Town Planning Review

Skid Row, Gallery Row and the space in between: cultural revitalisation and its impacts on two Los Angeles neighbourhoods

Town Planning Review (2016), 87, (4), 401–427.

Abstract

As a means for neighbourhood improvement, cultural urban revitalisation seeks to draw business growth and investment by attracting a creative class of young urban professionals. Though criticisms abound that these strategies benefit the wealthy and displace low-income communities, there is little research focusing on how the efforts of social actors can shape or resist this process. The purpose of this study is to offer a micro-level look at the spatial and political contestations and negotiations that occur amongst a variety of community organisations and individuals in two adjacent neighbourhoods in downtown Los Angeles undergoing revitalisation. By approaching ‘revitalisation’ as an arena where different neighbourhood groups can compete to achieve their goals, it argues that we scrutinise prevailing notions of gentrification and seek to understand the values and actions of stakeholders involved in order to enable more equitable outcomes of urban revitalisation.

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BINNIE, J., HOLLOWAY, J., MILLINGTON, S. and YOUNG, C. (2006), Cosmopolitan Urbanism, New York: Routledge. Cosmopolitan Urbanism Google Scholar

BOYD, M. (2005), ‘The downside of racial uplift: meaning of gentrification in an African American neighborhood’, City & Society, 17, 265–88. The downside of racial uplift: meaning of gentrification in an African American neighborhood City & Society 17 265 88 Google Scholar

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CAULFIELD, J. (1994), City Form and Everyday Life: Toronto’s Gentrification and Critical Social Practice, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. City Form and Everyday Life: Toronto’s Gentrification and Critical Social Practice Google Scholar

CYBRIWSKI, R. (1978), ‘Social aspects of neighborhood change’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 68, 17–33. Social aspects of neighborhood change Annals of the Association of American Geographers 68 17 33 Google Scholar

DEENER, A., ERIE, S. P., KOGAN, V. and STUART, F. (2013), ‘Planning Los Angeles: the changing politics of neighborhood and downtown development’, in D. Halle and A. Beveridge (eds), New York and LA: The Uncertain Future, New York: Oxford University Press. Planning Los Angeles: the changing politics of neighborhood and downtown development New York and LA: The Uncertain Future Google Scholar

DEVERTEUIL, G. (2006), ‘The local state and homeless shelters: beyond revanchism?’, Cities, 23, 109–20. The local state and homeless shelters: beyond revanchism? Cities 23 109 20 Google Scholar

DOWNTOWN CENTER BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT (2011), ‘Downtown Los Angeles demographic study’, https://www.downtownla.com/about-us/publications/annualreports-quarterly-newsletters (accessed 21 April 2016). Google Scholar

EVANS, G. (2004), ‘Cultural industry quarters: from pre-industrial to post-industrial production’, in D. Bell and M. Jayne (eds), City of Quarters: Urban Villages in the Contemporary City, Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Limited. Cultural industry quarters: from pre-industrial to post-industrial production City of Quarters: Urban Villages in the Contemporary City Google Scholar

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FLORIDA, R. L. (2005), Cities and the Creative Class, New York: Routledge. Cities and the Creative Class Google Scholar

FREEMAN, L. (2006), There Goes the ’Hood: Views of Gentrification from the Ground Up, Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. There Goes the ’Hood: Views of Gentrification from the Ground Up Google Scholar

GLAESER, E. L. and SAIZ, A. (2003), The Rise of the Skilled City, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. The Rise of the Skilled City Google Scholar

GOETZ, E. G. (1992), ‘Land use and homeless policy in Los Angeles’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 16, 540–54. Land use and homeless policy in Los Angeles International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 16 540 54 Google Scholar

GRODACH, C. and LOUKAITOU-SIDERIS, A. (2007), ‘Cultural development strategies and urban revitalization’, International Journal of Cultural Policy, 13, 349–70. Cultural development strategies and urban revitalization International Journal of Cultural Policy 13 349 70 Google Scholar

