International Development Planning Review

Household credit for the poor and child schooling in peri-urban Vietnam

International Development Planning Review (2014), 36, (4), 455–474.

Abstract

This paper uses a novel dataset of poor households in peri-urban areas in Vietnam to estimate impacts of small loans on child schooling. The Probit and Negative Binomial model estimates roughly indicate no strong evidence of the effect. However, breaking down credit into formal and informal credit and credit for boy and girl schooling provides better insights. The paper suggests that to obtain the target of sustainable poverty reduction, easing access to formal credit sources and exempting tuition and other school contributions are necessary steps to keep poor children in schools longer.

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AMIN, S., RAI, A. and TOPA, G. (2003), ‘Does the microcredit reach the poor and vulnerable? Evidence from Northern Bangladesh’, Journal of Development Economics, 70, 59-82. ‘Does the microcredit reach the poor and vulnerable? Evidence from Northern Bangladesh’ Journal of Development Economics 70 59 82 Google Scholar

ARMENDARIZ, A. and MORDUCH, J. (2010), The economics of microfinance, 2nd ed., Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. The economics of microfinance Google Scholar

BANERJEE, A., DUFLO, E., GLENNERSTER, R. and KINNAN, C. (2009), The miracle of microfinance? Evidence from a randomized evaluation http://www.povertyactionlab.org/sites/default/files/publications/The%20Miracle%20of%20Microfinance.pdf Google Scholar

BARSLUND, M. and TARP, F. (2008), ‘Formal and informal rural credit in four provinces of Vietnam’, Journal of Development Studies, 44, 485-503. ‘Formal and informal rural credit in four provinces of Vietnam’ Journal of Development Studies 44 485 503 Google Scholar

BARTUS, T. (2005), ‘Estimation of marginal effects using Margeff’, The Stata Journal, 5, 309-29. ‘Estimation of marginal effects using Margeff’ The Stata Journal 5 309 29 Google Scholar

BEEGLE, K., DEHEJIA, R. and GATTI, R. (2004), Why should we care about child labor? The education, labor market, and health consequences of child labor (NBER Working Paper No. 10980) http://www.nber.org/papers/w10980 Google Scholar

BEHRMAN, J. and KNOWLES, J. (1999), ‘Household income and child schooling in Vietnam’, The World Bank Economic Review, 13, 211-56. ‘Household income and child schooling in Vietnam’ The World Bank Economic Review 13 211 56 Google Scholar

BOWLES, S. and GINTIS, H. (2002), ‘The inheritance of inequality’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 16, 3-30. ‘The inheritance of inequality’ Journal of Economic Perspectives 16 3 30 Google Scholar

BRYSON, A., DORSETT, R. and PURDON, S. (2002), The use of propensity score matching in the evaluation of active labor market policies, London, University of Westminster, Policy Studies Institute and National Centre for Social Research. The use of propensity score matching in the evaluation of active labor market policies Google Scholar

CAMERON, A. and TRIVEDI, P. (2009), Microeconometrics Using Stata, College Station, TX, Stata-Corp Press. Microeconometrics Using Stata Google Scholar

CAMERON, S. and HECKMAN, J. (1998), ‘Life cycle schooling and dynamic selection bias: models and evidence for five cohorts of American males’, Journal of Political Economy, 106, 262-333. ‘Life cycle schooling and dynamic selection bias: models and evidence for five cohorts of American males’ Journal of Political Economy 106 262 333 Google Scholar

CARNEIRO, P. and HECKMAN, J. (2002), The evidence on credit constraints in post-secondary schooling (Working Paper 9055), Cambridge, MA, National Bureau of Economic Research. The evidence on credit constraints in post-secondary schooling Google Scholar

CAUCUTT, E. and LOCHNER, L. (2005), Borrowing constraints on families with young children http://www.clevelandfed.org/research/conferences/2005/November/Papers/LochnerPaperFinalWeb.pdf Google Scholar

CGAP (CONSULTATIVE GROUP TO ASSIST THE POOR) (2003), Is microfinance an effective strategy to reach the Millennium Development Goals? (CGAP FocusNoteNo. 24) http://www.cgap.org/gm/document-1.9.2568/FN24.pdf Google Scholar

