Journal of Romance Studies

The uneasy partnership of feminism and ageing in Carol Shields’s Unless

Journal of Romance Studies (2017), 17, (3), 311–326.

Abstract

Unless (2002) is Canadian author Carol Shields’s final novel, a text concerned with the mother-daughter relationship and a woman’s place in a patriarchal world. It is also a novel about ageing and, particularly, with its forty-three to forty-four-year-old protagonist, about middle age. Attention to the novel’s representation of time, ageing, and generational identity suggests that this text, which is usually read as Shields’s most feminist work, does not propound a clear and certain feminist narrative. Reta’s story demonstrates that, despite the often strident feminist politics of this novel, the implications and effects of the intersection of ageing and gender cannot be fully articulated. Following on from the proliferation of writing in English about women and ageing in the 1990s, Unless can be seen as part of an emerging – and not necessarily coherent – conversation about ageing and gender in the late twentieth and early twenty-first century.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Arber, Sarah, Kate Davidson, and Jay Ginn (2003) Gender and Ageing: Changing Roles and Relationships (Maidenhead: Open University Press). Gender and Ageing: Changing Roles and Relationships Google Scholar

Atwood, Margaret (2005) ‘A soap bubble hovering over the void’, Vancouver Quarterly Review 81: 139–142. A soap bubble hovering over the void Vancouver Quarterly Review 81 139 142 Google Scholar

Beckman-Long, Brenda (2015) Carol Shields and the Writer-Critic (Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Carol Shields and the Writer-Critic Google Scholar

Bernard, Miriam, Val Harding Davies, Linda Machin and Judith Phillips (2000), eds, Women Ageing: Changing Identities, Challenging Myths (London: Routledge). Women Ageing: Changing Identities, Challenging Myths Google Scholar

Brookner, Anita (2002) ‘Women talking to women’, The Spectator, 4 May 2002. Women talking to women The Spectator Google Scholar

Calasanti, Toni M., and Kathleen F. Slevin (eds) (2006) Age Matters: Realigning Feminist Thinking (New York and London: Routledge). Age Matters: Realigning Feminist Thinking Google Scholar

Chivers, Sally (2003) From Old Woman to Older Women: Contemporary Culture and Women’s Narratives (Columbus: Ohio State University Press). From Old Woman to Older Women: Contemporary Culture and Women’s Narratives Google Scholar

Dolan, Josie, and Estella Tincknell (eds) (2012) Ageing Femininities: Troubling Representations (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars). Ageing Femininities: Troubling Representations Google Scholar

Eagleton, Mary (2005) ‘What’s the matter? Authors in Carol Shields’ short fiction’, Canadian Literature 186: 70–85. What’s the matter? Authors in Carol Shields Canadian Literature 186 70 85 Google Scholar

Friedan, Betty (1993) The Fountain of Age (New York: Simon and Schuster). The Fountain of Age Google Scholar

Greer, Germaine ([1991] 1992) The Change: Women, Aging and the Menopause (London: Penguin). The Change: Women, Aging and the Menopause Google Scholar

Gullette, Margaret Morganroth (1988) Safe at Last in the Middle Years (Berkeley: University of California Press). Safe at Last in the Middle Years Google Scholar

Gullette, Margaret Morganroth (1997) Declining to Decline: Cultural Combat and the Politics of Midlife (Charlottesville: Virginia University Press). Declining to Decline: Cultural Combat and the Politics of Midlife Google Scholar

Gullette, Margaret Morganroth (2002) ‘Valuing “postmaternity” as a revolutionary feminist concept’, Feminist Studies 28: 553–572. Valuing “postmaternity” as a revolutionary feminist concept Feminist Studies 28 553 572 Google Scholar

Gullette, Margaret Morganroth (2004) Aged by Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Aged by Culture Google Scholar

Gullette, Margaret Morganroth (2011) Agewise: Fighting the New Ageism in America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press). Agewise: Fighting the New Ageism in America Google Scholar