GUTERBOCK, T. M. (1980), ‘The political economy of urban revitalization: competing theories’, Urban Affairs Review, 15, 429–38. The political economy of urban revitalization: competing theories Urban Affairs Review 15 429 38 Google Scholar

HAAS, G. and HESKIN, A. (1981), ‘Community struggles in Los Angeles’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 5, 546–64. Community struggles in Los Angeles International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 5 546 64 Google Scholar

HAMNET, C. and SHOVAL, N. (2003), ‘Museums as flagships of urban development’, in L. Hoffman, S. Fainstein and D. Judd (eds), Cities and Visitors: Regulating People, Markets, and City Space, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Museums as flagships of urban development Cities and Visitors: Regulating People, Markets, and City Space Google Scholar

HOLLAND, G. (2014), ‘Innovative apartment complex for homeless people opens on Skid Row’, LA Times, 8 October, http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-innovativehomeless-housing-20141008-story.html (accessed 21 April 2016). Google Scholar

HYRA, D. S. (2008), The New Urban Renewal: The Economic Transformation of Harlem and Bronzeville, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The New Urban Renewal: The Economic Transformation of Harlem and Bronzeville Google Scholar

LACAN (LOS ANGELES COMMUNITY ACTION NETWORK) (2010), Black Paper: Demographics and Skid Row Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles Community Action Network. Google Scholar

LASKA, S. B. and SPAIN, D. (1980), Back to the City: Issues in Neighborhood Renovation, Oxford: Pergamon. Back to the City: Issues in Neighborhood Renovation Google Scholar

LEY, D. (1994) ‘Gentrification and the politics of the new middle class’, Environmental Planning D: Society and Space, 12, 53–74. Gentrification and the politics of the new middle class Environmental Planning D: Society and Space 12 53 74 Google Scholar

LEY, D. (1996), The New Middle Class and the Remaking of the Central City, Oxford: Oxford University Press. The New Middle Class and the Remaking of the Central City Google Scholar

LEY, D. (2003), ‘Arts, aestheticisation, and the field of gentrification, Urban Studies, 40, 2527–44. Arts, aestheticisation, and the field of gentrification Urban Studies 40 2527 44 Google Scholar

Lost Angels: Skid Row is My Home (2010) Film documentary, Director Thomas Q. Napper, Agi Orsi Productions. Lost Angels: Skid Row is My Home Google Scholar

LOUKAITOU-SIDERIS, A. and GILBERT, L. (2000) ‘Shades of duality: perceptions and images of downtown workers in Los Angeles’, Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 17, 17–33. Shades of duality: perceptions and images of downtown workers in Los Angeles Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 17 17 33 Google Scholar

MARKUSEN, A. (2006), ‘Urban development and the politics of a creative class: evidence from a study of artists’, Environment and Planning A, 38, 1921–40. Urban development and the politics of a creative class: evidence from a study of artists Environment and Planning 38 1921 40 Google Scholar

MARSHALL, C. (2015), ‘The gentrification of Skid Row – a story that will decide the future of Los Angeles’, Guardian, 5 March, http://www.theguardian.com/cities/2015/mar/05/gentrification-skid-row-los-angeles-homeless (accessed 5 December 2015). Google Scholar

MCCANN, E. J. (2007), ‘Inequality and politics in the creative city-regions: questions of livability and state strategy’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 31, 188–96. Inequality and politics in the creative city-regions: questions of livability and state strategy International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 31 188 96 Google Scholar

MERRIAM, S. (2009), Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation Google Scholar

MOORE, K. (2009), ‘Gentrification in black face? The return of the black middle class to urban neighborhoods’, Urban Geography, 30, 118–42. Gentrification in black face? The return of the black middle class to urban neighborhoods Urban Geography 30 118 42 Google Scholar

O’CALLAGHAN, C. (2010) ‘Let’s audit Bohemia: a review of Richard Florida’s “creative class” thesis and its impact on urban policy’, Geography Compass, 4, 1606–17. Let’s audit Bohemia: a review of Richard Florida’s “creative class” thesis and its impact on urban policy Geography Compass 4 1606 17 Google Scholar