CLOUTIER, M., COCKBURN, J. and DECALUWE, B. (2008), Education and poverty in Vietnam: a computable general equilibrium analysis, CIRPEE Working Paper No. 08-04 http://ssrn.com/abstract=1121955 Google Scholar

COLEMAN, B. E. (1999), ‘The impact of group lending in Northeast Thailand’, Journal of Development Economics, 60, 105-41. ‘The impact of group lending in Northeast Thailand’ Journal of Development Economics 60 105 41 Google Scholar

CONNING, J. and UDRY, C. (2007), ‘Rural financial markets in developing countries’, Handbook of Agricultural Economics, 3, 2857-908. ‘Rural financial markets in developing countries’ Handbook of Agricultural Economics 3 2857 908 Google Scholar

DEATON, A. (1997), The analysis of household surveys: A microeconometric Approach to development policy, Baltimore and London, Johns Hopkins University Press. The analysis of household surveys: A microeconometric Approach to development policy Google Scholar

DEHEJIA, R. and GATTI, R (2002), Child labor, the role of income variability and access to credit in a cross-section of countries (Policy Research Working Paper No. 2767), Washington, DC, The World bank. Child labor, the role of income variability and access to credit in a cross-section of countries Google Scholar

DEHEJIA, R. and WAHBA, S. (2002), ‘Propensity score matching methods for nonexperimental causal studies’, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 84, 151-61. ‘Propensity score matching methods for nonexperimental causal studies’ The Review of Economics and Statistics 84 151 61 Google Scholar

DOAN, T., GIBSON, J. and HOLMES, M. (2010), What determines credit participation and credit constraints of the poor in peri-urban areas, Vietnam? (MPRA Paper No. 27509) http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/27461/1/MPRA_paper_27509.pdf Google Scholar

DOAN, T., GIBSON, J. and HOLMES, M. (2014), ‘Impact of household credit on education and healthcare spending by the poor in peri-urban areas, Vietnam’ Journal of Southeast Asian Economies, 31, 103-19. ‘Impact of household credit on education and healthcare spending by the poor in peri-urban areas, Vietnam’ Journal of Southeast Asian Economies 31 103 19 Google Scholar

EDMONDS, E. (2006), ‘Child labor and schooling responses to anticipated income in South Africa’, Journal of Development Economics, 81, 386-414. ‘Child labor and schooling responses to anticipated income in South Africa’ Journal of Development Economics 81 386 414 Google Scholar

GREENE, W. (2008), ‘Functional forms for the negative binomial model for count data’, Economics Letters, 99, 585-90. ‘Functional forms for the negative binomial model for count data’ Economics Letters 99 585 90 Google Scholar

HAUSMAN, J., HALL, B. and GRILICHES, Z. (1984), ‘Economic models for count data with an application to the patents- RandD relationship’, Econometrica, 52, 909-38. ‘Economic models for count data with an application to the patents- RandD relationship’ Econometrica 52 909 38 Google Scholar

HAZARIKA, G. and SARANGI, S. (2008), ‘Household access to microcredit and child labor in rural Malawi’, World Development, 36, 843-59. ‘Household access to microcredit and child labor in rural Malawi’ World Development 36 843 59 Google Scholar

ISLAM, A. (2010), Medium and Long-Term Participation in Microcredit: An Evaluation Using a New Panel Dataset from Bangladesh (MPRA Working Paper No. 24950) http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/24950/1/MPRA_paper_24950.pdf Google Scholar

ISLAM, A. and CHOE, C. (2009), Child labour and schooling responses to access to microcredit in rural Bangladesh (MPRA Working Paper No. 16842) http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/16842/1/MPRA_paper_16842.pdf Google Scholar

JACOBY, H., and SKOUFIAS, E. (1997), ‘Risk, financial markets, and human capital in a developing country’, Review of Economic Studies, 64, 311-35. ‘Risk, financial markets, and human capital in a developing country’ Review of Economic Studies 64 311 35 Google Scholar

KANE, T. (1994), ‘College entry by Blacks since 1970: The role of college costs, family background, and the returns to education’, Journal of Political Economy, 102, 878-911. ‘College entry by Blacks since 1970: The role of college costs, family background, and the returns to education’ Journal of Political Economy 102 878 911 Google Scholar