Heilbrun, Carolyn ([1997] 1998) The Last Gift of Time: Life Beyond Sixty (New York: Ballantine). The Last Gift of Time: Life Beyond Sixty Google Scholar

Hollenberg, Donna Krolik, and Carol Shields (1998) ‘An interview with Carol Shields’, Contemporary Literature 39: 339–355. An interview with Carol Shields Contemporary Literature 39 339 355 Google Scholar

İnceolğlu, Şeyda (2014) ‘Reading the silence in the maternal text of Carol Shields’ Unless’, Gender Studies 13: 66–79. Reading the silence in the maternal text of Carol Shields’ Unless Gender Studies 13 66 79 Google Scholar

Kay, Lucy, Zoë Kinsley, Terry Phillips, and Alan Roughley (eds) (2007) Mapping Liminalities: Thresholds in Cultural and Literary Texts (Bern: Peter Lang). Mapping Liminalities: Thresholds in Cultural and Literary Texts Google Scholar

King, Jeannette (2013) Discourses of Aging in Fiction and Feminism (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan). Discourses of Aging in Fiction and Feminism Google Scholar

Lessing, Doris (1973) The Summer Before the Dark (London: Penguin). The Summer Before the Dark Google Scholar

Paloge, Helen (2007) The Silent Echo: The Middle-Aged Female Body in Contemporary Women’s Fiction (Lanham: Lexington). The Silent Echo: The Middle-Aged Female Body in Contemporary Women’s Fiction Google Scholar

Oró-Piqueras, Maricel (2013) ‘Narrating Ageing: Deconstructing negative conceptions of old age in four contemporary English novels’, Journal of Aging Studies 27: 47–51. Narrating Ageing: Deconstructing negative conceptions of old age in four contemporary English novels Journal of Aging Studies 27 47 51 Google Scholar

Ramon, Alex (2008) Liminal Spaces: The Double Art of Carol Shields (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars). Liminal Spaces: The Double Art of Carol Shields Google Scholar

Reimer, Elizabeth (2009) ‘Get out of my psychic space! Biographical recognition and “response-ability”’, Lit: Literature Interpretation Theory 20: 241–265. Get out of my psychic space! Biographical recognition and “response-ability” Lit: Literature Interpretation Theory 20 241 265 Google Scholar

Rooke, Constance (1992) ‘Old age in contemporary fiction’, in Handbook of the Humanities and Aging, ed. Thomas R. Cole, David D. Van Tassel, and Robert Kastenbaum (New York: Springer, 1992), 241–257. Old age in contemporary fiction Handbook of the Humanities and Aging 241 257 Google Scholar

Roy, Wendy (2003) ‘Unless the World Changes: Carol Shields on women’s silencing in contemporary culture’, in Carol Shields: The Art of a Writing Life, ed. Neil K. Besner (Winnipeg: Prairie Fire), 125–132. Unless the World Changes: Carol Shields on women’s silencing in contemporary culture Carol Shields: The Art of a Writing Life 125 132 Google Scholar

Roy, Wendy (2008) ‘Misreading the literary evidence in Carol Shields’s mystery plots’, English Studies in Canada 34: 113–129. Misreading the literary evidence in Carol Shields English Studies in Canada 34 113 129 Google Scholar

Segal, Lynne (2013) Out of Time: The Pleasures and the Perils of Ageing. (London: Verso). Out of Time: The Pleasures and the Perils of Ageing Google Scholar

Shields, Carol ([1976] 1996) Small Ceremonies (London: Penguin). Small Ceremonies Google Scholar

Shields, Carol (1993) The Stone Diaries (London: Fourth Estate). The Stone Diaries Google Scholar

Shields, Carol ([2002] 2003) Unless (London: Fourth Estate). Unless Google Scholar

