, power and planning', Journal of Planning Education and Research, 4, 86–95. Pragmatism, power and planning Journal of Planning Education and Research 4 86 95 Google Scholar

HONG KONG DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING (2002), Hong Kong 2030, Planning Vision and Strategy, Stage 2, Public Consultation Report, Hong Kong, HKDP. Google Scholar

JAMES, W. (1904), 'A world of pure experience', Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods, 1, 533–43; 561–70. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

LAW, J. (2004), After Method: Mess in Social Science Research, London/New York, Routledge. After Method: Mess in Social Science Research Google Scholar

LGPMC (LOCAL GOVERNMENT and PLANNING MINISTERS' COUNCIL) (2009), National Planning Systems Principles, Canberra, LGPMC, www.lgpmcouncil.gov.au/publications/files/National%20 Planning%20Systems%20Principles.pdf Google Scholar

LINDBLOM, C. E. (1975), 'The sociology of planning: thought and social interaction', in M. Bornstein (ed.), Economic Planning East and West, Cambridge, MA, Ballinger. The sociology of planning: thought and social interaction Economic Planning East and West Google Scholar

MURDOCH, J. (2006), Post-structuralist Geography, London, Sage. Post-structuralist Geography Google Scholar

PL∅GER, J. (2010), 'Urbanity, (neo)vitalism and becoming', in J. Hillier and P. Healey (eds), The Ashgate Research Companion to Planning Theory: Conceptual Challenges for Spatial Planning, Farnham, Ashgate, 319–41. Google Scholar

RHEINBERGER, H.-J. (1997), Towards a History of Epistemic Things: Synthesising Proteins in the Test Tube, Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press. Towards a History of Epistemic Things: Synthesising Proteins in the Test Tube Google Scholar

ROBBINS, E. (1998), 'Thinking the city multiple', Harvard Architecture Review, 10, 36–45. Thinking the city multiple Harvard Architecture Review 10 36 45 Google Scholar

RORTY, R. (1982), Consequences of Pragmatism, Minneapolis, MN, Minnesota University Press. Consequences of Pragmatism Google Scholar

SEARLE, G. and BUNKER, R. (2010), 'Metropolitan strategic planning: an Australian paradigm?', Planning Theory, 9, 163–80. Metropolitan strategic planning: an Australian paradigm? Planning Theory 9 163 80 Google Scholar

SIMONSEN, K. (2004), 'Networks, flows and fluids – reimagining spatial analysis', Environment and Planning A, 36, 1333–37. Networks, flows and fluids – reimagining spatial analysis Environment and Planning A 36 1333 37 Google Scholar

THRIFT, N. (2004), 'Summoning life', in P. Cloke, P. Crang and M. Goodwin (eds), Envisioning Human Geographies, London, Arnold, 81–103. Google Scholar

VAN WEZEMAEL, J. (2010), 'Urban governance and social complexity', in G. de Roo and E. Silva (eds), A Planner's Encounter with Complexity, Farnham, Ashgate, 283–307. Google Scholar

VERMA, N. (1998), Similarities, Connections, Systems, Lanham, MD, Lexington Books. Similarities, Connections, Systems Google Scholar

WAGENAAR, H. and COOK, S. (2003), 'Understanding policy practices: action, dialectic and deliberation in policy analysis', in M. Hajer and H. Wagenaar (eds), Deliberative Policy Analysis: Understanding Governance in the Network Society, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 139–71. Google Scholar

WAHL, J. (1920), Les Philosophes Pluralistes, Paris, Alcan. Les Philosophes Pluralistes Google Scholar

ZAMBERLIN, M. (2006), Rhizosphere: Gilles Deleuze and the 'Minor' American Writings of William James, W. E. B. DuBois, Gertrude Stein, Jean Toomer and William Faulkner, New York, CRC Press. Rhizosphere: Gilles Deleuze and the 'Minor' American Writings of William James, W. E. B. DuBois, Gertrude Stein, Jean Toomer and William Faulkner Google Scholar

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Details

Author details

Balducci, Alessandro

Boelens, Luuk

Hillier, Jean

Nyseth, Torill

Wilkinson, Cathy