Town Planning Review

Corruption in land-use issues: a crucial challenge for planning theory and practice

Town Planning Review (2015), 86, (4), 437–455.

Abstract

This paper deals with the question of corruption in the field of land-use planning. To curb the insidious spread of graft and bribery, anti-corruption measures should be built into any planning system as part of its structure. Corruption in the planning field is largely tied to the opportunities that land-use planning generates by allocating development rights and land uses (following a discretionary and differentiated logic). This paper will explore some of the principles and techniques (transparent negotiation, auction of development rights, recovery of land rent, and formal equality in a radical version) that can be implemented to contain or eliminate corruption at the outset.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

ADES, A. and DI TELLA, R. (1997), ‘The new economics of corruption’, Political Studies, 45, 496–515. The new economics of corruption Political Studies 45 496 515 Google Scholar

ALCARAZ RAMOS, M. (ed.) (2007), El Estado de derecho frente a la corrupción urbanística, Madrid, La Ley. El Estado de derecho frente a la corrupción urbanística Google Scholar

ALEXANDER, E. R., ALTERMAN, R. and LAW-YONE, H. (1983), ‘Evaluating plan implementation: the national statutory planning system in Israel’, Progress in Planning, 20, 97–172. Evaluating plan implementation: the national statutory planning system in Israel Progress in Planning 20 97 172 Google Scholar

ALEXANDER, E., MAZZA, L. and MORONI, S. (2012), ‘Planning without plans? Nomocracy or teleocracy for social-spatial ordering’, Progress in Planning, 77, 37–88. Planning without plans? Nomocracy or teleocracy for social-spatial ordering Progress in Planning 77 37 88 Google Scholar

ALTERMAN, R. (1979), ‘Land betterment taxation and planning implementation: evaluation of the Israeli experience’, Urban Law and Policy, 2, 201–40. Land betterment taxation and planning implementation: evaluation of the Israeli experience Urban Law and Policy 2 201 40 Google Scholar

ALTERMAN, R. (ed.) (2010), Takings International. A Comparative Perspective on Land Use Regulations and Compensation Rights, Chicago, ABA Publishing. Takings International. A Comparative Perspective on Land Use Regulations and Compensation Rights Google Scholar

ALTERMAN, R. (2012), ‘Land use regulations and property values: the “windfalls” capture idea revisited’, in N. Brooks, K. Donanghy and G.-J. Knapp (eds), The Oxford Handbook on Urban Economics and Planning, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 755–86. Land use regulations and property values: the “windfalls” capture idea revisited The Oxford Handbook on Urban Economics and Planning 755 86 Google Scholar

AMBRASEYS, N. and BILHAM, R. (2011), ‘Corruption kills’, Nature, 469, 153–55. Corruption kills Nature 469 153 55 Google Scholar

ARIAL, A., FAGAN, C. and ZIMMERMANN, W. (2011), ‘Corruption in the land sector’, Transparency International Working Paper, 4, 1–12. Corruption in the land sector Transparency International Working Paper 4 1 12 Google Scholar

BARBIERI, G. and GIAVAZZI, F. (2014), Corruzione a norma di legge, Milano, Rizzoli. Corruzione a norma di legge Google Scholar

BELL, A. and PARCHOMOVSKY, G. (2001), ‘Givings’, The Yale Law Journal, 111, 547–618. Givings The Yale Law Journal 111 547 618 Google Scholar

BELL, A. and PARCHOMOVSKY, G. (2010), ‘The hidden function of takings compensation’, Virginia Law Review, 96, 1673–725. The hidden function of takings compensation Virginia Law Review 96 1673 725 Google Scholar

BLACK, W. K. (2007), ‘Corruption kills’, in H. N. Pontell and G. Gels (eds), International Handbook of White-Collar and Corporate Crime, Berlin, Springer, 439–55. Corruption kills International Handbook of White-Collar and Corporate Crime 43955 Google Scholar

CAI, H., HENDERSON, J. V. and ZHANG, Q. (2013), ‘China’s land market auctions: evidence of corruption?’, The RAND Journal of Economics, 44, 488–521. China The RAND Journal of Economics 44 488 521 Google Scholar

CAPPELLETTI, M. (2012), La corruzione nel governo del territorio, Salerno, BookSprint Edizioni. La corruzione nel governo del territorio Google Scholar

CHING, S. and FU, Y. (2003), ‘Contestability of the urban land market: an event study of Hong Kong land auctions’, Regional Science and Urban Economics, 33, 695–720. Contestability of the urban land market: an event study of Hong Kong land auctions Regional Science and Urban Economics 33 695 720 Google Scholar

CHIODELLI, F. (2012), ‘Re-politicizing space through technical rules’, Planning Theory, 11, 115–27. Re-politicizing space through technical rules Planning Theory 11 115 27 Google Scholar

