Hunter Gatherer Research

Autonomy, cognitive development, and the socialisation of cooperation in foragers

Aka children’s views of sharing and caring

Hunter Gatherer Research (2017), 3, (3), 475–500.

Abstract

It is well established that respect for autonomy and sharing are two core values that, along with egalitarianism have great influence over thought and action in mobile foraging society. However, resolving the tension between these values is also key to forager social life, which requires both a lack of dependence on specific others and consistent and significant generosity to maintain social harmony. Children’s emerging conceptions of these values and their coming to accept them through their everyday experiences with social norms has not received much attention and is the subject of this study. Here, a cognitive approach to value socialisation from anthropology is integrated with research from developmental psychology regarding children’s internalisation of normative behaviour – sharing norms in particular – to shed light on how children come to resolve psychological conflicts between the value of sharing, with its explicit normative practices of giving away, and the value of autonomy, which may be implicitly seen by children when others accept occasionally selfish behaviour. Drawing from semi-formal interviews with 31 Aka forest forager children around the ages of 5–16 years old, children’s responses to questions about their experiences sharing food and other resources and caring for infants are subjected to content analysis. Results add further empirical support that sharing is an early internalised value and influence over children’s behaviour. They also suggest an integration of psychological anthropology and developmental psychology is useful in understanding forager socialisation.

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References

Allen-Arave, W, Gurven, M & Hill, K 2008. Reciprocal altruism, rather than kin selection, maintains nepotistic food transfers on an Ache reservation. Evolution and Human Behaviour 29(5):305–318. Google Scholar

Bird, DW & Bliege Bird, R 2005. Martu children’s hunting strategies in the Western Desert, Australia. In Hewlett, BS & Lamb, ME (eds) Hunter-gatherer childhoods: evolutionary, developmental, and cultural perspectives. New Brunswick: Aldine Transaction:129–146. Google Scholar

Bird-David, N 1990. The giving environment: another perspective on the economic system of gatherer-hunters. Current Anthropology 31(2):189–196. Google Scholar

Bird-David, N 2005. Studying children in ‘hunter-gatherer’ societies: reflections from a Nayaka perspective. In Hewlett, BS & Lamb, ME (eds) Hunter-gatherer childhoods: evolutionary, developmental, and cultural perspectives. New Brunswick: Aldine Transaction:92–104. Google Scholar

Bliege Bird, R & Bird, DW 2002. Constraints of knowing or constraints of growing? Fishing and collecting by the children of Mer. Human Nature 13(2):239–267. Google Scholar

Bloch, M 1998. How we think they think: anthropological approaches to cognition, memory, and literacy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Google Scholar

Bloch, M 2012. Anthropology and the cognitive challenge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Bloch, M, Solomon, GEA & Carey, S 2001. Zafimaniry: an understanding of what is passed on from parents to children: a cross-cultural investigation. Journal of Cognition & Culture 1(1):43–68. Google Scholar

Blurton Jones, N, Hawkes, K & Draper, P 1994. Foraging returns of !Kung adults and children: why didn’t !Kung children forage? Journal of Anthropological Research 50(3):217–246. Google Scholar

Bogin, B 1999. Patterns of human growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Boyette, AH 2016a. Children’s play and the integration of social and individual learning: a cultural niche construction perspective. In Terashima, H & Hewlett, BS (eds) Social learning and innovation in contemporary hunter-gatherers. Tokyo: Springer Japan:159–169. Google Scholar

Boyette, AH 2016b. Children’s play and culture learning in an egalitarian foraging society. Child Development 87(3):759–769. Google Scholar

Boyette, AH & Hewlett, BS 2017a. Autonomy, equality, and teaching among Aka foragers and Ngandu farmers of the Congo Basin. Human Nature 28(3):289–322. Google Scholar

Boyette, AH & Hewlett, BS 2017b. Teaching in hunter-gatherers. Review of Philosophy and Psychology doi: 10.1007/s13164–017-0347–2. Google Scholar

Boyette, AH & Lew-Levy, S, in review. Variation in cultural models of resource sharing between Congo Basin foragers and farmers: implications for learning to share. In Friesem, D & Lavi, N (eds) Inter-disciplinary perspectives on sharing among hunter-gatherers in the past and present. Cambridge: McDonald Institute. Google Scholar