PATTILLO, M. (2008), Black on the Block: The Politics of Race and Class in the City, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Black on the Block: The Politics of Race and Class in the City Google Scholar

PECK, J. (2005), ‘Struggling with the creative class’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29, 740–70. Struggling with the creative class International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 29 740 70 Google Scholar

REESE, E., DEVERTEUIL, G. and THACH, L. (2006), ‘Weak center gentrification and the contradictions of containment: deconcentrating poverty in downtown Los Angeles’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 34, 310–327. Weak center gentrification and the contradictions of containment: deconcentrating poverty in downtown Los Angeles International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 34 310 327 Google Scholar

ROODHOUSE, S. (2009), ‘Understanding cultural quarters in branded cities’, in S. H. Donald, E. Kofman and C. Kevin (eds), Branding Cities: Cosmpolitanism, Parochialism, and Social Change, London: Routledge. Understanding cultural quarters in branded cities Branding Cities: Cosmpolitanism, Parochialism, and Social Change Google Scholar

SCOTT, A. J. (2002), ‘The cultural economy of cities’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 21, 323–39. The cultural economy of cities International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 21 323 39 Google Scholar

SCOTT, A. J. (2006), ‘Creative cities: conceptual issues and policy questions’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 28, 1–17. Creative cities: conceptual issues and policy questions Journal of Urban Affairs 28 1 17 Google Scholar

SLATE, T. (2006), ‘The eviction of critical perspectives from gentrification research’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 30, 737–57. The eviction of critical perspectives from gentrification research International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 30 737 57 Google Scholar

SMALL, M. L. (2009), ‘How many cases do I need? On science and the logic of case selection in field-based research’, Ethnography, 10, 5–38. How many cases do I need? On science and the logic of case selection in field-based research Ethnography 10 5 38 Google Scholar

SMITH, N. (1992), ‘New city, new frontier: the lower east side as wild, wild west’, in M. Sorkin (ed.), Variations on a Theme Park, New York: Hill and Wang. New city, new frontier: the lower east side as wild, wild west Variations on a Theme Park Google Scholar

SMITH, N. (1996), The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City, New York City: Routledge. The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City Google Scholar

STUART, F. (2011), ‘Race, space, and regulation of surplus labor: policing African Americans in Los Angeles’s Skid Row’, Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society, 13, 197–212. Race, space, and regulation of surplus labor: policing African Americans in Los Angeles’s Skid Row Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society 13 197 212 Google Scholar

TAYLOR, M. M. (2002), Harlem between Heaven and Hell, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Harlem between Heaven and Hell Google Scholar

UNITED WAY GREATER LOS ANGELES (2013), ‘2013 Greater Los Angeles homeless count’, http://documents.lahsa.org/Planning/homelesscount/2013/2013HomelessCountResultsLACountyCoC.pdf (accessed 21 April 2016). Google Scholar

UNITED WAY GREATER LOS ANGELES (2015), ‘2015 Greater Los Angeles homeless count’, http://documents.lahsa.org/Planning/homelesscount/2015/HC2015CommissionPresentation.pdf (accessed 21 April 2016). Google Scholar

US CENSUS BUREAU (2000), Census 2000, Summary file 1, generated by Brady Collins, using American FactFinder, http://factfinder2.census.gov (accessed 21 April 2016). Google Scholar

US CENSUS BUREAU (2011), American community survey 5-year estimates, generated by Brady Collins, using American FactFinder, http://factfinder2.census.gov (accessed 21 April 2016). Google Scholar

VAILLANCOURT, R. (2013), ‘Alcohol permit denied for main street eatery’, Los Angeles Downtown News, 14 March, http://www.ladowntownnews.com/news/alcohol-permit-denied-formain-street-eatery/article_aeae3016-8cfa-11e2-93eb-0019bb2963f4.html (accessed 21 April 2016). Google Scholar

