Town Planning Review

Civic initiatives in urban development: self-governance versus self-organisation in planning practice

Town Planning Review (2016), 87, (3), 339–361.

Abstract

This paper discusses two distinct interpretations of self-organisation with regard to civic initiatives in urban development. One concerns urban developments in which citizens deliberately organise themselves in order to realise a collective ambition. This interpretation of self-organisation resonates with forms of self-governance. The other is embedded in complexity sciences. It stresses the spontaneous emergence of urban structures on a particular scale out of the uncoordinated interactions between initiatives on a lower level. The paper highlights the similarities and the fundamental differences between both understandings of self-organisation. It also identifies implications of these differences for research on spatial planning policy and recommendations for civic initiatives in urban development.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

ALLEN, P. M. (1997), Cities and Regions as Self-Organizing Systems: Models of Complexity, London, Taylor & Francis. Cities and Regions as Self-Organizing Systems: Models of Complexity Google Scholar

ANDERSON, C. (2002), ‘Self-organization in relation to several similar concepts: are the boundaries to self-organization indistinct?’, Biological Bulletin, 202, 247–55. Self-organization in relation to several similar concepts: are the boundaries to self-organization indistinct? Biological Bulletin 202 247 55 Google Scholar

ARNOUTS, R., VAN DER ZOUWEN, M. and ARTS, B. (2012), ‘Analysing governance modes and shifts: governance arrangements in Dutch nature policy’, Forest Policy and Economics, 16, 43–50. Analysing governance modes and shifts: governance arrangements in Dutch nature policy Forest Policy and Economics 16 43 50 Google Scholar

AVELINO, F., BOSMAN, R., FRANTZESKAKI, N., AKERBOOM, S., BOONTJE, P., HOFFMAN, J., PARADIES, G., PEL, B., SCHOLTEN, D. and WITTMAYER, J. (2014), ‘The (self-)governance of community energy: challenges & prospects’ (Dutch Research Institute For Transitions (DRIFT) Practice brief No. PB 2014.01), Rotterdam. The (self-)governance of community energy: challenges & prospects Google Scholar

BAK, P. (1996), How Nature Works: The Science of Self-Organized Criticality, New York, Copernicus Press. How Nature Works: The Science of Self-Organized Criticality Google Scholar

BAMFORD G. (2001), ‘Bringing us home: cohousing and the environmental possibilities of reuniting people with neighbourhoods’ (paper delivered at the conference, Situating the Environment, University of Queensland, Brisbane). Bringing us home: cohousing and the environmental possibilities of reuniting people with neighbourhoods Google Scholar

BARROS, J. (2005), ‘Simulating urban dynamics in Latin American cities’, in P. Atkinson, G. Foody, S. Darby and F. Wu (eds), GeoDynamics, Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 313–28. Simulating urban dynamics in Latin American cities GeoDynamics 313 28 Google Scholar

BARROS, J. and SOBREIRA, F. (2008), ‘City of slums: self-organisation across scales’, in A. Minai, and Y. Bar-Yam (eds), Unifying Themes in Complex Systems IV, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 265–73. City of slums: self-organisation across scales Unifying Themes in Complex Systems IV 265 73 Google Scholar

BATTY, M. (2005), Cities and Complexity: Understanding Cities with Cellular Automata, Agent-Based Models, and Fractals, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Cities and Complexity: Understanding Cities with Cellular Automata, Agent-Based Models, and Fractals Google Scholar

BATTY, M. (2013), The New Science of Cities, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. The New Science of Cities Google Scholar

BLIJIE, B., VAN HULLE, R., POULUS, C. and HOOIMEIJER, P. (2009), ‘Het wonen overwogen. De resultaten van het Woon Onderzoek Nederland 2009’ [The Housing Sector Considered: The Results of Woon Onderzoek Nederland 2009] (report to Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning, and Environment), Den Haag, Ministerie van VROM en het CBS. Het wonen overwogen. De resultaten van het Woon Onderzoek Nederland 2009 Google Scholar

BOELENS, L. and VISSER, A.-J. (2011) ‘Possible futures of self-construction: post-structural reflections on ten years of experimentation with (C)PC’, in L. Qu and E. Hasselaar (eds), Making Room for People: Choice, Voice and Liveability in Residential Places, Amsterdam, Techne Press, 103–28. Possible futures of self-construction: post-structural reflections on ten years of experimentation with (C)PC Making Room for People: Choice, Voice and Liveability in Residential Places 103 28 Google Scholar

BONABEAU, E., THERAULAZ, G., DENEUBOURG, J. L., ARON, S. and CAMAZINE, S. (1997), ‘Self-organization in social insects’, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 12, 188–93. Self-organization in social insects Trends in Ecology & Evolution 12 188 93 Google Scholar

BOONSTRA, B. and BOELENS, L. (2011), ‘Self-organization in urban development: towards a new perspective on spatial planning’, Urban Research and Practice, 4, 99–122. Self-organization in urban development: towards a new perspective on spatial planning Urban Research and Practice 4 99 122 Google Scholar

CILLIERS, P. (1998), Complexity and Postmodernism: Understanding Complex Systems, London, Routledge. Complexity and Postmodernism: Understanding Complex Systems Google Scholar

DALENOORT, G. J. (1995), ‘Computation and self-organization in the brain’, Cognitive Systems, 4, 217–31 Computation and self-organization in the brain Cognitive Systems 4 217 31 Google Scholar

DE ROO, G. (2010), ‘Planning and complexity: an introduction’, in G. de Roo and E. A. Silva (eds), A Planner’s Encounter with Complexity, Farnham, Ashgate, 1–18. Planning and complexity: an introduction A Planner’s Encounter with Complexity 1 18 Google Scholar