Stovel, Nora Foster (2006) ‘“Because she’s a woman”: Myth and metafiction in Carol Shields’s Unless’, English Studies in Canada 32: 51–73. “Because she’s a woman”: Myth and metafiction in Carol Shields’s Unless’ English Studies in Canada 32 51 73 Google Scholar

Twigg, Julia (2004) ‘The body, gender and age: Feminist insights in social gerontology’, Journal of Aging Studies 18: 59–73. The body, gender and age: Feminist insights in social gerontology Journal of Aging Studies 18 59 73 Google Scholar

Watkins, Susan (2013) ‘“Summoning your youth at will”: Memory, time, and aging in the work of Penelope Lively, Margaret Atwood, and Doris Lessing’, Frontiers 34: 222–244. “Summoning your youth at will”: Memory, time, and aging in the work of Penelope Lively, Margaret Atwood, and Doris Lessing Frontiers 34 222 244 Google Scholar

Waxman, Barbara F. (1990) From the Hearth to the Open Road: A Feminist Study of Aging in Contemporary Literature (Westport: Greenwood). From the Hearth to the Open Road: A Feminist Study of Aging in Contemporary Literature Google Scholar

Whelehan, Imelda, and Joel Gwynne (eds) (2014) Ageing, Popular Culture and Contemporary Feminism (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan). Ageing, Popular Culture and Contemporary Feminism Google Scholar

Woodward, Kathleen (1991) Aging and its Discontents: Freud and Other Fictions (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press). Aging and its Discontents: Freud and Other Fictions Google Scholar

Woodward, Kathleen (ed.) (1999) Figuring Age: Women, Bodies, Generations (Bloomington: Indiana University Press). Figuring Age: Women, Bodies, Generations Google Scholar

Wyatt-Brown, Anne M., and Janice Rossen (eds) (1993) Aging and Gender in Literature: Studies in Creativity (Charlottesville: Virginia University Press). Aging and Gender in Literature: Studies in Creativity Google Scholar

Arber, Sarah, Kate Davidson, and Jay Ginn (2003) Gender and Ageing: Changing Roles and Relationships (Maidenhead: Open University Press). Gender and Ageing: Changing Roles and Relationships Google Scholar

Atwood, Margaret (2005) ‘A soap bubble hovering over the void’, Vancouver Quarterly Review 81: 139–142. A soap bubble hovering over the void Vancouver Quarterly Review 81 139 142 Google Scholar

Beckman-Long, Brenda (2015) Carol Shields and the Writer-Critic (Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Carol Shields and the Writer-Critic Google Scholar

Bernard, Miriam, Val Harding Davies, Linda Machin and Judith Phillips (2000), eds, Women Ageing: Changing Identities, Challenging Myths (London: Routledge). Women Ageing: Changing Identities, Challenging Myths Google Scholar

Brookner, Anita (2002) ‘Women talking to women’, The Spectator, 4 May 2002. Women talking to women The Spectator Google Scholar

Calasanti, Toni M., and Kathleen F. Slevin (eds) (2006) Age Matters: Realigning Feminist Thinking (New York and London: Routledge). Age Matters: Realigning Feminist Thinking Google Scholar

Chivers, Sally (2003) From Old Woman to Older Women: Contemporary Culture and Women’s Narratives (Columbus: Ohio State University Press). From Old Woman to Older Women: Contemporary Culture and Women’s Narratives Google Scholar

Dolan, Josie, and Estella Tincknell (eds) (2012) Ageing Femininities: Troubling Representations (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars). Ageing Femininities: Troubling Representations Google Scholar

Eagleton, Mary (2005) ‘What’s the matter? Authors in Carol Shields’ short fiction’, Canadian Literature 186: 70–85. What’s the matter? Authors in Carol Shields Canadian Literature 186 70 85 Google Scholar

Friedan, Betty (1993) The Fountain of Age (New York: Simon and Schuster). The Fountain of Age Google Scholar