WHERRY, F. F. (2011), The Philadelphia Barrio: The Arts, Branding and Neighborhood Transformation, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The Philadelphia Barrio: The Arts, Branding and Neighborhood Transformation Google Scholar

WILSON, D. and KEIL, R. (2008), ‘The real creative class’, Social and Cultural Geography, 9, 841–47. The real creative class Social and Cultural Geography 9 841 47 Google Scholar

WOLCH, J. and DEAR, M. J. (1994), Malign Neglect: Homelessness in an American City, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Malign Neglect: Homelessness in an American City Google Scholar

WOLCH, J., DEAR, M., BLASI, G., FLAMING, D., TEPPER, P., and KOEGEL, P. (2007) Ending Homelessness in Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA: University of Southern California Center for Safrer Cities. Ending Homelessness in Los Angeles Google Scholar

WOOD, P. and LANDRY, C. (2008), The Intercultural City: Planning for Diversity Advantage, London: Earthscan. The Intercultural City: Planning for Diversity Advantage Google Scholar

Young Turks (2013) Film documentary, Director Stephen Seemayer. Young Turks Google Scholar

ZUK, M., BIERBAUM, A. H., CHAPPLE, K., GORSKA, K., LOUKAITOU-SIDERIS, A., ONG, P. and THOMAS, T. (2015), ‘Gentrification, displacement and the role of public investment: a literature review’ (Working Paper 2015–05), San Francisco: Federal Reserve Bank of San Franscisco. Gentrification, displacement and the role of public investment: a literature review Google Scholar

ZUKIN, S. (1982), Loft Living: Culture and Capital in Urban Change, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. Loft Living: Culture and Capital in Urban Change Google Scholar

ZUKIN, S. (1996), The Cultures of Cities, Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. The Cultures of Cities Google Scholar

ZUKIN, S. (2011), Naked City: The Death and Life of Authentic Urban Places, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Naked City: The Death and Life of Authentic Urban Places Google Scholar

BINNIE, J., HOLLOWAY, J., MILLINGTON, S. and YOUNG, C. (2006), Cosmopolitan Urbanism, New York: Routledge. Cosmopolitan Urbanism Google Scholar

BOYD, M. (2005), ‘The downside of racial uplift: meaning of gentrification in an African American neighborhood’, City & Society, 17, 265–88. The downside of racial uplift: meaning of gentrification in an African American neighborhood City & Society 17 265 88 Google Scholar

BROWN-SARACINO, J. (2009), A Neighborhood that Never Changes: Gentrification, Social Preservation, and the Search for Authenticity, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. A Neighborhood that Never Changes: Gentrification, Social Preservation, and the Search for Authenticity Google Scholar

BURAWOY, M. (1998a), ‘A dialogue between two sciences’, Contemporary Sociology, 72, 12–20. A dialogue between two sciences Contemporary Sociology 72 12 20 Google Scholar

BURAWOY, M. (1998b), ‘The extended case method’, Sociological Theory, 16, 4–33. The extended case method Sociological Theory 16 4 33 Google Scholar

CATUNGAL, J. P., LESLIE, D. and HII, Y. (2009), ‘Geographies of displacement in the creative city: the case of Liberty Village, Toronto’, Urban Studies, 46, 1095–114. Geographies of displacement in the creative city: the case of Liberty Village, Toronto Urban Studies 46 1095 114 Google Scholar

CAULFIELD, J. (1994), City Form and Everyday Life: Toronto’s Gentrification and Critical Social Practice, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. City Form and Everyday Life: Toronto’s Gentrification and Critical Social Practice Google Scholar

CYBRIWSKI, R. (1978), ‘Social aspects of neighborhood change’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 68, 17–33. Social aspects of neighborhood change Annals of the Association of American Geographers 68 17 33 Google Scholar

DEENER, A., ERIE, S. P., KOGAN, V. and STUART, F. (2013), ‘Planning Los Angeles: the changing politics of neighborhood and downtown development’, in D. Halle and A. Beveridge (eds), New York and LA: The Uncertain Future, New York: Oxford University Press. Planning Los Angeles: the changing politics of neighborhood and downtown development New York and LA: The Uncertain Future Google Scholar