Briggs, JL 1978. The origins of nonviolence: Inuit management of aggression (Canadian Arctic). In Montague, A (ed) Learning non-aggression. Oxford: Oxford University Press:54–93. Google Scholar

Briggs, JL 1991. Expecting the unexpected: Canadian Inuit training for an experimental lifestyle. Ethos 19(3):259–287. Google Scholar

Briggs, JL 1998. Inuit morality play. London: Yale University Press. Google Scholar

Brown, JK 1970. A note on the division of labour by sex. American Anthropologist 72:1073–1078. Google Scholar

Crittenden, AN 2016. To share or not to share? Social processes of learning to share food among Hadza hunter-gatherer children. In Terashima, H & Hewlett, BS (eds) Social learning and innovation in contemporary hunter-gatherers. Tokyo: Springer:61–70. Google Scholar

Crittenden, AN & Marlowe, FW 2008. Allomaternal care among the Hadza of Tanzania. Human Nature 19:249–262. Google Scholar

Crittenden, AN & Zes, DA 2015. Food sharing among Hadza hunter-gatherer children. PLOS ONE 10(7):e0131996, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131996. Google Scholar

D’Andrade, RG 1995. The development of cognitive anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Descola, P 2013. Beyond nature and culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar

Draper, P 1976. Social and economic constraints on child life among the !Kung. In Lee, RB & De Vore, I (eds) Kalahari hunter-gatherers: studies of the !Kung San and their neighbours. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press:200–217. Google Scholar

Draper, P 1978. The learning environment for aggression and anti-social behaviour among the !Kung. In Montagu, A (eds) Learning non-aggression: the experience of non-literate societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press:31–53. Google Scholar

Endicott, KM 2011. Cooperative autonomy: social solidarity among the Batek of Malaysia. In Gibson, T & Sillander, K (eds) Anarchic solidarity: autonomy, equality, and fellowship in Southeast Asia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Council on Southeast Asia Studies:62–87. Google Scholar

Endicott, KL & Endicott, KM 2014. Batek childrearing and morality. In Narvaez, D, Valentino, K, Fuentes, A, McKenna, JJ & Gray, P (eds) Ancestral landscapes in human evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press:108–125. Google Scholar

Fiske, A nd. Learning culture the way informants do: observing, imitating and anticipating. Unpublished. Google Scholar

Guemple, L 1988. Teaching social relations to Inuit children. In Ingold, T, Riches, D & Woodburn, J (eds) Hunters and gatherers 2: property, power, and ideology. Oxford: Berg Publishers:131–149. Google Scholar

Gurven, M 2004. To give and to give not: the behavioural ecology of human food transfers. Behavioural and Brain Sciences 27:543–583. Google Scholar

Gurven, M, Hill, K & Kaplan, HS 2002. From forest to reservation: transitions in food sharing behaviour among the Ache of Paraguay. Journal of Anthropological Research 58(1):93–120. Google Scholar

Harkness, S & Super, CM 2006. Themes and variations: parental ethnotheories in western cultures. In Rubin, KH & Chung, OB (eds) Parenting beliefs, behaviours, and parent-child relations: a cross-cultural perspective. New York: Psychology Press:61–79. Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS 1991. Intimate fathers: the nature and context of Aka pygmy paternal infant care. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS 2016. Evolutionary cultural anthropology: containing Ebola outbreaks and explaining hunter-gatherer childhoods. Current Anthropology 57(S13):S27–S37. Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS & Cavalli-Sforza, LL 1986. Cultural transmission among Aka pygmies. American Anthropologist 88(4):922–934. Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS & Lamb, ME 2002. Integrating evolution, culture and developmental psychology: explaining caregiver-infant proximity and responsiveness in central Africa and the USA. In Keller, H & Poortinga, YH & Schölmerich, A (eds) Between culture and biology:perspectives on ontogenetic development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:241–269. Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS, Fouts, HN, Boyette, AH & Hewlett, BL 2011. Social learning among Congo Basin hunter-gatherers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 366:1168–1178. Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS, Hudson, J, Boyette, AH & Fouts, HN (in review). Intimate living: sharing space among Aka and other hunter-gatherers. In Friesem, D & Lavi, N (eds) Inter-disciplinary perspectives on sharing among hunter-gatherers in the past and present. Cambridge: McDonald Institute. Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS, Lamb, ME, Leyendecker, B & Schölmerich, A 2000. Internal working models, trust and sharing among foragers. Current Anthropology 41(2):287–297. Google Scholar