KEANE, M. and WOLPIN, K. (2001), ‘The effect of parental transfers and borrowing constraints on educational attainment’, International Economic Review, 42, 1051-103. ‘The effect of parental transfers and borrowing constraints on educational attainment’ International Economic Review 42 1051 103 Google Scholar

LEE, M. J. (2005), Micro-econometrics for policy, program and treatment effects, New York, Oxford University Press. Micro-econometrics for policy, program and treatment effects Google Scholar

MAITRA, P. (2003), ‘Schooling and educational attainment: evidence from Bangladesh’, Education Economics, 11, 130-53. ‘Schooling and educational attainment: evidence from Bangladesh’ Education Economics 11 130 53 Google Scholar

MALDONADO, J. and GONZALEZ-VEGA, C. (2008), ‘Impact of microfinance on schooling: Evidence from poor rural households in Bolivia’, World Development, 36, 2440-24-55. ‘Impact of microfinance on schooling: Evidence from poor rural households in Bolivia’ World Development 36 2440-24 55 Google Scholar

MALDONADO, J. GONZALEZ-VEGA, C. and ROMEO, V. (2002), The influence of microfinance on human capital formation: Evidence from Bolivia, Paper presented at the Seventh Annual Meeting of Latin American and Caribbean Economics Association, Madrid, October. The influence of microfinance on human capital formation: Evidence from Bolivia Google Scholar

MASON, A. and ROZELLE. S. (1998), Schooling decisions, basic education, and the poor in rural Java http://www.imamu.edu.sa/dcontent/IT_Topics/java/article4.pdf Google Scholar

MORDUCH, J. (1998), Does microfinance really help the poor? New evidence from flagship programs in Bangladesh http://www.princeton.edu/~rpds/downloads/morduch_microfinance_poor.pdf Google Scholar

MOSLEY, P. (1997), The use of control groups in impact assessment for microfinance (Working Paper No.19), Geneva, International Labor Office. The use of control groups in impact assessment for microfinance Google Scholar

MOULTON, R. (1990), ‘An illustration of a pitfall in estimating the effects of aggregate variables on micro units’, Review of Economics and Statistics, 72, 334-38. ‘An illustration of a pitfall in estimating the effects of aggregate variables on micro units’ Review of Economics and Statistics 72 334 38 Google Scholar

NGUYEN, C. (2008), ‘Is a governmental microcredit program for the poor really pro-poor? Evidence from Vietnam’, The Developing Economies, 46, 151-87. ‘Is a governmental microcredit program for the poor really pro-poor? Evidence from Vietnam’ The Developing Economies 46 151 87 Google Scholar

PITT, M. and KHANDKER, S. (1998), ‘The impact of group-based credit programs on poor households in Bangladesh: does the gender of participants matter?’, Journal of Political Economy, 106, 958-92. ‘The impact of group-based credit programs on poor households in Bangladesh: does the gender of participants matter?’ Journal of Political Economy 106 958 92 Google Scholar

QUACH, H. and MULLINEUX, A. (2007), ‘The impact of access to credit on household welfare in rural Vietnam’, Research In Accounting In Emerging Economies, 7, 279-307. ‘The impact of access to credit on household welfare in rural Vietnam’ Research In Accounting In Emerging Economies 7 279 307 Google Scholar

RANJAN, P. (2001), ‘Credit constraints and the phenomenon of child labor’, Journal of development economics, 64, 81-102. ‘Credit constraints and the phenomenon of child labor’ Journal of development economics 64 81 102 Google Scholar

ROSENZWEIG, M. R. (2010), ‘Microeconomic approaches to development: Schooling, learning, and growth’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24, 81-96. ‘Microeconomic approaches to development: Schooling, learning, and growth’ Journal of Economic Perspectives 24 81 96 Google Scholar

WILLIAMS, R. (2012), ‘Using the margins command to estimate and interpret adjusted predictions and marginal effects’, The Stata Journal, 12, 308-31. ‘Using the margins command to estimate and interpret adjusted predictions and marginal effects’ The Stata Journal 12 308 31 Google Scholar