CORTE DEI CONTI (2012a), Memoria del procuratore generale sul rendiconto generale dello stato per l’esercizio 2011, available at http://www.cortedeiconti.it (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

CORTE DEI CONTI (2012b), Requisitoria orale del Procuratore Generale nel giudizio sul Rendiconto Generale dello Stato, available at http://www.cortedeiconti.it (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

CULLINGWORTH, J. B. (1993), The Political Culture of Planning, London, Routledge. The Political Culture of Planning Google Scholar

DAVIGO, P. (2005), ‘Il paradosso di Tangentopoli ovvero le colpe di Mani Pulite’, in M. A. Cabiddu (ed.), Appalti e Responsabilità, Milano, Angeli, 31–40. Il paradosso di Tangentopoli ovvero le colpe di Mani Pulite. Appalti e Responsabilità 31 40 Google Scholar

DAVIGO, P. and MANNOZZI, G. (2007), La corruzione in Italia, Bari, Laterza. La corruzione in Italia Google Scholar

DAY, P. (1995), Land: The Elusive Quest for Social Justice, Taxation Reform and a Sustainable Planetary Environment, Brisbane, Australian Academic Press. Reprinted as Annual supplement to the American Journal of Economic and Sociology, 2005, 64. Land: The Elusive Quest for Social Justice, Taxation Reform and a Sustainable Planetary Environment, Brisbane, Australian Academic Press Reprinted as Annual supplement to the American Journal of Economic and Sociology 64 Google Scholar

DELLA PORTA, D. and VANNUCCI, A. (1997), ‘The “perverse efects” of political corruption’, Political Studies, 45, 516–38. The “perverse efects” of political corruption Political Studies 45 516 38 Google Scholar

DE MARIA, W. (2008), ‘Cross cultural trespass: assessing African anti-corruption capacity’, International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 8, 317–41. Cross cultural trespass: assessing African anti-corruption capacity International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 8 317 41 Google Scholar

DODSON, J., COIACETTO, E. and ELLWAY, C. (2009), ‘Corruption in the Australian land development process’, Governance, 9, 1–25. Corruption in the Australian land development process Governance 9 1 25 Google Scholar

DOW JONES (2013), State of Anti-Corruption Compliance Survey, http://www.dowjones.com (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

ELLICKSON, R. C. (1973), ‘Alternatives to zoning: covenants, nuisance rules, and fines as land use controls’, The University of Chicago Law Review, 40, 681–781. Alternatives to zoning: covenants, nuisance rules, and fines as land use controls The University of Chicago Law Review 40 681 781 Google Scholar

EPSTEIN, R. A. (1996), ‘A conceptual approach to zoning’, New York Environmental Law Journal, 5, 277–91. A conceptual approach to zoning New York Environmental Law Journal 5 277 91 Google Scholar

EPSTEIN, R. A. (2005), What Do We Mean by the Rule of Law?, Wellington, NZBR. What Do We Mean by the Rule of Law? Google Scholar

FLYVBJERG B., BRUZELIUS N. and ROTHENGATTER W. (2003), Megaprojects and Risk, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Megaprojects and Risk Google Scholar

GARDINER, J. A. (1985), ‘Corruption and reform in land-use and building regulation’, in M. Wachs (ed.), Ethics in Plannnig, New Brunswick, Transaction Publishers, 121–42. Corruption and reform in land-use and building regulation Ethics in Plannnig 121 42 Google Scholar

GARDINER, J. A. and LYMAN, T. R. (1978), Decisions for Sale. Corruption and Reform in Land-Use and Building Regulation, New York, Praeger Publisher . Decisions for Sale. Corruption and Reform in Land-Use and Building Regulation Google Scholar

GLAESER, E. L. and GOLDIN, C. (2006), ‘Corruption and reform: introduction’, in E. L. Glaeser and C. Goldin (eds), Corruption and Reform, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 3–22. Corruption and reform: introduction Corruption and Reform 3 22 Google Scholar

GRECO (GROUP OF STATES AGAINST CORRUPTION) (2009), Evaluation Report on Italy, Strasbourg, Council of Europe. GRECO (GROUP OF STATES AGAINST CORRUPTION) (2009) Evaluation Report on Italy Google Scholar

GWIN, C. R., ONG, S. -E. and SPIELER, A. C. (2005), ‘Auctions and land values: an experimental analysis’, Urban Studies, 42, 2245–59. Auctions and land values: an experimental analysis Urban Studies 42 2245 59 Google Scholar

HAGMAN, D. G. (1978), ‘Betterment for worsement: the English 1909 Act and its progeny’, University of Queensland Law Journal, 10, 29–57. Betterment for worsement: the English 1909 Act and its progeny University of Queensland Law Journal 10 29 57 Google Scholar