Hill, V & Pillow, BH 2006. Children’s understanding of reputations. The Journal of Genetic Psychology 167(2):137–157. Google Scholar

Holland, D & Quinn, N (eds) 1987. Cultural models in language and thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Hrdy, SB 1999. Mother nature: a history of mothers, infants, and natural selection. 1st edition. New York: Pantheon Books. Google Scholar

Janowsky, JS & Carper, R 1996. Is there a neural basis for congitive transitions? In Sameroff, AJ & Haith, MM (eds) The five to seven year shift: the age of reason and responsibility. Chicago: University of Chicago Press:33–62. Google Scholar

Kaplan, HS, Hill, K, Lancaster, J & Hurtado, M 2000. A theory of human life history evolution: diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 9:156–185. Google Scholar

Kaplan, HS & Robson, AJ 2002. The emergence of humans: the coevolution of intelligence and longevity with intergenerational transfers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99(15):10221–10226. Google Scholar

Kelly, RL 1995. The foraging spectrum: diversity in hunter-gatherer lifeways. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. Google Scholar

Kitanishi, K 1998. Food sharing among the Aka hunter-gatherers in Northeastern Congo. African Study Monographs Supplement 25:3–32. Google Scholar

Lee, RB 1971. Eating Christmas in the Kalahari. In Spradley, JP & McCurdy, DW (eds) Conformity and conflict: readings in cultural anthropology. Boston: Little, Brown and Company:27–34. Google Scholar

Lee, R & Daly, R 1999. The Cambridge encyclopedia of hunters and gatherers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Lew-Levy, S, Lavi, N, Reckin, R, Cristóbal-Azkarate, J & Ellis-Davies, K 2018. How do hunter-gatherer children learn social and gender norms? A meta-ethnographic review. Cross-Cultural Research 52(2):213–255. Google Scholar

Lewis, J 2016. Play music and taboo in the reproduction of an egalitarian society. In Hewlett, BS & Terashima, H (eds) Social learning and innovation in contemporary hunter-gatherers: evolutionary and ethnographic perspectives. Tokyo: Springer:147–158. Google Scholar

Marlowe, FW 2005. Hunter-gatherers and human evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 14(2):54–67. Google Scholar

Meehan, CL, Quinlan, R & Malcom, CD 2012. Cooperative breeding and maternal energy expenditure among Aka foragers. American Journal of Human Biology 25(1):42–57. Google Scholar

Naveh, D 2016. Social and epistemological dimensions of learning among Nayaka hunter-gatherers. In Hewlett, BS & Terashima, H (eds) Social learning and innovation in contemporary hunter-gatherers: evolutionary and ethnographic perspectives. Tokyo: Springer:125–134. Google Scholar

Omura, K 2016. Socio-cultural cultivation of positive attitudes toward learning: considering differences in learning ability between Neanderhals and Modern Humans from examining Inuit children’s learning process. In Hewlett, BS & Terashima, H (eds) Social learning and innovation in contemporary hunter-gatherers: evolutionary and ethnographic perspectives. Tokyo: Springer:267–284. Google Scholar

Peterson, N 1993. Demand sharing: reciprocity and the pressure for generosity among foragers. American Anthropologist 95(4):860–874. Google Scholar

Piaget, J 1932. The moral judgment of the child. Glencoe, IL: Free Press. Google Scholar

Quinn, N 2006. The self. Anthropological Theory 6(3):362–384. Google Scholar

Rakoczy, H, Warneken, F & Tomasello, M 2008. The sources of normativity: young children’s awareness of the normative structure of games. Developmental Psychology 44(3):875–881. Google Scholar

Rogoff, B, Sellers, MJ, Pirrotta, S, Fox, N & White, SH 1975. Age of assignment of roles and responsibilities to children. Human Development 18(5):353–369. Google Scholar