WILS, A. and GOUJON, A. (1998), ‘Diffusion of education in six world regions 1960-90’, Population and Development Review, 24, 357-68. ‘Diffusion of education in six world regions 1960-90’ Population and Development Review 24 357 68 Google Scholar

WINKELMANN, R. (2008), Econometric analysis of count data, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer Verlag. Econometric analysis of count data Google Scholar

AMIN, S., RAI, A. and TOPA, G. (2003), ‘Does the microcredit reach the poor and vulnerable? Evidence from Northern Bangladesh’, Journal of Development Economics, 70, 59-82. ‘Does the microcredit reach the poor and vulnerable? Evidence from Northern Bangladesh’ Journal of Development Economics 70 59 82 Google Scholar

ARMENDARIZ, A. and MORDUCH, J. (2010), The economics of microfinance, 2nd ed., Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. The economics of microfinance Google Scholar

BANERJEE, A., DUFLO, E., GLENNERSTER, R. and KINNAN, C. (2009), The miracle of microfinance? Evidence from a randomized evaluation http://www.povertyactionlab.org/sites/default/files/publications/The%20Miracle%20of%20Microfinance.pdf Google Scholar

BARSLUND, M. and TARP, F. (2008), ‘Formal and informal rural credit in four provinces of Vietnam’, Journal of Development Studies, 44, 485-503. ‘Formal and informal rural credit in four provinces of Vietnam’ Journal of Development Studies 44 485 503 Google Scholar

BARTUS, T. (2005), ‘Estimation of marginal effects using Margeff’, The Stata Journal, 5, 309-29. ‘Estimation of marginal effects using Margeff’ The Stata Journal 5 309 29 Google Scholar

BEEGLE, K., DEHEJIA, R. and GATTI, R. (2004), Why should we care about child labor? The education, labor market, and health consequences of child labor (NBER Working Paper No. 10980) http://www.nber.org/papers/w10980 Google Scholar

BEHRMAN, J. and KNOWLES, J. (1999), ‘Household income and child schooling in Vietnam’, The World Bank Economic Review, 13, 211-56. ‘Household income and child schooling in Vietnam’ The World Bank Economic Review 13 211 56 Google Scholar

BOWLES, S. and GINTIS, H. (2002), ‘The inheritance of inequality’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 16, 3-30. ‘The inheritance of inequality’ Journal of Economic Perspectives 16 3 30 Google Scholar

BRYSON, A., DORSETT, R. and PURDON, S. (2002), The use of propensity score matching in the evaluation of active labor market policies, London, University of Westminster, Policy Studies Institute and National Centre for Social Research. The use of propensity score matching in the evaluation of active labor market policies Google Scholar

CAMERON, A. and TRIVEDI, P. (2009), Microeconometrics Using Stata, College Station, TX, Stata-Corp Press. Microeconometrics Using Stata Google Scholar

CAMERON, S. and HECKMAN, J. (1998), ‘Life cycle schooling and dynamic selection bias: models and evidence for five cohorts of American males’, Journal of Political Economy, 106, 262-333. ‘Life cycle schooling and dynamic selection bias: models and evidence for five cohorts of American males’ Journal of Political Economy 106 262 333 Google Scholar

CARNEIRO, P. and HECKMAN, J. (2002), The evidence on credit constraints in post-secondary schooling (Working Paper 9055), Cambridge, MA, National Bureau of Economic Research. The evidence on credit constraints in post-secondary schooling Google Scholar

CAUCUTT, E. and LOCHNER, L. (2005), Borrowing constraints on families with young children http://www.clevelandfed.org/research/conferences/2005/November/Papers/LochnerPaperFinalWeb.pdf Google Scholar

CGAP (CONSULTATIVE GROUP TO ASSIST THE POOR) (2003), Is microfinance an effective strategy to reach the Millennium Development Goals? (CGAP FocusNoteNo. 24) http://www.cgap.org/gm/document-1.9.2568/FN24.pdf Google Scholar

CLOUTIER, M., COCKBURN, J. and DECALUWE, B. (2008), Education and poverty in Vietnam: a computable general equilibrium analysis, CIRPEE Working Paper No. 08-04 http://ssrn.com/abstract=1121955 Google Scholar