DEVERTEUIL, G. (2006), ‘The local state and homeless shelters: beyond revanchism?’, Cities, 23, 109–20. The local state and homeless shelters: beyond revanchism? Cities 23 109 20 Google Scholar

DOWNTOWN CENTER BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT (2011), ‘Downtown Los Angeles demographic study’, https://www.downtownla.com/about-us/publications/annualreports-quarterly-newsletters (accessed 21 April 2016). Google Scholar

EVANS, G. (2004), ‘Cultural industry quarters: from pre-industrial to post-industrial production’, in D. Bell and M. Jayne (eds), City of Quarters: Urban Villages in the Contemporary City, Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Limited. Cultural industry quarters: from pre-industrial to post-industrial production City of Quarters: Urban Villages in the Contemporary City Google Scholar

FLORIDA, R. L. (2002), The Rise of the Creative Class: And How it’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life, New York: Basic Books. The Rise of the Creative Class: And How it’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life Google Scholar

FLORIDA, R. L. (2005), Cities and the Creative Class, New York: Routledge. Cities and the Creative Class Google Scholar

FREEMAN, L. (2006), There Goes the ’Hood: Views of Gentrification from the Ground Up, Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. There Goes the ’Hood: Views of Gentrification from the Ground Up Google Scholar

GLAESER, E. L. and SAIZ, A. (2003), The Rise of the Skilled City, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. The Rise of the Skilled City Google Scholar

GOETZ, E. G. (1992), ‘Land use and homeless policy in Los Angeles’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 16, 540–54. Land use and homeless policy in Los Angeles International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 16 540 54 Google Scholar

GRODACH, C. and LOUKAITOU-SIDERIS, A. (2007), ‘Cultural development strategies and urban revitalization’, International Journal of Cultural Policy, 13, 349–70. Cultural development strategies and urban revitalization International Journal of Cultural Policy 13 349 70 Google Scholar

GUTERBOCK, T. M. (1980), ‘The political economy of urban revitalization: competing theories’, Urban Affairs Review, 15, 429–38. The political economy of urban revitalization: competing theories Urban Affairs Review 15 429 38 Google Scholar

HAAS, G. and HESKIN, A. (1981), ‘Community struggles in Los Angeles’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 5, 546–64. Community struggles in Los Angeles International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 5 546 64 Google Scholar

HAMNET, C. and SHOVAL, N. (2003), ‘Museums as flagships of urban development’, in L. Hoffman, S. Fainstein and D. Judd (eds), Cities and Visitors: Regulating People, Markets, and City Space, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Museums as flagships of urban development Cities and Visitors: Regulating People, Markets, and City Space Google Scholar

HOLLAND, G. (2014), ‘Innovative apartment complex for homeless people opens on Skid Row’, LA Times, 8 October, http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-innovativehomeless-housing-20141008-story.html (accessed 21 April 2016). Google Scholar

HYRA, D. S. (2008), The New Urban Renewal: The Economic Transformation of Harlem and Bronzeville, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The New Urban Renewal: The Economic Transformation of Harlem and Bronzeville Google Scholar

LACAN (LOS ANGELES COMMUNITY ACTION NETWORK) (2010), Black Paper: Demographics and Skid Row Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles Community Action Network. Google Scholar

LASKA, S. B. and SPAIN, D. (1980), Back to the City: Issues in Neighborhood Renovation, Oxford: Pergamon. Back to the City: Issues in Neighborhood Renovation Google Scholar

LEY, D. (1994) ‘Gentrification and the politics of the new middle class’, Environmental Planning D: Society and Space, 12, 53–74. Gentrification and the politics of the new middle class Environmental Planning D: Society and Space 12 53 74 Google Scholar

LEY, D. (1996), The New Middle Class and the Remaking of the Central City, Oxford: Oxford University Press. The New Middle Class and the Remaking of the Central City Google Scholar