Schmidt, MFH, Rakoczy, H & Tomasello, M 2011. Young children attribute normativity to novel actions without pedagogy or normative language. Developmental Science 14(3):530–539. Google Scholar

Schmidt, MFH & Tomasello, M 2012. Young children enforce social norms. Current Directions in Psychological Science 21(4):232–236. Google Scholar

Schnegg, M 2015. Reciprocity on demand: sharing and exchanging food in Northwestern Namibia. Human Nature 26(3):313–330. Google Scholar

Shore, B 1996. Culture in mind: cognition, culture, and the problem of meaning. New York: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

Strauss, C 1990. Who gets ahead? Cognitive responses to heteroglossia in American political culture. American Ethnologist 17(2):312–328. Google Scholar

Strauss, C & Quinn, N 1997. A cognitive theory of cultural meaning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Tomasello, M, Kruger, AC & Ratner, HH 1993. Cultural learning. Behavioural and Brain Sciences 16:495–552. Google Scholar

Tucker, B & Young, AG 2005. Growing up Mikea: children’s time allocation and tuber foraging in southwestern Madagascar. In Hewlett, BS & Lamb, ME (eds) Hunter-gatherer childhoods: evolutionary, developmental, and cultural perspectives. New Brunswick: Aldine Transaction:147–174. Google Scholar

Turnbull, CM 1978. The politics of non-aggression (Zaire). In Montagu, A (ed) Learning non-aggression: the experiences of non-literate societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press:161–221. Google Scholar

Weisner, TS 1996. The 5 to 7 transition as an ecocultural project. In Sameroff, AJ & Haith, MM. Chicago: University of Chicago Press:295–328. Google Scholar

Weisner, TS & Gallimore, R 1977. My brother’s keeper: child and sibling caretaking. Current Anthropology 18(2):169–190. Google Scholar

White, SH 1965. Evidence for a hierarchical arrangement of learning processes. In Lipsitt, LP & Spiker, CC (eds) Advances in child development and behaviour, vol 2. New York: Academic Press:187–220. Google Scholar

Wiessner, P 1982. Risk, reciprocity, and social influences on !Kung San economics. In Leacock, E & Lee, RB (eds) Politics and history in band societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:61–84. Google Scholar

Wiessner, P 2005. Norm enforcement among the Ju/’hoansi Bushmen. Human Nature 16(2):115–145. Google Scholar

Woodburn, J 1982. Egalitarian societies. Man 17(3):431–451. Google Scholar

Woodburn, J 1998. ‘Sharing is not a form of exchange’: an analysis of property-sharing in immediate-return hunter-gatherer societies. In Hann, CM (ed) Property relations: renewing the anthropological tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:48–63. Google Scholar

Allen-Arave, W, Gurven, M & Hill, K 2008. Reciprocal altruism, rather than kin selection, maintains nepotistic food transfers on an Ache reservation. Evolution and Human Behaviour 29(5):305–318. Google Scholar

Bird, DW & Bliege Bird, R 2005. Martu children’s hunting strategies in the Western Desert, Australia. In Hewlett, BS & Lamb, ME (eds) Hunter-gatherer childhoods: evolutionary, developmental, and cultural perspectives. New Brunswick: Aldine Transaction:129–146. Google Scholar

Bird-David, N 1990. The giving environment: another perspective on the economic system of gatherer-hunters. Current Anthropology 31(2):189–196. Google Scholar

Bird-David, N 2005. Studying children in ‘hunter-gatherer’ societies: reflections from a Nayaka perspective. In Hewlett, BS & Lamb, ME (eds) Hunter-gatherer childhoods: evolutionary, developmental, and cultural perspectives. New Brunswick: Aldine Transaction:92–104. Google Scholar

Bliege Bird, R & Bird, DW 2002. Constraints of knowing or constraints of growing? Fishing and collecting by the children of Mer. Human Nature 13(2):239–267. Google Scholar

Bloch, M 1998. How we think they think: anthropological approaches to cognition, memory, and literacy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Google Scholar