HAYEK, F. A. (1960), The Constitution of Liberty, Chicago, Chicago University Press (reprinted London and New York, Routledge, 1999). The Constitution of Liberty Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2007), Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies, London, Routledge. Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies Google Scholar

HERITAGE FOUNDATION (2014), 2014 Index of Economic Freedom, available at http://www. heritage.org (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

HOLCOMBE R. G. (2013), ‘Planning and the invisible hand’, Planning Theory, 12, 199–210. Planning and the invisible hand Planning Theory 12 199 210 Google Scholar

HONG, Y. -H. (1998), ‘Transaction costs of allocating increased land value under public lease- hold systems: Hong Kong’, Urban Studies, 35, 1577–595. Transaction costs of allocating increased land value under public lease- hold systems: Hong Kong Urban Studies 35 1577 595 Google Scholar

IGLESIAS, F. (ed.) (2007), Urbanismo y democracia. Alternativas para evitar la corrupción, Madrid, Fundación Alternativas. Urbanismo y democracia. Alternativas para evitar la corrupción Google Scholar

INTERNATIONAL CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL, UNITED NATIONS GLOBAL COMPACT AND WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM PARTNERING AGAINST CORRUPTION INITIATIVE (2008), The Business Case against Corruption, available at http:// www.weforum.org (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

JEREZ DARIAS, L. M., MARTÍN MARTÍN, V. O. and PÉREZ GONZÁLEZ, R. (2012), ‘Aproximación a una geografía de la corrupción urbanística en España’, Ería. Revista cuatrimestral de Geografía, 87, 5–18. Aproximación a una geografía de la corrupción urbanística en España Ería. Revista cuatrimestral de Geografía 87 5 18 Google Scholar

JIMÉNEZ, F. (2009), ‘Building boom and political corruption in Spain’, South European Society and Politics, 14, 255–72. Building boom and political corruption in Spain South European Society and Politics 14 255 72 Google Scholar

KAUFMANN, D. (1997), ‘Corruption: the facts’, Foreign Policy, 107, 114–31. Corruption: the facts Foreign Policy 107 114 31 Google Scholar

KLITGAARD, R. (2011), ‘Fighting corruption’, CESifo DICE Report, 9, 31–35. Fighting corruption CESifo DICE Report 9 31 35 Google Scholar

KNIGHT, F. H. (1953), ‘The fallacies in the single tax’, The Freeman, August, 809–11. The fallacies in the single tax .809 11 Google Scholar

KOFF, S. Z. and KOFF, S. P. (2000), Italy. From the First to the Second Republic, London and New York, Routledge. Italy. From the First to the Second Republic Google Scholar

KPMG (2011), Global Anti-Bribery and Corruption Survey 2011, available at http://www.kpmg.com, (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

LEFF, N. H. (1964), ‘Economic development through bureaucratic corruption’, American Behavioral Scientist, 8, 8–14. Economic development through bureaucratic corruption American Behavioral Scientist 8 8 14 Google Scholar

MAURO, P. (1997), ‘The effects of corruption on growth, investment and government expenditure’, in K. A. Elliot (ed.), Corruption and the Global Economy, Washington, Institute for International Economics, 83–107. The effects of corruption on growth, investment and government expenditure Corruption and the Global Economy 83 107 Google Scholar

MAZZA, L. (1997), Trasformazioni del piano, Milano, Angeli. Trasformazioni del piano Google Scholar

MAZZA, L. (2004), Progettare gli squilibri, Milano, Angeli. Progettare gli squilibri Google Scholar

MICELLI, E. (2002), ‘Development rights markets to manage urban plans in Italy’, Urban Studies, 39, 141–54. Development rights markets to manage urban plans in Italy Urban Studies 39 141 54 Google Scholar

MOORE, A. (1975), ‘Transferable development rights’, in J. G. Rose (ed.), The Transfer of Development Rights, New Brunswick, CUPR, 231–32, 337–41. Transferable development rights The Transfer of Development Rights 32 337 41 Google Scholar

MORONI, S. (2007), ‘Planning, liberty and the rule of law’, Planning Theory, 6, 146–63. Planning, liberty and the rule of law Planning Theory 6 146 63 Google Scholar

MORONI, S. (2010), ‘Rethinking the theory and practice of land use regulation: toward nomocracy’, Planning Theory, 9, 137–55. Rethinking the theory and practice of land use regulation: toward nomocracy Planning Theory 9 137 55 Google Scholar

MORONI, S. (2014), ‘Complexity and the inherent limits of explanation and prediction: urban codes for self-organizing cities’. Planning Theory, published online 12 February 2014, doi: 10.1177/1473095214521104. Complexity and the inherent limits of explanation and prediction: urban codes for self-organizing cities Planning Theory Google Scholar

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BUILDING SCIENCE (2002), Electronic Permitting Systems and How to Implement Them, Washington, National Institute of Building Science. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BUILDING SCIENCE (2002) Electronic Permitting Systems and How to Implement Them Google Scholar