LEY, D. (2003), ‘Arts, aestheticisation, and the field of gentrification, Urban Studies, 40, 2527–44. Arts, aestheticisation, and the field of gentrification Urban Studies 40 2527 44 Google Scholar

Lost Angels: Skid Row is My Home (2010) Film documentary, Director Thomas Q. Napper, Agi Orsi Productions. Lost Angels: Skid Row is My Home Google Scholar

LOUKAITOU-SIDERIS, A. and GILBERT, L. (2000) ‘Shades of duality: perceptions and images of downtown workers in Los Angeles’, Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 17, 17–33. Shades of duality: perceptions and images of downtown workers in Los Angeles Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 17 17 33 Google Scholar

MARKUSEN, A. (2006), ‘Urban development and the politics of a creative class: evidence from a study of artists’, Environment and Planning A, 38, 1921–40. Urban development and the politics of a creative class: evidence from a study of artists Environment and Planning 38 1921 40 Google Scholar

MARSHALL, C. (2015), ‘The gentrification of Skid Row – a story that will decide the future of Los Angeles’, Guardian, 5 March, http://www.theguardian.com/cities/2015/mar/05/gentrification-skid-row-los-angeles-homeless (accessed 5 December 2015). Google Scholar

MCCANN, E. J. (2007), ‘Inequality and politics in the creative city-regions: questions of livability and state strategy’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 31, 188–96. Inequality and politics in the creative city-regions: questions of livability and state strategy International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 31 188 96 Google Scholar

MERRIAM, S. (2009), Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation Google Scholar

MOORE, K. (2009), ‘Gentrification in black face? The return of the black middle class to urban neighborhoods’, Urban Geography, 30, 118–42. Gentrification in black face? The return of the black middle class to urban neighborhoods Urban Geography 30 118 42 Google Scholar

O’CALLAGHAN, C. (2010) ‘Let’s audit Bohemia: a review of Richard Florida’s “creative class” thesis and its impact on urban policy’, Geography Compass, 4, 1606–17. Let’s audit Bohemia: a review of Richard Florida’s “creative class” thesis and its impact on urban policy Geography Compass 4 1606 17 Google Scholar

PATTILLO, M. (2008), Black on the Block: The Politics of Race and Class in the City, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Black on the Block: The Politics of Race and Class in the City Google Scholar

PECK, J. (2005), ‘Struggling with the creative class’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29, 740–70. Struggling with the creative class International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 29 740 70 Google Scholar

REESE, E., DEVERTEUIL, G. and THACH, L. (2006), ‘Weak center gentrification and the contradictions of containment: deconcentrating poverty in downtown Los Angeles’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 34, 310–327. Weak center gentrification and the contradictions of containment: deconcentrating poverty in downtown Los Angeles International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 34 310 327 Google Scholar

ROODHOUSE, S. (2009), ‘Understanding cultural quarters in branded cities’, in S. H. Donald, E. Kofman and C. Kevin (eds), Branding Cities: Cosmpolitanism, Parochialism, and Social Change, London: Routledge. Understanding cultural quarters in branded cities Branding Cities: Cosmpolitanism, Parochialism, and Social Change Google Scholar

SCOTT, A. J. (2002), ‘The cultural economy of cities’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 21, 323–39. The cultural economy of cities International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 21 323 39 Google Scholar

SCOTT, A. J. (2006), ‘Creative cities: conceptual issues and policy questions’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 28, 1–17. Creative cities: conceptual issues and policy questions Journal of Urban Affairs 28 1 17 Google Scholar

SLATE, T. (2006), ‘The eviction of critical perspectives from gentrification research’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 30, 737–57. The eviction of critical perspectives from gentrification research International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 30 737 57 Google Scholar

SMALL, M. L. (2009), ‘How many cases do I need? On science and the logic of case selection in field-based research’, Ethnography, 10, 5–38. How many cases do I need? On science and the logic of case selection in field-based research Ethnography 10 5 38 Google Scholar