Bloch, M 2012. Anthropology and the cognitive challenge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Bloch, M, Solomon, GEA & Carey, S 2001. Zafimaniry: an understanding of what is passed on from parents to children: a cross-cultural investigation. Journal of Cognition & Culture 1(1):43–68. Google Scholar

Blurton Jones, N, Hawkes, K & Draper, P 1994. Foraging returns of !Kung adults and children: why didn’t !Kung children forage? Journal of Anthropological Research 50(3):217–246. Google Scholar

Bogin, B 1999. Patterns of human growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Boyette, AH 2016a. Children’s play and the integration of social and individual learning: a cultural niche construction perspective. In Terashima, H & Hewlett, BS (eds) Social learning and innovation in contemporary hunter-gatherers. Tokyo: Springer Japan:159–169. Google Scholar

Boyette, AH 2016b. Children’s play and culture learning in an egalitarian foraging society. Child Development 87(3):759–769. Google Scholar

Boyette, AH & Hewlett, BS 2017a. Autonomy, equality, and teaching among Aka foragers and Ngandu farmers of the Congo Basin. Human Nature 28(3):289–322. Google Scholar

Boyette, AH & Hewlett, BS 2017b. Teaching in hunter-gatherers. Review of Philosophy and Psychology doi: 10.1007/s13164–017-0347–2. Google Scholar

Boyette, AH & Lew-Levy, S, in review. Variation in cultural models of resource sharing between Congo Basin foragers and farmers: implications for learning to share. In Friesem, D & Lavi, N (eds) Inter-disciplinary perspectives on sharing among hunter-gatherers in the past and present. Cambridge: McDonald Institute. Google Scholar

Briggs, JL 1978. The origins of nonviolence: Inuit management of aggression (Canadian Arctic). In Montague, A (ed) Learning non-aggression. Oxford: Oxford University Press:54–93. Google Scholar

Briggs, JL 1991. Expecting the unexpected: Canadian Inuit training for an experimental lifestyle. Ethos 19(3):259–287. Google Scholar

Briggs, JL 1998. Inuit morality play. London: Yale University Press. Google Scholar

Brown, JK 1970. A note on the division of labour by sex. American Anthropologist 72:1073–1078. Google Scholar

Crittenden, AN 2016. To share or not to share? Social processes of learning to share food among Hadza hunter-gatherer children. In Terashima, H & Hewlett, BS (eds) Social learning and innovation in contemporary hunter-gatherers. Tokyo: Springer:61–70. Google Scholar

Crittenden, AN & Marlowe, FW 2008. Allomaternal care among the Hadza of Tanzania. Human Nature 19:249–262. Google Scholar

Crittenden, AN & Zes, DA 2015. Food sharing among Hadza hunter-gatherer children. PLOS ONE 10(7):e0131996, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131996. Google Scholar

D’Andrade, RG 1995. The development of cognitive anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Descola, P 2013. Beyond nature and culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar

Draper, P 1976. Social and economic constraints on child life among the !Kung. In Lee, RB & De Vore, I (eds) Kalahari hunter-gatherers: studies of the !Kung San and their neighbours. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press:200–217. Google Scholar

Draper, P 1978. The learning environment for aggression and anti-social behaviour among the !Kung. In Montagu, A (eds) Learning non-aggression: the experience of non-literate societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press:31–53. Google Scholar

Endicott, KM 2011. Cooperative autonomy: social solidarity among the Batek of Malaysia. In Gibson, T & Sillander, K (eds) Anarchic solidarity: autonomy, equality, and fellowship in Southeast Asia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Council on Southeast Asia Studies:62–87. Google Scholar

Endicott, KL & Endicott, KM 2014. Batek childrearing and morality. In Narvaez, D, Valentino, K, Fuentes, A, McKenna, JJ & Gray, P (eds) Ancestral landscapes in human evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press:108–125. Google Scholar

Fiske, A nd. Learning culture the way informants do: observing, imitating and anticipating. Unpublished. Google Scholar

Guemple, L 1988. Teaching social relations to Inuit children. In Ingold, T, Riches, D & Woodburn, J (eds) Hunters and gatherers 2: property, power, and ideology. Oxford: Berg Publishers:131–149. Google Scholar

Gurven, M 2004. To give and to give not: the behavioural ecology of human food transfers. Behavioural and Brain Sciences 27:543–583. Google Scholar