Greer, Germaine ([1991] 1992) The Change: Women, Aging and the Menopause (London: Penguin). The Change: Women, Aging and the Menopause Google Scholar

Gullette, Margaret Morganroth (1988) Safe at Last in the Middle Years (Berkeley: University of California Press). Safe at Last in the Middle Years Google Scholar

Gullette, Margaret Morganroth (1997) Declining to Decline: Cultural Combat and the Politics of Midlife (Charlottesville: Virginia University Press). Declining to Decline: Cultural Combat and the Politics of Midlife Google Scholar

Gullette, Margaret Morganroth (2002) ‘Valuing “postmaternity” as a revolutionary feminist concept’, Feminist Studies 28: 553–572. Valuing “postmaternity” as a revolutionary feminist concept Feminist Studies 28 553 572 Google Scholar

Gullette, Margaret Morganroth (2004) Aged by Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Aged by Culture Google Scholar

Gullette, Margaret Morganroth (2011) Agewise: Fighting the New Ageism in America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press). Agewise: Fighting the New Ageism in America Google Scholar

Heilbrun, Carolyn ([1997] 1998) The Last Gift of Time: Life Beyond Sixty (New York: Ballantine). The Last Gift of Time: Life Beyond Sixty Google Scholar

Hollenberg, Donna Krolik, and Carol Shields (1998) ‘An interview with Carol Shields’, Contemporary Literature 39: 339–355. An interview with Carol Shields Contemporary Literature 39 339 355 Google Scholar

İnceolğlu, Şeyda (2014) ‘Reading the silence in the maternal text of Carol Shields’ Unless’, Gender Studies 13: 66–79. Reading the silence in the maternal text of Carol Shields’ Unless Gender Studies 13 66 79 Google Scholar

Kay, Lucy, Zoë Kinsley, Terry Phillips, and Alan Roughley (eds) (2007) Mapping Liminalities: Thresholds in Cultural and Literary Texts (Bern: Peter Lang). Mapping Liminalities: Thresholds in Cultural and Literary Texts Google Scholar

King, Jeannette (2013) Discourses of Aging in Fiction and Feminism (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan). Discourses of Aging in Fiction and Feminism Google Scholar

Lessing, Doris (1973) The Summer Before the Dark (London: Penguin). The Summer Before the Dark Google Scholar

Paloge, Helen (2007) The Silent Echo: The Middle-Aged Female Body in Contemporary Women’s Fiction (Lanham: Lexington). The Silent Echo: The Middle-Aged Female Body in Contemporary Women’s Fiction Google Scholar

Oró-Piqueras, Maricel (2013) ‘Narrating Ageing: Deconstructing negative conceptions of old age in four contemporary English novels’, Journal of Aging Studies 27: 47–51. Narrating Ageing: Deconstructing negative conceptions of old age in four contemporary English novels Journal of Aging Studies 27 47 51 Google Scholar

Ramon, Alex (2008) Liminal Spaces: The Double Art of Carol Shields (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars). Liminal Spaces: The Double Art of Carol Shields Google Scholar

Reimer, Elizabeth (2009) ‘Get out of my psychic space! Biographical recognition and “response-ability”’, Lit: Literature Interpretation Theory 20: 241–265. Get out of my psychic space! Biographical recognition and “response-ability” Lit: Literature Interpretation Theory 20 241 265 Google Scholar

Rooke, Constance (1992) ‘Old age in contemporary fiction’, in Handbook of the Humanities and Aging, ed. Thomas R. Cole, David D. Van Tassel, and Robert Kastenbaum (New York: Springer, 1992), 241–257. Old age in contemporary fiction Handbook of the Humanities and Aging 241 257 Google Scholar

Roy, Wendy (2003) ‘Unless the World Changes: Carol Shields on women’s silencing in contemporary culture’, in Carol Shields: The Art of a Writing Life, ed. Neil K. Besner (Winnipeg: Prairie Fire), 125–132. Unless the World Changes: Carol Shields on women’s silencing in contemporary culture Carol Shields: The Art of a Writing Life 125 132 Google Scholar