SMITH, N. (1992), ‘New city, new frontier: the lower east side as wild, wild west’, in M. Sorkin (ed.), Variations on a Theme Park, New York: Hill and Wang. New city, new frontier: the lower east side as wild, wild west Variations on a Theme Park Google Scholar

SMITH, N. (1996), The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City, New York City: Routledge. The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City Google Scholar

STUART, F. (2011), ‘Race, space, and regulation of surplus labor: policing African Americans in Los Angeles’s Skid Row’, Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society, 13, 197–212. Race, space, and regulation of surplus labor: policing African Americans in Los Angeles’s Skid Row Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society 13 197 212 Google Scholar

TAYLOR, M. M. (2002), Harlem between Heaven and Hell, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Harlem between Heaven and Hell Google Scholar

UNITED WAY GREATER LOS ANGELES (2013), ‘2013 Greater Los Angeles homeless count’, http://documents.lahsa.org/Planning/homelesscount/2013/2013HomelessCountResultsLACountyCoC.pdf (accessed 21 April 2016). Google Scholar

UNITED WAY GREATER LOS ANGELES (2015), ‘2015 Greater Los Angeles homeless count’, http://documents.lahsa.org/Planning/homelesscount/2015/HC2015CommissionPresentation.pdf (accessed 21 April 2016). Google Scholar

US CENSUS BUREAU (2000), Census 2000, Summary file 1, generated by Brady Collins, using American FactFinder, http://factfinder2.census.gov (accessed 21 April 2016). Google Scholar

US CENSUS BUREAU (2011), American community survey 5-year estimates, generated by Brady Collins, using American FactFinder, http://factfinder2.census.gov (accessed 21 April 2016). Google Scholar

VAILLANCOURT, R. (2013), ‘Alcohol permit denied for main street eatery’, Los Angeles Downtown News, 14 March, http://www.ladowntownnews.com/news/alcohol-permit-denied-formain-street-eatery/article_aeae3016-8cfa-11e2-93eb-0019bb2963f4.html (accessed 21 April 2016). Google Scholar

WHERRY, F. F. (2011), The Philadelphia Barrio: The Arts, Branding and Neighborhood Transformation, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The Philadelphia Barrio: The Arts, Branding and Neighborhood Transformation Google Scholar

WILSON, D. and KEIL, R. (2008), ‘The real creative class’, Social and Cultural Geography, 9, 841–47. The real creative class Social and Cultural Geography 9 841 47 Google Scholar

WOLCH, J. and DEAR, M. J. (1994), Malign Neglect: Homelessness in an American City, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Malign Neglect: Homelessness in an American City Google Scholar

WOLCH, J., DEAR, M., BLASI, G., FLAMING, D., TEPPER, P., and KOEGEL, P. (2007) Ending Homelessness in Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA: University of Southern California Center for Safrer Cities. Ending Homelessness in Los Angeles Google Scholar

WOOD, P. and LANDRY, C. (2008), The Intercultural City: Planning for Diversity Advantage, London: Earthscan. The Intercultural City: Planning for Diversity Advantage Google Scholar

Young Turks (2013) Film documentary, Director Stephen Seemayer. Young Turks Google Scholar

ZUK, M., BIERBAUM, A. H., CHAPPLE, K., GORSKA, K., LOUKAITOU-SIDERIS, A., ONG, P. and THOMAS, T. (2015), ‘Gentrification, displacement and the role of public investment: a literature review’ (Working Paper 2015–05), San Francisco: Federal Reserve Bank of San Franscisco. Gentrification, displacement and the role of public investment: a literature review Google Scholar

ZUKIN, S. (1982), Loft Living: Culture and Capital in Urban Change, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. Loft Living: Culture and Capital in Urban Change Google Scholar

ZUKIN, S. (1996), The Cultures of Cities, Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. The Cultures of Cities Google Scholar

ZUKIN, S. (2011), Naked City: The Death and Life of Authentic Urban Places, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Naked City: The Death and Life of Authentic Urban Places Google Scholar

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Author details

Collins, Brady

Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia