Town Planning Review

Quantitative assessment of urban road network hierarchy planning

Town Planning Review (2013), 84, (4), 467–494.

Abstract

The functional classification of urban road networks has a long history, and it is significant in modern transport and town planning. In order to closely monitor the implementation in practice, quantitative assessment of the performance of road functional classification is essential for transport authorities in road investment, maintenance, design and operation. However, studies in this field are few. In this context, this article proposes a method for quantitatively assessing urban road networks. The assessment framework consists of eight mathematically formulated indicators; the inputs required are GPS data, data from taxi-fare meters and GIS data (or digitalised road network maps). Continuing the discussion on a theoretical level, an experiment of the proposed method is conducted using a dataset collected in Beijing. The insightful findings concerning the performance of road functional classification in Beijing illustrate the usefulness of the method.

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QUDDUS, M. A., OCHIENG, W. Y. and NOLAND, R. (2007), ‘Current map-matching algorithms for transport applications: state-of-the art and future research directions’, Transportation Research Part C, 15, 312-28. ‘Current map-matching algorithms for transport applications: state-of-the art and future research directions’ Transportation Research Part C 15 312 28 Google Scholar

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WOLF, J., LOECHL, M., MYERS, J. and ARCE, C. (2001), ‘Trip rate analysis in GPS-enhanced personal travel surveys’ (paper delivered at the International Conference on Transportation Survey Quality and Innovation, Kruger Park, 5-10 August, 2001). ‘Trip rate analysis in GPS-enhanced personal travel surveys’ Google Scholar

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ZHAO, Y. (1997), Vehicle Location and Navigation Systems, London, Artech House Publishers. Vehicle Location and Navigation Systems Google Scholar

AASHTO (AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY and TRANSPORTATION OFFICIALS) (2011), A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, Washington, DC, American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials. Google Scholar

BEN-AKIVA, M., BERGMAN, M., DALY, A. and RAMASWAMY, R. (1984), ‘Modeling inter-urban route choice behaviour’, in J. Volmuller and R. Hamerslag, Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Transportation and Traffic Theory, Utrecht, VNU Science Press, 299-330. ‘Modeling inter-urban route choice behaviour’ 299 330 Google Scholar

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BTRC and BJTU (BEIJING TRAFFIC RESEARCH CENTRE and BEIJING JIAOTONG UNIVERSITY) (2005), Beijing Road Network Functional Classification and Restructuring, Beijing, unpublished report. Google Scholar

CASAS, J. and ARCE, C. H. (1999), ‘Trip reporting in household travel diaries: a comparison to GPS-collected data’, In Transportation Research Board 78th Annual Meeting. Preprint CD-ROM. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D. C., 1999. Transportation Research Board 78th Annual Meeting Google Scholar

DOHERTY, S. T., NOEL, N., GOSSELIN, M., SIROIS, C., UENO, M. and THEBERGE, F. (2000), ‘Moving beyond observed outcomes: integrating global positioning systems and interactive computer-based travel behavior surveys’, [TRB committee A1D10 and A5016] Proceeding of Transportation Research E-circular: personal travel the long and short of it, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, 449-66. ‘Moving beyond observed outcomes: integrating global positioning systems and interactive computer-based travel behavior surveys’ 449 66 Google Scholar

DONG, J. X., WU, J. P. and GUO, J. F. (2005), ‘Assessment of road network based on GPS/GIS data: a practice in Beijing’, City Planning, 10, 70-74. ‘Assessment of road network based on GPS/GIS data: a practice in Beijing’ City Planning 10 70 74 Google Scholar

DU, J. and AULTMAN-HALL, L. (2007), ‘Increasing the accuracy of trip rate information from passive multi-day GPS travel datasets: automatic trip end identification issues’, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 41, 220-32. ‘Increasing the accuracy of trip rate information from passive multi-day GPS travel datasets: automatic trip end identification issues’ Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 41 220 32 Google Scholar

ENGLISH PARTNERSHIPS and DAVIES, L. (2000), Urban Design Compendium, London, English Partnerships. Urban Design Compendium Google Scholar

FHWA (FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION) (1989), FHWA Functional Classification: Concepts, Criteria, and Procedures http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/planning/fctoc.htm Google Scholar

FHWA (FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION) (2008), ‘Updated guidance for the functional classification of highways’ (Memorandum from Mary B. Phillips, Associate Administrator for Policy and Governmental Affairs, 14 October 2008) http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/ohpi/hpms/fchguidance.cfm Google Scholar

GIUMMARRA, J. G. (2003), ‘Establishment of a road classification system and geometric design and maintenance standards for low-volume roads’, Journal of Transportation Research Record 1819, 131-40. ‘Establishment of a road classification system and geometric design and maintenance standards for low-volume roads’ Journal of Transportation Research Record 1819 131 40 Google Scholar

GREENBERG, E. and DOCK, F. (2003), Design Guidance for Great Streets: Addressing Context Sensitivity for Major Urban Streets, San Francisco, CA, Institute of Transportation Engineers and the Congress for the New Urbanism. Design Guidance for Great Streets: Addressing Context Sensitivity for Major Urban Streets Google Scholar