NILECJ (NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE) (1979a), An Analysis of Zoning Reforms: Minimizing the Incentive for Corruption, Washington, US Department of Justice. NILECJ (NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE) (1979a) An Analysis of Zoning Reforms: Minimizing the Incentive for Corruption Google Scholar

NILECJ (NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE) (1979b), Corruption in Land Use and Building Regulation, Washington, U. Department of Justice. NILECJ (NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE) Corruption in Land Use and Building Regulation Google Scholar

NOZICK, R. (1974), Anarchy, State and Utopia, New York, Basic Books. Anarchy, State and Utopia Google Scholar

NYE, J. S. (1967), ‘Corruption and political development’, The American Political Science Review, 61, 417–27. Corruption and political development The American Political Science Review 61 417 27 Google Scholar

OBEROI, R. (2014), ‘Mapping the matrix of corruption’, Journal of Asian and African Studies, 49, 187–214. Mapping the matrix of corruption Journal of Asian and African Studies 49 187 214 Google Scholar

OOI, J. T. L., SIRMANS, C. F. and TURNBULL, G. K. (2006), ‘Price formation under small numbers competition: evidence from land auctions in Singapore’, Real Estate Economics, 34, 51–76. Price formation under small numbers competition: evidence from land auctions in Singapore Real Estate Economics 34 51 76 Google Scholar

PENNINGTON, M. (2002), Liberating the Land, London, IEA. Liberating the Land Google Scholar

QUESADA, M. G., JIMÉNEZ, F. and VILLORIA, M. (2013), ‘Building local integrity systems in Southern Europe: the case of urban local corruption in Spain’, International Review of Administrative Sciences, 79, 618–37. Building local integrity systems in Southern Europe: the case of urban local corruption in Spain International Review of Administrative Sciences 79 618 37 Google Scholar

ROSE-ACKERMAN, S. (1997), ‘The political economy of corruption’, in K. A. Elliott (ed.), Corruption and the Global Economy, Washington, Institute for International Economics, 31–60. The political economy of corruptionThe political economy of corruption Corruption and the Global Economy 31 60 Google Scholar

SANDRONI, P. (2010), ‘A new financial instrument of value capture in Sao Paulo’, in G. Ingram and Y.-H. Hong (eds), Municipal Revenues and Land Policies, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cambridge, 218-36. A new financial instrument of value capture in Sao Paulo Municipal Revenues and Land Policies, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy 218 36 Google Scholar

SORENSEN, A.D. and AUSER, M. L. (1989), ‘Fatal remedies’, Town Planning Review, 60, 29–44. Fatal remedies Town Planning Review 60 29 44 Google Scholar

THORSNES P. and SIMONS, G. P. W. (1999), ‘Letting the market preserve land’, Contemporary Economic Policy, 17, 256–66. Letting the market preserve land Contemporary Economic Policy 17 256 66 Google Scholar

TRAINA, D. (2013), ‘Lo jus aedificandi può ritenersi ancora connaturale al diritto di proprietà’, Rivista giuridica dell’edilizia, 56, 257–99. Lo jus aedificandi può ritenersi ancora connaturale al diritto di proprietà Rivista giuridica dell’edilizia 56 257 99 Google Scholar

TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL (2009), ‘Corruption Perceptions Index 2009’, available at http://www.transparency.org/research/cpi/cpi_2009 (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL (2011), ‘Corruption in the Land Sector’, (TI working paper 4), available at http://www.transparency.org (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL (2013), Global Corruption Barometer, available at http://www. transparency.org (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

TSE, R. Y. C., HUI, E. C. M. and CHAN, C. H. K. (2001), ‘On the competitive land market: evidence from Hong Kong’, Review of Urban and Regional Development Studies, 13, 46–61. On the competitive land market: evidence from Hong Kong Review of Urban and Regional Development Studies 13 46 61 Google Scholar

VANNUCCI, A. (2009), ‘The controversial legacy of “Mani Pulite”’, Bulletin of Italian Politics, 1, 233–64. The controversial legacy of “Mani Pulite” Bulletin of Italian Politics 1 233 64 Google Scholar

VELJANOVSKI, C. (1998), ‘Foreword’, in A. Evans, No Room! No Room!, London, IEA, 5–10. ForewordForeword No Room! No Room! 5 10 Google Scholar

VILLORIA, M., VAN RYZIN, G. G. and LAVENA, C. F. (2012), ‘Social and Political Consequences of Administrative Corruption’, Public Administrative Review, 73, 85–94. Social and Political Consequences of Administrative Corruption Public Administrative Review 73 85 94 Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (2013a), Doing Business 2014, Washington, The World Bank. WORLD BANK (2013a) Doing Business 2014 Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (2013b), Doing Business in Italy, Washington, The World Bank. WORLD BANK (2013b) Doing Business in Italy Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (2014), Doing Business 2015, Washington, The World Bank. WORLD BANK (2014) Doing Business 2015 Google Scholar

WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM (2014), The Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014, Geneva, World Economic Forum. WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM The Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014 Google Scholar

ADES, A. and DI TELLA, R. (1997), ‘The new economics of corruption’, Political Studies, 45, 496–515. The new economics of corruption Political Studies 45 496 515 Google Scholar

ALCARAZ RAMOS, M. (ed.) (2007), El Estado de derecho frente a la corrupción urbanística, Madrid, La Ley. El Estado de derecho frente a la corrupción urbanística Google Scholar

ALEXANDER, E. R., ALTERMAN, R. and LAW-YONE, H. (1983), ‘Evaluating plan implementation: the national statutory planning system in Israel’, Progress in Planning, 20, 97–172. Evaluating plan implementation: the national statutory planning system in Israel Progress in Planning 20 97 172 Google Scholar

ALEXANDER, E., MAZZA, L. and MORONI, S. (2012), ‘Planning without plans? Nomocracy or teleocracy for social-spatial ordering’, Progress in Planning, 77, 37–88. Planning without plans? Nomocracy or teleocracy for social-spatial ordering Progress in Planning 77 37 88 Google Scholar

ALTERMAN, R. (1979), ‘Land betterment taxation and planning implementation: evaluation of the Israeli experience’, Urban Law and Policy, 2, 201–40. Land betterment taxation and planning implementation: evaluation of the Israeli experience Urban Law and Policy 2 201 40 Google Scholar

ALTERMAN, R. (ed.) (2010), Takings International. A Comparative Perspective on Land Use Regulations and Compensation Rights, Chicago, ABA Publishing. Takings International. A Comparative Perspective on Land Use Regulations and Compensation Rights Google Scholar

ALTERMAN, R. (2012), ‘Land use regulations and property values: the “windfalls” capture idea revisited’, in N. Brooks, K. Donanghy and G.-J. Knapp (eds), The Oxford Handbook on Urban Economics and Planning, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 755–86. Land use regulations and property values: the “windfalls” capture idea revisited The Oxford Handbook on Urban Economics and Planning 755 86 Google Scholar

AMBRASEYS, N. and BILHAM, R. (2011), ‘Corruption kills’, Nature, 469, 153–55. Corruption kills Nature 469 153 55 Google Scholar

ARIAL, A., FAGAN, C. and ZIMMERMANN, W. (2011), ‘Corruption in the land sector’, Transparency International Working Paper, 4, 1–12. Corruption in the land sector Transparency International Working Paper 4 1 12 Google Scholar

BARBIERI, G. and GIAVAZZI, F. (2014), Corruzione a norma di legge, Milano, Rizzoli. Corruzione a norma di legge Google Scholar

BELL, A. and PARCHOMOVSKY, G. (2001), ‘Givings’, The Yale Law Journal, 111, 547–618. Givings The Yale Law Journal 111 547 618 Google Scholar

BELL, A. and PARCHOMOVSKY, G. (2010), ‘The hidden function of takings compensation’, Virginia Law Review, 96, 1673–725. The hidden function of takings compensation Virginia Law Review 96 1673 725 Google Scholar

BLACK, W. K. (2007), ‘Corruption kills’, in H. N. Pontell and G. Gels (eds), International Handbook of White-Collar and Corporate Crime, Berlin, Springer, 439–55. Corruption kills International Handbook of White-Collar and Corporate Crime 43955 Google Scholar

CAI, H., HENDERSON, J. V. and ZHANG, Q. (2013), ‘China’s land market auctions: evidence of corruption?’, The RAND Journal of Economics, 44, 488–521. China The RAND Journal of Economics 44 488 521 Google Scholar

CAPPELLETTI, M. (2012), La corruzione nel governo del territorio, Salerno, BookSprint Edizioni. La corruzione nel governo del territorio Google Scholar

CHING, S. and FU, Y. (2003), ‘Contestability of the urban land market: an event study of Hong Kong land auctions’, Regional Science and Urban Economics, 33, 695–720. Contestability of the urban land market: an event study of Hong Kong land auctions Regional Science and Urban Economics 33 695 720 Google Scholar

CHIODELLI, F. (2012), ‘Re-politicizing space through technical rules’, Planning Theory, 11, 115–27. Re-politicizing space through technical rules Planning Theory 11 115 27 Google Scholar

CORTE DEI CONTI (2012a), Memoria del procuratore generale sul rendiconto generale dello stato per l’esercizio 2011, available at http://www.cortedeiconti.it (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

CORTE DEI CONTI (2012b), Requisitoria orale del Procuratore Generale nel giudizio sul Rendiconto Generale dello Stato, available at http://www.cortedeiconti.it (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

CULLINGWORTH, J. B. (1993), The Political Culture of Planning, London, Routledge. The Political Culture of Planning Google Scholar

DAVIGO, P. (2005), ‘Il paradosso di Tangentopoli ovvero le colpe di Mani Pulite’, in M. A. Cabiddu (ed.), Appalti e Responsabilità, Milano, Angeli, 31–40. Il paradosso di Tangentopoli ovvero le colpe di Mani Pulite. Appalti e Responsabilità 31 40 Google Scholar

DAVIGO, P. and MANNOZZI, G. (2007), La corruzione in Italia, Bari, Laterza. La corruzione in Italia Google Scholar

DAY, P. (1995), Land: The Elusive Quest for Social Justice, Taxation Reform and a Sustainable Planetary Environment, Brisbane, Australian Academic Press. Reprinted as Annual supplement to the American Journal of Economic and Sociology, 2005, 64. Land: The Elusive Quest for Social Justice, Taxation Reform and a Sustainable Planetary Environment, Brisbane, Australian Academic Press Reprinted as Annual supplement to the American Journal of Economic and Sociology 64 Google Scholar

DELLA PORTA, D. and VANNUCCI, A. (1997), ‘The “perverse efects” of political corruption’, Political Studies, 45, 516–38. The “perverse efects” of political corruption Political Studies 45 516 38 Google Scholar

DE MARIA, W. (2008), ‘Cross cultural trespass: assessing African anti-corruption capacity’, International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 8, 317–41. Cross cultural trespass: assessing African anti-corruption capacity International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 8 317 41 Google Scholar

DODSON, J., COIACETTO, E. and ELLWAY, C. (2009), ‘Corruption in the Australian land development process’, Governance, 9, 1–25. Corruption in the Australian land development process Governance 9 1 25 Google Scholar

DOW JONES (2013), State of Anti-Corruption Compliance Survey, http://www.dowjones.com (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

ELLICKSON, R. C. (1973), ‘Alternatives to zoning: covenants, nuisance rules, and fines as land use controls’, The University of Chicago Law Review, 40, 681–781. Alternatives to zoning: covenants, nuisance rules, and fines as land use controls The University of Chicago Law Review 40 681 781 Google Scholar

EPSTEIN, R. A. (1996), ‘A conceptual approach to zoning’, New York Environmental Law Journal, 5, 277–91. A conceptual approach to zoning New York Environmental Law Journal 5 277 91 Google Scholar

EPSTEIN, R. A. (2005), What Do We Mean by the Rule of Law?, Wellington, NZBR. What Do We Mean by the Rule of Law? Google Scholar

FLYVBJERG B., BRUZELIUS N. and ROTHENGATTER W. (2003), Megaprojects and Risk, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Megaprojects and Risk Google Scholar

GARDINER, J. A. (1985), ‘Corruption and reform in land-use and building regulation’, in M. Wachs (ed.), Ethics in Plannnig, New Brunswick, Transaction Publishers, 121–42. Corruption and reform in land-use and building regulation Ethics in Plannnig 121 42 Google Scholar

GARDINER, J. A. and LYMAN, T. R. (1978), Decisions for Sale. Corruption and Reform in Land-Use and Building Regulation, New York, Praeger Publisher . Decisions for Sale. Corruption and Reform in Land-Use and Building Regulation Google Scholar

GLAESER, E. L. and GOLDIN, C. (2006), ‘Corruption and reform: introduction’, in E. L. Glaeser and C. Goldin (eds), Corruption and Reform, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 3–22. Corruption and reform: introduction Corruption and Reform 3 22 Google Scholar

GRECO (GROUP OF STATES AGAINST CORRUPTION) (2009), Evaluation Report on Italy, Strasbourg, Council of Europe. GRECO (GROUP OF STATES AGAINST CORRUPTION) (2009) Evaluation Report on Italy Google Scholar

GWIN, C. R., ONG, S. -E. and SPIELER, A. C. (2005), ‘Auctions and land values: an experimental analysis’, Urban Studies, 42, 2245–59. Auctions and land values: an experimental analysis Urban Studies 42 2245 59 Google Scholar

HAGMAN, D. G. (1978), ‘Betterment for worsement: the English 1909 Act and its progeny’, University of Queensland Law Journal, 10, 29–57. Betterment for worsement: the English 1909 Act and its progeny University of Queensland Law Journal 10 29 57 Google Scholar

HAYEK, F. A. (1960), The Constitution of Liberty, Chicago, Chicago University Press (reprinted London and New York, Routledge, 1999). The Constitution of Liberty Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2007), Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies, London, Routledge. Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies Google Scholar

HERITAGE FOUNDATION (2014), 2014 Index of Economic Freedom, available at http://www. heritage.org (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