COLEMAN, B. E. (1999), ‘The impact of group lending in Northeast Thailand’, Journal of Development Economics, 60, 105-41. ‘The impact of group lending in Northeast Thailand’ Journal of Development Economics 60 105 41 Google Scholar

CONNING, J. and UDRY, C. (2007), ‘Rural financial markets in developing countries’, Handbook of Agricultural Economics, 3, 2857-908. ‘Rural financial markets in developing countries’ Handbook of Agricultural Economics 3 2857 908 Google Scholar

DEATON, A. (1997), The analysis of household surveys: A microeconometric Approach to development policy, Baltimore and London, Johns Hopkins University Press. The analysis of household surveys: A microeconometric Approach to development policy Google Scholar

DEHEJIA, R. and GATTI, R (2002), Child labor, the role of income variability and access to credit in a cross-section of countries (Policy Research Working Paper No. 2767), Washington, DC, The World bank. Child labor, the role of income variability and access to credit in a cross-section of countries Google Scholar

DEHEJIA, R. and WAHBA, S. (2002), ‘Propensity score matching methods for nonexperimental causal studies’, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 84, 151-61. ‘Propensity score matching methods for nonexperimental causal studies’ The Review of Economics and Statistics 84 151 61 Google Scholar

DOAN, T., GIBSON, J. and HOLMES, M. (2010), What determines credit participation and credit constraints of the poor in peri-urban areas, Vietnam? (MPRA Paper No. 27509) http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/27461/1/MPRA_paper_27509.pdf Google Scholar

DOAN, T., GIBSON, J. and HOLMES, M. (2014), ‘Impact of household credit on education and healthcare spending by the poor in peri-urban areas, Vietnam’ Journal of Southeast Asian Economies, 31, 103-19. ‘Impact of household credit on education and healthcare spending by the poor in peri-urban areas, Vietnam’ Journal of Southeast Asian Economies 31 103 19 Google Scholar

EDMONDS, E. (2006), ‘Child labor and schooling responses to anticipated income in South Africa’, Journal of Development Economics, 81, 386-414. ‘Child labor and schooling responses to anticipated income in South Africa’ Journal of Development Economics 81 386 414 Google Scholar

GREENE, W. (2008), ‘Functional forms for the negative binomial model for count data’, Economics Letters, 99, 585-90. ‘Functional forms for the negative binomial model for count data’ Economics Letters 99 585 90 Google Scholar

HAUSMAN, J., HALL, B. and GRILICHES, Z. (1984), ‘Economic models for count data with an application to the patents- RandD relationship’, Econometrica, 52, 909-38. ‘Economic models for count data with an application to the patents- RandD relationship’ Econometrica 52 909 38 Google Scholar

HAZARIKA, G. and SARANGI, S. (2008), ‘Household access to microcredit and child labor in rural Malawi’, World Development, 36, 843-59. ‘Household access to microcredit and child labor in rural Malawi’ World Development 36 843 59 Google Scholar

ISLAM, A. (2010), Medium and Long-Term Participation in Microcredit: An Evaluation Using a New Panel Dataset from Bangladesh (MPRA Working Paper No. 24950) http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/24950/1/MPRA_paper_24950.pdf Google Scholar

ISLAM, A. and CHOE, C. (2009), Child labour and schooling responses to access to microcredit in rural Bangladesh (MPRA Working Paper No. 16842) http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/16842/1/MPRA_paper_16842.pdf Google Scholar

JACOBY, H., and SKOUFIAS, E. (1997), ‘Risk, financial markets, and human capital in a developing country’, Review of Economic Studies, 64, 311-35. ‘Risk, financial markets, and human capital in a developing country’ Review of Economic Studies 64 311 35 Google Scholar

KANE, T. (1994), ‘College entry by Blacks since 1970: The role of college costs, family background, and the returns to education’, Journal of Political Economy, 102, 878-911. ‘College entry by Blacks since 1970: The role of college costs, family background, and the returns to education’ Journal of Political Economy 102 878 911 Google Scholar

KEANE, M. and WOLPIN, K. (2001), ‘The effect of parental transfers and borrowing constraints on educational attainment’, International Economic Review, 42, 1051-103. ‘The effect of parental transfers and borrowing constraints on educational attainment’ International Economic Review 42 1051 103 Google Scholar