HEBBERT, M. (2005), ‘Engineering, urbanism and the struggle for street design’, Journal of Urban Design, 10, 39-59. ‘Engineering, urbanism and the struggle for street design’ Journal of Urban Design 10 39 59 Google Scholar

HUANG, X. (2005), Manual of Highway and Urban Street Design, Beijing, China Building Industry Press. Manual of Highway and Urban Street Design Google Scholar

IHT (INSTITUTION OF HIGHWAYS and TRANSPORTATION) (1997), Transport in the Urban Environment, London, Institution of Highways and Transportation. Google Scholar

ITE/CNU (INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERS/CONGRESS FOR THE NEW URBANISM) (2010), Designing Walkable Urban Thoroughfares: A Context Sensitive Approach, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, USA. Google Scholar

JIANG, B. (2009), ‘Street hierarchies: a minority of streets account for a majority of traffic flow’, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 23, 1033-48. ‘Street hierarchies: a minority of streets account for a majority of traffic flow’ International Journal of Geographical Information Science 23 1033 48 Google Scholar

LITMAN, T. (2012), Evaluating Transportation Land Use Impacts: Considering the Impacts, Benefits and Costs of Different Land Use Development Patterns, Victoria, Canada, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, www.vtpi.org/landuse.pdf (accessed 13 June 2013). www.vtpi.org/landuse.pdf Evaluating Transportation Land Use Impacts: Considering the Impacts, Benefits and Costs of Different Land Use Development Patterns Google Scholar

MARSHALL, S. (2004), ‘Building on Buchanan: evolving road hierarchy for today's streets-oriented design agenda’, Association for European Transport, Proceeding of European Transport Conference, Strasbourg. http://home.wmin.ac.uk/transport/download/Marshall_on_Buchanan_ETC_2004.pdf, (accessed 13 June 2013) http://home.wmin.ac.uk/transport/download/Marshall_on_Buchanan_ETC_2004.pdf ‘Building on Buchanan: evolving road hierarchy for today's streets-oriented design agenda’ Google Scholar

MARSHALL, S. (2005), Streets and Patterns, London, Routledge. Streets and Patterns Google Scholar

PEARSON, D. (2001), ‘Global Positioning System (GPS) and travel surveys: results from the 1997 Austin Household Survey’ (paper delivered to the Eighth Conference on the Application of Transportation Planning Methods, Corpus Christi, TX, 22-6 April 2001). ‘Global Positioning System (GPS) and travel surveys: results from the 1997 Austin Household Survey’ Google Scholar

PLINE, J. L. (1999), Transportation and Traffic Engineering Handbook, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Institute of Transportation Engineers/Prentice Hall. Transportation and Traffic Engineering Handbook Google Scholar

PRC (PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA) MINISTRY OF CONSTRUCTION (1995A), National Standard of Urban Road Network Design, China Planning Press, Beijing. Google Scholar

PRC (PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA) MINISTRY OF CONSTRUCTION (1995b), Detailed Explanations of the National Standard of Urban Road Network Design, China Planning Press, Beijing. Google Scholar

QUDDUS, M. A., OCHIENG, W. Y. and NOLAND, R. (2007), ‘Current map-matching algorithms for transport applications: state-of-the art and future research directions’, Transportation Research Part C, 15, 312-28. ‘Current map-matching algorithms for transport applications: state-of-the art and future research directions’ Transportation Research Part C 15 312 28 Google Scholar

SCHÖNFELDER, S. and SAMAGA, U. (2003), ‘Where do you want to go today? - More observations on daily mobility’ (paper delivered to the Swiss Transportation Research Conference, Monte Verita, 19-21 March 2003). ‘Where do you want to go today? - More observations on daily mobility’ Google Scholar

STOPHER, P., BULLOCK, P. AND JIANG, Q. (2003), ‘Visualizing trips and travel characteristics from GPS data’, Road & Transportation Research, 12, 3-14. ‘Visualizing trips and travel characteristics from GPS data’ Road & Transportation Research 12 3 14 Google Scholar

STRATE, H. E., HUMSTONE, E., MCMAHON, S., GIBSON, L. and BENDER, B. D. (1997), ‘Functional classification for multimodal planning’, Transportation Research Record 1606, 51-62. ‘Functional classification for multimodal planning’ Transportation Research Record 1606 51 62 Google Scholar

UNITED KINGDOM DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (2007), Manual for Streets, Thomas Telford Publishing, London http://www.dft.gov.uk/publications/manual-for-streets Google Scholar

WOLF, J., LOECHL, M., MYERS, J. and ARCE, C. (2001), ‘Trip rate analysis in GPS-enhanced personal travel surveys’ (paper delivered at the International Conference on Transportation Survey Quality and Innovation, Kruger Park, 5-10 August, 2001). ‘Trip rate analysis in GPS-enhanced personal travel surveys’ Google Scholar

XIE, F. and LEVINSON, D. M. (2006), ‘Measuring the Structure of Road Networks’, Geographical Analysis, 39, 336-56. ‘Measuring the Structure of Road Networks’ Geographical Analysis 39 336 56 Google Scholar

ZHAO, Y. (1997), Vehicle Location and Navigation Systems, London, Artech House Publishers. Vehicle Location and Navigation Systems Google Scholar

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