Roy, Wendy (2008) ‘Misreading the literary evidence in Carol Shields’s mystery plots’, English Studies in Canada 34: 113–129. Misreading the literary evidence in Carol Shields English Studies in Canada 34 113 129 Google Scholar

Segal, Lynne (2013) Out of Time: The Pleasures and the Perils of Ageing. (London: Verso). Out of Time: The Pleasures and the Perils of Ageing Google Scholar

Shields, Carol ([1976] 1996) Small Ceremonies (London: Penguin). Small Ceremonies Google Scholar

Shields, Carol (1993) The Stone Diaries (London: Fourth Estate). The Stone Diaries Google Scholar

Shields, Carol ([2002] 2003) Unless (London: Fourth Estate). Unless Google Scholar

Stovel, Nora Foster (2006) ‘“Because she’s a woman”: Myth and metafiction in Carol Shields’s Unless’, English Studies in Canada 32: 51–73. “Because she’s a woman”: Myth and metafiction in Carol Shields’s Unless’ English Studies in Canada 32 51 73 Google Scholar

Twigg, Julia (2004) ‘The body, gender and age: Feminist insights in social gerontology’, Journal of Aging Studies 18: 59–73. The body, gender and age: Feminist insights in social gerontology Journal of Aging Studies 18 59 73 Google Scholar

Watkins, Susan (2013) ‘“Summoning your youth at will”: Memory, time, and aging in the work of Penelope Lively, Margaret Atwood, and Doris Lessing’, Frontiers 34: 222–244. “Summoning your youth at will”: Memory, time, and aging in the work of Penelope Lively, Margaret Atwood, and Doris Lessing Frontiers 34 222 244 Google Scholar

Waxman, Barbara F. (1990) From the Hearth to the Open Road: A Feminist Study of Aging in Contemporary Literature (Westport: Greenwood). From the Hearth to the Open Road: A Feminist Study of Aging in Contemporary Literature Google Scholar

Whelehan, Imelda, and Joel Gwynne (eds) (2014) Ageing, Popular Culture and Contemporary Feminism (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan). Ageing, Popular Culture and Contemporary Feminism Google Scholar

Woodward, Kathleen (1991) Aging and its Discontents: Freud and Other Fictions (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press). Aging and its Discontents: Freud and Other Fictions Google Scholar

Woodward, Kathleen (ed.) (1999) Figuring Age: Women, Bodies, Generations (Bloomington: Indiana University Press). Figuring Age: Women, Bodies, Generations Google Scholar

Wyatt-Brown, Anne M., and Janice Rossen (eds) (1993) Aging and Gender in Literature: Studies in Creativity (Charlottesville: Virginia University Press). Aging and Gender in Literature: Studies in Creativity Google Scholar

Arber, Sarah, Kate Davidson, and Jay Ginn (2003) Gender and Ageing: Changing Roles and Relationships (Maidenhead: Open University Press). Gender and Ageing: Changing Roles and Relationships Google Scholar

Atwood, Margaret (2005) ‘A soap bubble hovering over the void’, Vancouver Quarterly Review 81: 139–142. A soap bubble hovering over the void Vancouver Quarterly Review 81 139 142 Google Scholar

Beckman-Long, Brenda (2015) Carol Shields and the Writer-Critic (Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Carol Shields and the Writer-Critic Google Scholar

Bernard, Miriam, Val Harding Davies, Linda Machin and Judith Phillips (2000), eds, Women Ageing: Changing Identities, Challenging Myths (London: Routledge). Women Ageing: Changing Identities, Challenging Myths Google Scholar

Brookner, Anita (2002) ‘Women talking to women’, The Spectator, 4 May 2002. Women talking to women The Spectator Google Scholar