HOLCOMBE R. G. (2013), ‘Planning and the invisible hand’, Planning Theory, 12, 199–210. Planning and the invisible hand Planning Theory 12 199 210 Google Scholar

HONG, Y. -H. (1998), ‘Transaction costs of allocating increased land value under public lease- hold systems: Hong Kong’, Urban Studies, 35, 1577–595. Transaction costs of allocating increased land value under public lease- hold systems: Hong Kong Urban Studies 35 1577 595 Google Scholar

IGLESIAS, F. (ed.) (2007), Urbanismo y democracia. Alternativas para evitar la corrupción, Madrid, Fundación Alternativas. Urbanismo y democracia. Alternativas para evitar la corrupción Google Scholar

INTERNATIONAL CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL, UNITED NATIONS GLOBAL COMPACT AND WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM PARTNERING AGAINST CORRUPTION INITIATIVE (2008), The Business Case against Corruption, available at http:// www.weforum.org (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

JEREZ DARIAS, L. M., MARTÍN MARTÍN, V. O. and PÉREZ GONZÁLEZ, R. (2012), ‘Aproximación a una geografía de la corrupción urbanística en España’, Ería. Revista cuatrimestral de Geografía, 87, 5–18. Aproximación a una geografía de la corrupción urbanística en España Ería. Revista cuatrimestral de Geografía 87 5 18 Google Scholar

JIMÉNEZ, F. (2009), ‘Building boom and political corruption in Spain’, South European Society and Politics, 14, 255–72. Building boom and political corruption in Spain South European Society and Politics 14 255 72 Google Scholar

KAUFMANN, D. (1997), ‘Corruption: the facts’, Foreign Policy, 107, 114–31. Corruption: the facts Foreign Policy 107 114 31 Google Scholar

KLITGAARD, R. (2011), ‘Fighting corruption’, CESifo DICE Report, 9, 31–35. Fighting corruption CESifo DICE Report 9 31 35 Google Scholar

KNIGHT, F. H. (1953), ‘The fallacies in the single tax’, The Freeman, August, 809–11. The fallacies in the single tax .809 11 Google Scholar

KOFF, S. Z. and KOFF, S. P. (2000), Italy. From the First to the Second Republic, London and New York, Routledge. Italy. From the First to the Second Republic Google Scholar

KPMG (2011), Global Anti-Bribery and Corruption Survey 2011, available at http://www.kpmg.com, (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

LEFF, N. H. (1964), ‘Economic development through bureaucratic corruption’, American Behavioral Scientist, 8, 8–14. Economic development through bureaucratic corruption American Behavioral Scientist 8 8 14 Google Scholar

MAURO, P. (1997), ‘The effects of corruption on growth, investment and government expenditure’, in K. A. Elliot (ed.), Corruption and the Global Economy, Washington, Institute for International Economics, 83–107. The effects of corruption on growth, investment and government expenditure Corruption and the Global Economy 83 107 Google Scholar

MAZZA, L. (1997), Trasformazioni del piano, Milano, Angeli. Trasformazioni del piano Google Scholar

MAZZA, L. (2004), Progettare gli squilibri, Milano, Angeli. Progettare gli squilibri Google Scholar

MICELLI, E. (2002), ‘Development rights markets to manage urban plans in Italy’, Urban Studies, 39, 141–54. Development rights markets to manage urban plans in Italy Urban Studies 39 141 54 Google Scholar

MOORE, A. (1975), ‘Transferable development rights’, in J. G. Rose (ed.), The Transfer of Development Rights, New Brunswick, CUPR, 231–32, 337–41. Transferable development rights The Transfer of Development Rights 32 337 41 Google Scholar

MORONI, S. (2007), ‘Planning, liberty and the rule of law’, Planning Theory, 6, 146–63. Planning, liberty and the rule of law Planning Theory 6 146 63 Google Scholar

MORONI, S. (2010), ‘Rethinking the theory and practice of land use regulation: toward nomocracy’, Planning Theory, 9, 137–55. Rethinking the theory and practice of land use regulation: toward nomocracy Planning Theory 9 137 55 Google Scholar

MORONI, S. (2014), ‘Complexity and the inherent limits of explanation and prediction: urban codes for self-organizing cities’. Planning Theory, published online 12 February 2014, doi: 10.1177/1473095214521104. Complexity and the inherent limits of explanation and prediction: urban codes for self-organizing cities Planning Theory Google Scholar

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BUILDING SCIENCE (2002), Electronic Permitting Systems and How to Implement Them, Washington, National Institute of Building Science. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BUILDING SCIENCE (2002) Electronic Permitting Systems and How to Implement Them Google Scholar

NILECJ (NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE) (1979a), An Analysis of Zoning Reforms: Minimizing the Incentive for Corruption, Washington, US Department of Justice. NILECJ (NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE) (1979a) An Analysis of Zoning Reforms: Minimizing the Incentive for Corruption Google Scholar