Gurven, M, Hill, K & Kaplan, HS 2002. From forest to reservation: transitions in food sharing behaviour among the Ache of Paraguay. Journal of Anthropological Research 58(1):93–120. Google Scholar

Harkness, S & Super, CM 2006. Themes and variations: parental ethnotheories in western cultures. In Rubin, KH & Chung, OB (eds) Parenting beliefs, behaviours, and parent-child relations: a cross-cultural perspective. New York: Psychology Press:61–79. Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS 1991. Intimate fathers: the nature and context of Aka pygmy paternal infant care. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS 2016. Evolutionary cultural anthropology: containing Ebola outbreaks and explaining hunter-gatherer childhoods. Current Anthropology 57(S13):S27–S37. Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS & Cavalli-Sforza, LL 1986. Cultural transmission among Aka pygmies. American Anthropologist 88(4):922–934. Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS & Lamb, ME 2002. Integrating evolution, culture and developmental psychology: explaining caregiver-infant proximity and responsiveness in central Africa and the USA. In Keller, H & Poortinga, YH & Schölmerich, A (eds) Between culture and biology:perspectives on ontogenetic development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:241–269. Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS, Fouts, HN, Boyette, AH & Hewlett, BL 2011. Social learning among Congo Basin hunter-gatherers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 366:1168–1178. Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS, Hudson, J, Boyette, AH & Fouts, HN (in review). Intimate living: sharing space among Aka and other hunter-gatherers. In Friesem, D & Lavi, N (eds) Inter-disciplinary perspectives on sharing among hunter-gatherers in the past and present. Cambridge: McDonald Institute. Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS, Lamb, ME, Leyendecker, B & Schölmerich, A 2000. Internal working models, trust and sharing among foragers. Current Anthropology 41(2):287–297. Google Scholar

Hill, V & Pillow, BH 2006. Children’s understanding of reputations. The Journal of Genetic Psychology 167(2):137–157. Google Scholar

Holland, D & Quinn, N (eds) 1987. Cultural models in language and thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Hrdy, SB 1999. Mother nature: a history of mothers, infants, and natural selection. 1st edition. New York: Pantheon Books. Google Scholar

Janowsky, JS & Carper, R 1996. Is there a neural basis for congitive transitions? In Sameroff, AJ & Haith, MM (eds) The five to seven year shift: the age of reason and responsibility. Chicago: University of Chicago Press:33–62. Google Scholar

Kaplan, HS, Hill, K, Lancaster, J & Hurtado, M 2000. A theory of human life history evolution: diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 9:156–185. Google Scholar

Kaplan, HS & Robson, AJ 2002. The emergence of humans: the coevolution of intelligence and longevity with intergenerational transfers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99(15):10221–10226. Google Scholar

Kelly, RL 1995. The foraging spectrum: diversity in hunter-gatherer lifeways. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. Google Scholar

Kitanishi, K 1998. Food sharing among the Aka hunter-gatherers in Northeastern Congo. African Study Monographs Supplement 25:3–32. Google Scholar

Lee, RB 1971. Eating Christmas in the Kalahari. In Spradley, JP & McCurdy, DW (eds) Conformity and conflict: readings in cultural anthropology. Boston: Little, Brown and Company:27–34. Google Scholar

Lee, R & Daly, R 1999. The Cambridge encyclopedia of hunters and gatherers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Lew-Levy, S, Lavi, N, Reckin, R, Cristóbal-Azkarate, J & Ellis-Davies, K 2018. How do hunter-gatherer children learn social and gender norms? A meta-ethnographic review. Cross-Cultural Research 52(2):213–255. Google Scholar

Lewis, J 2016. Play music and taboo in the reproduction of an egalitarian society. In Hewlett, BS & Terashima, H (eds) Social learning and innovation in contemporary hunter-gatherers: evolutionary and ethnographic perspectives. Tokyo: Springer:147–158. Google Scholar

Marlowe, FW 2005. Hunter-gatherers and human evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 14(2):54–67. Google Scholar

Meehan, CL, Quinlan, R & Malcom, CD 2012. Cooperative breeding and maternal energy expenditure among Aka foragers. American Journal of Human Biology 25(1):42–57. Google Scholar