LEE, M. J. (2005), Micro-econometrics for policy, program and treatment effects, New York, Oxford University Press. Micro-econometrics for policy, program and treatment effects Google Scholar

MAITRA, P. (2003), ‘Schooling and educational attainment: evidence from Bangladesh’, Education Economics, 11, 130-53. ‘Schooling and educational attainment: evidence from Bangladesh’ Education Economics 11 130 53 Google Scholar

MALDONADO, J. and GONZALEZ-VEGA, C. (2008), ‘Impact of microfinance on schooling: Evidence from poor rural households in Bolivia’, World Development, 36, 2440-24-55. ‘Impact of microfinance on schooling: Evidence from poor rural households in Bolivia’ World Development 36 2440-24 55 Google Scholar

MALDONADO, J. GONZALEZ-VEGA, C. and ROMEO, V. (2002), The influence of microfinance on human capital formation: Evidence from Bolivia, Paper presented at the Seventh Annual Meeting of Latin American and Caribbean Economics Association, Madrid, October. The influence of microfinance on human capital formation: Evidence from Bolivia Google Scholar

MASON, A. and ROZELLE. S. (1998), Schooling decisions, basic education, and the poor in rural Java http://www.imamu.edu.sa/dcontent/IT_Topics/java/article4.pdf Google Scholar

MORDUCH, J. (1998), Does microfinance really help the poor? New evidence from flagship programs in Bangladesh http://www.princeton.edu/~rpds/downloads/morduch_microfinance_poor.pdf Google Scholar

MOSLEY, P. (1997), The use of control groups in impact assessment for microfinance (Working Paper No.19), Geneva, International Labor Office. The use of control groups in impact assessment for microfinance Google Scholar

MOULTON, R. (1990), ‘An illustration of a pitfall in estimating the effects of aggregate variables on micro units’, Review of Economics and Statistics, 72, 334-38. ‘An illustration of a pitfall in estimating the effects of aggregate variables on micro units’ Review of Economics and Statistics 72 334 38 Google Scholar

NGUYEN, C. (2008), ‘Is a governmental microcredit program for the poor really pro-poor? Evidence from Vietnam’, The Developing Economies, 46, 151-87. ‘Is a governmental microcredit program for the poor really pro-poor? Evidence from Vietnam’ The Developing Economies 46 151 87 Google Scholar

PITT, M. and KHANDKER, S. (1998), ‘The impact of group-based credit programs on poor households in Bangladesh: does the gender of participants matter?’, Journal of Political Economy, 106, 958-92. ‘The impact of group-based credit programs on poor households in Bangladesh: does the gender of participants matter?’ Journal of Political Economy 106 958 92 Google Scholar

QUACH, H. and MULLINEUX, A. (2007), ‘The impact of access to credit on household welfare in rural Vietnam’, Research In Accounting In Emerging Economies, 7, 279-307. ‘The impact of access to credit on household welfare in rural Vietnam’ Research In Accounting In Emerging Economies 7 279 307 Google Scholar

RANJAN, P. (2001), ‘Credit constraints and the phenomenon of child labor’, Journal of development economics, 64, 81-102. ‘Credit constraints and the phenomenon of child labor’ Journal of development economics 64 81 102 Google Scholar

ROSENZWEIG, M. R. (2010), ‘Microeconomic approaches to development: Schooling, learning, and growth’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24, 81-96. ‘Microeconomic approaches to development: Schooling, learning, and growth’ Journal of Economic Perspectives 24 81 96 Google Scholar

WILLIAMS, R. (2012), ‘Using the margins command to estimate and interpret adjusted predictions and marginal effects’, The Stata Journal, 12, 308-31. ‘Using the margins command to estimate and interpret adjusted predictions and marginal effects’ The Stata Journal 12 308 31 Google Scholar

WILS, A. and GOUJON, A. (1998), ‘Diffusion of education in six world regions 1960-90’, Population and Development Review, 24, 357-68. ‘Diffusion of education in six world regions 1960-90’ Population and Development Review 24 357 68 Google Scholar

WINKELMANN, R. (2008), Econometric analysis of count data, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer Verlag. Econometric analysis of count data Google Scholar

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