Calasanti, Toni M., and Kathleen F. Slevin (eds) (2006) Age Matters: Realigning Feminist Thinking (New York and London: Routledge). Age Matters: Realigning Feminist Thinking Google Scholar

Chivers, Sally (2003) From Old Woman to Older Women: Contemporary Culture and Women’s Narratives (Columbus: Ohio State University Press). From Old Woman to Older Women: Contemporary Culture and Women’s Narratives Google Scholar

Dolan, Josie, and Estella Tincknell (eds) (2012) Ageing Femininities: Troubling Representations (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars). Ageing Femininities: Troubling Representations Google Scholar

Eagleton, Mary (2005) ‘What’s the matter? Authors in Carol Shields’ short fiction’, Canadian Literature 186: 70–85. What’s the matter? Authors in Carol Shields Canadian Literature 186 70 85 Google Scholar

Friedan, Betty (1993) The Fountain of Age (New York: Simon and Schuster). The Fountain of Age Google Scholar

Greer, Germaine ([1991] 1992) The Change: Women, Aging and the Menopause (London: Penguin). The Change: Women, Aging and the Menopause Google Scholar

Gullette, Margaret Morganroth (1988) Safe at Last in the Middle Years (Berkeley: University of California Press). Safe at Last in the Middle Years Google Scholar

Gullette, Margaret Morganroth (1997) Declining to Decline: Cultural Combat and the Politics of Midlife (Charlottesville: Virginia University Press). Declining to Decline: Cultural Combat and the Politics of Midlife Google Scholar

Gullette, Margaret Morganroth (2002) ‘Valuing “postmaternity” as a revolutionary feminist concept’, Feminist Studies 28: 553–572. Valuing “postmaternity” as a revolutionary feminist concept Feminist Studies 28 553 572 Google Scholar

Gullette, Margaret Morganroth (2004) Aged by Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Aged by Culture Google Scholar

Gullette, Margaret Morganroth (2011) Agewise: Fighting the New Ageism in America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press). Agewise: Fighting the New Ageism in America Google Scholar

Heilbrun, Carolyn ([1997] 1998) The Last Gift of Time: Life Beyond Sixty (New York: Ballantine). The Last Gift of Time: Life Beyond Sixty Google Scholar

Hollenberg, Donna Krolik, and Carol Shields (1998) ‘An interview with Carol Shields’, Contemporary Literature 39: 339–355. An interview with Carol Shields Contemporary Literature 39 339 355 Google Scholar

İnceolğlu, Şeyda (2014) ‘Reading the silence in the maternal text of Carol Shields’ Unless’, Gender Studies 13: 66–79. Reading the silence in the maternal text of Carol Shields’ Unless Gender Studies 13 66 79 Google Scholar

Kay, Lucy, Zoë Kinsley, Terry Phillips, and Alan Roughley (eds) (2007) Mapping Liminalities: Thresholds in Cultural and Literary Texts (Bern: Peter Lang). Mapping Liminalities: Thresholds in Cultural and Literary Texts Google Scholar

King, Jeannette (2013) Discourses of Aging in Fiction and Feminism (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan). Discourses of Aging in Fiction and Feminism Google Scholar

Lessing, Doris (1973) The Summer Before the Dark (London: Penguin). The Summer Before the Dark Google Scholar

Paloge, Helen (2007) The Silent Echo: The Middle-Aged Female Body in Contemporary Women’s Fiction (Lanham: Lexington). The Silent Echo: The Middle-Aged Female Body in Contemporary Women’s Fiction Google Scholar

Oró-Piqueras, Maricel (2013) ‘Narrating Ageing: Deconstructing negative conceptions of old age in four contemporary English novels’, Journal of Aging Studies 27: 47–51. Narrating Ageing: Deconstructing negative conceptions of old age in four contemporary English novels Journal of Aging Studies 27 47 51 Google Scholar