Naveh, D 2016. Social and epistemological dimensions of learning among Nayaka hunter-gatherers. In Hewlett, BS & Terashima, H (eds) Social learning and innovation in contemporary hunter-gatherers: evolutionary and ethnographic perspectives. Tokyo: Springer:125–134. Google Scholar

Omura, K 2016. Socio-cultural cultivation of positive attitudes toward learning: considering differences in learning ability between Neanderhals and Modern Humans from examining Inuit children’s learning process. In Hewlett, BS & Terashima, H (eds) Social learning and innovation in contemporary hunter-gatherers: evolutionary and ethnographic perspectives. Tokyo: Springer:267–284. Google Scholar

Peterson, N 1993. Demand sharing: reciprocity and the pressure for generosity among foragers. American Anthropologist 95(4):860–874. Google Scholar

Piaget, J 1932. The moral judgment of the child. Glencoe, IL: Free Press. Google Scholar

Quinn, N 2006. The self. Anthropological Theory 6(3):362–384. Google Scholar

Rakoczy, H, Warneken, F & Tomasello, M 2008. The sources of normativity: young children’s awareness of the normative structure of games. Developmental Psychology 44(3):875–881. Google Scholar

Rogoff, B, Sellers, MJ, Pirrotta, S, Fox, N & White, SH 1975. Age of assignment of roles and responsibilities to children. Human Development 18(5):353–369. Google Scholar

Schmidt, MFH, Rakoczy, H & Tomasello, M 2011. Young children attribute normativity to novel actions without pedagogy or normative language. Developmental Science 14(3):530–539. Google Scholar

Schmidt, MFH & Tomasello, M 2012. Young children enforce social norms. Current Directions in Psychological Science 21(4):232–236. Google Scholar

Schnegg, M 2015. Reciprocity on demand: sharing and exchanging food in Northwestern Namibia. Human Nature 26(3):313–330. Google Scholar

Shore, B 1996. Culture in mind: cognition, culture, and the problem of meaning. New York: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

Strauss, C 1990. Who gets ahead? Cognitive responses to heteroglossia in American political culture. American Ethnologist 17(2):312–328. Google Scholar

Strauss, C & Quinn, N 1997. A cognitive theory of cultural meaning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Tomasello, M, Kruger, AC & Ratner, HH 1993. Cultural learning. Behavioural and Brain Sciences 16:495–552. Google Scholar

Tucker, B & Young, AG 2005. Growing up Mikea: children’s time allocation and tuber foraging in southwestern Madagascar. In Hewlett, BS & Lamb, ME (eds) Hunter-gatherer childhoods: evolutionary, developmental, and cultural perspectives. New Brunswick: Aldine Transaction:147–174. Google Scholar

Turnbull, CM 1978. The politics of non-aggression (Zaire). In Montagu, A (ed) Learning non-aggression: the experiences of non-literate societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press:161–221. Google Scholar

Weisner, TS 1996. The 5 to 7 transition as an ecocultural project. In Sameroff, AJ & Haith, MM. Chicago: University of Chicago Press:295–328. Google Scholar

Weisner, TS & Gallimore, R 1977. My brother’s keeper: child and sibling caretaking. Current Anthropology 18(2):169–190. Google Scholar

White, SH 1965. Evidence for a hierarchical arrangement of learning processes. In Lipsitt, LP & Spiker, CC (eds) Advances in child development and behaviour, vol 2. New York: Academic Press:187–220. Google Scholar

Wiessner, P 1982. Risk, reciprocity, and social influences on !Kung San economics. In Leacock, E & Lee, RB (eds) Politics and history in band societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:61–84. Google Scholar

Wiessner, P 2005. Norm enforcement among the Ju/’hoansi Bushmen. Human Nature 16(2):115–145. Google Scholar

Woodburn, J 1982. Egalitarian societies. Man 17(3):431–451. Google Scholar

Woodburn, J 1998. ‘Sharing is not a form of exchange’: an analysis of property-sharing in immediate-return hunter-gatherer societies. In Hann, CM (ed) Property relations: renewing the anthropological tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:48–63. Google Scholar

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Boyette, Adam Howell