NILECJ (NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE) (1979b), Corruption in Land Use and Building Regulation, Washington, U. Department of Justice. NILECJ (NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE) Corruption in Land Use and Building Regulation Google Scholar

NOZICK, R. (1974), Anarchy, State and Utopia, New York, Basic Books. Anarchy, State and Utopia Google Scholar

NYE, J. S. (1967), ‘Corruption and political development’, The American Political Science Review, 61, 417–27. Corruption and political development The American Political Science Review 61 417 27 Google Scholar

OBEROI, R. (2014), ‘Mapping the matrix of corruption’, Journal of Asian and African Studies, 49, 187–214. Mapping the matrix of corruption Journal of Asian and African Studies 49 187 214 Google Scholar

OOI, J. T. L., SIRMANS, C. F. and TURNBULL, G. K. (2006), ‘Price formation under small numbers competition: evidence from land auctions in Singapore’, Real Estate Economics, 34, 51–76. Price formation under small numbers competition: evidence from land auctions in Singapore Real Estate Economics 34 51 76 Google Scholar

PENNINGTON, M. (2002), Liberating the Land, London, IEA. Liberating the Land Google Scholar

QUESADA, M. G., JIMÉNEZ, F. and VILLORIA, M. (2013), ‘Building local integrity systems in Southern Europe: the case of urban local corruption in Spain’, International Review of Administrative Sciences, 79, 618–37. Building local integrity systems in Southern Europe: the case of urban local corruption in Spain International Review of Administrative Sciences 79 618 37 Google Scholar

ROSE-ACKERMAN, S. (1997), ‘The political economy of corruption’, in K. A. Elliott (ed.), Corruption and the Global Economy, Washington, Institute for International Economics, 31–60. The political economy of corruptionThe political economy of corruption Corruption and the Global Economy 31 60 Google Scholar

SANDRONI, P. (2010), ‘A new financial instrument of value capture in Sao Paulo’, in G. Ingram and Y.-H. Hong (eds), Municipal Revenues and Land Policies, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cambridge, 218-36. A new financial instrument of value capture in Sao Paulo Municipal Revenues and Land Policies, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy 218 36 Google Scholar

SORENSEN, A.D. and AUSER, M. L. (1989), ‘Fatal remedies’, Town Planning Review, 60, 29–44. Fatal remedies Town Planning Review 60 29 44 Google Scholar

THORSNES P. and SIMONS, G. P. W. (1999), ‘Letting the market preserve land’, Contemporary Economic Policy, 17, 256–66. Letting the market preserve land Contemporary Economic Policy 17 256 66 Google Scholar

TRAINA, D. (2013), ‘Lo jus aedificandi può ritenersi ancora connaturale al diritto di proprietà’, Rivista giuridica dell’edilizia, 56, 257–99. Lo jus aedificandi può ritenersi ancora connaturale al diritto di proprietà Rivista giuridica dell’edilizia 56 257 99 Google Scholar

TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL (2009), ‘Corruption Perceptions Index 2009’, available at http://www.transparency.org/research/cpi/cpi_2009 (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL (2011), ‘Corruption in the Land Sector’, (TI working paper 4), available at http://www.transparency.org (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL (2013), Global Corruption Barometer, available at http://www. transparency.org (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

TSE, R. Y. C., HUI, E. C. M. and CHAN, C. H. K. (2001), ‘On the competitive land market: evidence from Hong Kong’, Review of Urban and Regional Development Studies, 13, 46–61. On the competitive land market: evidence from Hong Kong Review of Urban and Regional Development Studies 13 46 61 Google Scholar

VANNUCCI, A. (2009), ‘The controversial legacy of “Mani Pulite”’, Bulletin of Italian Politics, 1, 233–64. The controversial legacy of “Mani Pulite” Bulletin of Italian Politics 1 233 64 Google Scholar

VELJANOVSKI, C. (1998), ‘Foreword’, in A. Evans, No Room! No Room!, London, IEA, 5–10. ForewordForeword No Room! No Room! 5 10 Google Scholar

VILLORIA, M., VAN RYZIN, G. G. and LAVENA, C. F. (2012), ‘Social and Political Consequences of Administrative Corruption’, Public Administrative Review, 73, 85–94. Social and Political Consequences of Administrative Corruption Public Administrative Review 73 85 94 Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (2013a), Doing Business 2014, Washington, The World Bank. WORLD BANK (2013a) Doing Business 2014 Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (2013b), Doing Business in Italy, Washington, The World Bank. WORLD BANK (2013b) Doing Business in Italy Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (2014), Doing Business 2015, Washington, The World Bank. WORLD BANK (2014) Doing Business 2015 Google Scholar

WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM (2014), The Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014, Geneva, World Economic Forum. WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM The Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Chiodelli, Francesco

Moroni, Stefano