Ramon, Alex (2008) Liminal Spaces: The Double Art of Carol Shields (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars). Liminal Spaces: The Double Art of Carol Shields Google Scholar

Reimer, Elizabeth (2009) ‘Get out of my psychic space! Biographical recognition and “response-ability”’, Lit: Literature Interpretation Theory 20: 241–265. Get out of my psychic space! Biographical recognition and “response-ability” Lit: Literature Interpretation Theory 20 241 265 Google Scholar

Rooke, Constance (1992) ‘Old age in contemporary fiction’, in Handbook of the Humanities and Aging, ed. Thomas R. Cole, David D. Van Tassel, and Robert Kastenbaum (New York: Springer, 1992), 241–257. Old age in contemporary fiction Handbook of the Humanities and Aging 241 257 Google Scholar

Roy, Wendy (2003) ‘Unless the World Changes: Carol Shields on women’s silencing in contemporary culture’, in Carol Shields: The Art of a Writing Life, ed. Neil K. Besner (Winnipeg: Prairie Fire), 125–132. Unless the World Changes: Carol Shields on women’s silencing in contemporary culture Carol Shields: The Art of a Writing Life 125 132 Google Scholar

Roy, Wendy (2008) ‘Misreading the literary evidence in Carol Shields’s mystery plots’, English Studies in Canada 34: 113–129. Misreading the literary evidence in Carol Shields English Studies in Canada 34 113 129 Google Scholar

Segal, Lynne (2013) Out of Time: The Pleasures and the Perils of Ageing. (London: Verso). Out of Time: The Pleasures and the Perils of Ageing Google Scholar

Shields, Carol ([1976] 1996) Small Ceremonies (London: Penguin). Small Ceremonies Google Scholar

Shields, Carol (1993) The Stone Diaries (London: Fourth Estate). The Stone Diaries Google Scholar

Shields, Carol ([2002] 2003) Unless (London: Fourth Estate). Unless Google Scholar

Stovel, Nora Foster (2006) ‘“Because she’s a woman”: Myth and metafiction in Carol Shields’s Unless’, English Studies in Canada 32: 51–73. “Because she’s a woman”: Myth and metafiction in Carol Shields’s Unless’ English Studies in Canada 32 51 73 Google Scholar

Twigg, Julia (2004) ‘The body, gender and age: Feminist insights in social gerontology’, Journal of Aging Studies 18: 59–73. The body, gender and age: Feminist insights in social gerontology Journal of Aging Studies 18 59 73 Google Scholar

Watkins, Susan (2013) ‘“Summoning your youth at will”: Memory, time, and aging in the work of Penelope Lively, Margaret Atwood, and Doris Lessing’, Frontiers 34: 222–244. “Summoning your youth at will”: Memory, time, and aging in the work of Penelope Lively, Margaret Atwood, and Doris Lessing Frontiers 34 222 244 Google Scholar

Waxman, Barbara F. (1990) From the Hearth to the Open Road: A Feminist Study of Aging in Contemporary Literature (Westport: Greenwood). From the Hearth to the Open Road: A Feminist Study of Aging in Contemporary Literature Google Scholar

Whelehan, Imelda, and Joel Gwynne (eds) (2014) Ageing, Popular Culture and Contemporary Feminism (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan). Ageing, Popular Culture and Contemporary Feminism Google Scholar

Woodward, Kathleen (1991) Aging and its Discontents: Freud and Other Fictions (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press). Aging and its Discontents: Freud and Other Fictions Google Scholar

Woodward, Kathleen (ed.) (1999) Figuring Age: Women, Bodies, Generations (Bloomington: Indiana University Press). Figuring Age: Women, Bodies, Generations Google Scholar

Wyatt-Brown, Anne M., and Janice Rossen (eds) (1993) Aging and Gender in Literature: Studies in Creativity (Charlottesville: Virginia University Press). Aging and Gender in Literature: Studies in Creativity Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Falcus, Sarah

Falcus, Sarah