DE ROO, G. and SILVA, E. A. (2010), A Planner’s Encounter with Complexity, Farnham, Ashgate. A Planner’s Encounter with Complexity Google Scholar

ENGELEN, G., WHITE, R., and NIJS, T. (2003), ‘Environment explorer: spatial support system for the integrated assessment of socio-economic and environmental policies in the Netherlands’, Integrated Assessment, 4, 97–105. Environment explorer: spatial support system for the integrated assessment of socio-economic and environmental policies in the Netherlands Integrated Assessment 4 97 105 Google Scholar

FRANTZESKAKI, N., AVELINO, F. and LOORBACH, D. (2013), ‘Outliers or frontrunners? exploring the (self-)governance of community-owned sustainable energy in Scotland and the Netherlands’, in E. Michalena and J. Hills (eds), Renewable Energy Governance, London, Springer, 101–16. Outliers or frontrunners? exploring the (self-)governance of community-owned sustainable energy in Scotland and the Netherlands Renewable Energy Governance 101 16 Google Scholar

GEMEENTE ALMERE and GEMEENTE ZEEWOLDE (2013), ‘Intergemeentelijke Structuurvisie Oosterwold’ [Inter Municipal Development Vision Oosterwold], http://almere20.almere.nl/fileadmin/files/almere/subsites/almere_20/LR_5_Intergemeentelijke_Structuurvisie_Oosterwold_3_1_.pdf (accessed 2 March 2013). Google Scholar

GERRITS, L. M., (2008), The Gentle Art of Coevolution: A Complexity Theory Perspective on Decision Making Over Estuaries in Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands, Erasmus University Rotterdam, http://hdl.handle.net/1765/11152. Google Scholar

HAJER, M. (2011), ‘De energieke samenleving. Op zoek naar een sturingsfilosofie voor een schone economie’ [Shaping the Spontaneous City: Barriers and Opportunities for Organic Urban Development], Den Haag, Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL), http://www.pbl.nl/sites/default/files/cms/publicaties/Signalenrapport_web.pdf (accessed 13 September 2013). Google Scholar

HEALEY, P., CARS, G., MADANIPOUR, A. and DE MAGALHAES, C. (2002), ‘Transforming governance, institutionalist analysis and institutional capacity-region’, in P. Healey, G. Cars, A. Madanipour and C. De Magalhaes (eds), Urban Governance, Institutional Capacity-Region and Social Milieu, Farnham, Ashgate, 6–28. Transforming governance, institutionalist analysis and institutional capacity-region Urban Governance, Institutional Capacity-Region and Social Milieu 6 28 Google Scholar

HELBING, D., MOLNAR, P., FARKAS, I. J., and BOLAY, K. (2001), ‘Self-organizing pedestrian movement’, Environment and Planning B, 28, 361–84. Self-organizing pedestrian movement Environment and Planning B 28 361 84 Google Scholar

HEYLIGHEN, F. (2008), ‘Complexity and self-organization’, in M. J. Bates and M. N. Maack (eds), Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Sciences (3rd edition), Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Complexity and self-organization Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Sciences Google Scholar

HUYGEN, A., VAN MARISSING, E. and BOUTELLIER, J. C. J. (2012), ‘Condities voor zelforganisatie’ [Conditions for Self-Organisation], Utrecht, Verwey-Jonker Instituut, http://www.verwey-jonker.nl/doc/participatie/Condities-voor-zelforganisatie_web_8845%20Printversie.pdf (accessed 7 January 2015). Google Scholar

INNES, J., and BOOHER, D. (2010), Planning with Complexity: An Introduction to Collaborative Rationality for Public Policy, Abingdon: Routledge. Planning with Complexity: An Introduction to Collaborative Rationality for Public Policy Google Scholar

KAUFFMAN, S. (1995), At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity, Oxford, Oxford University Press. At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity Google Scholar

KERNER, B. S. (1998), ‘Experimental features of self-organization in traffic flow’, Physical Review Letters, 81, 3797. Experimental features of self-organization in traffic flow Physical Review Letters 81 Google Scholar

KOOIMAN, J. (2003), Governing as Governance, London, Sage. Governing as Governance Google Scholar

KROKFORS, K. (2012), ‘Cohousing in the making’, Built Environment, 38, 309–14. Cohousing in the making Built Environment 38 309 14 Google Scholar

LANGE, P., DRIESSEN, P. P., SAUE, A., BORNEMANN, B. and BURGER, P. (2013), ‘Governing towards sustainability: conceptualizing modes of governance’, Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 15, 403–25. Governing towards sustainability: conceptualizing modes of governance Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 15 403 25 Google Scholar

LEWIN, R. (1992), Complexity: Life at the Edge of Chaos, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Complexity: Life at the Edge of Chaos Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

LUHMANN, N. (1990), Essays on Self-Reference, New York, Columbia University Press. Essays on Self-Reference Google Scholar

LYDON, M. and GARCIA, A. (2014), Tactical Urbanism, Washington, DC, Island Press. Tactical Urbanism Google Scholar

LIETAERT, M. (2010), ‘Cohousing’s relevance to degrowth theories’, Journal of Cleaner Production, 18, 576–80. Cohousing’s relevance to degrowth theories Journal of Cleaner Production 18 576 80 Google Scholar

MATURANA, H. R. and VARELA, F. (1980), Autopoiesis and Cognition: The Realization of the Living, Dordrecht, D. Reidel Publishing Company. Autopoiesis and Cognition: The Realization of the Living Google Scholar

MAYER, M. (2003), ‘The onward sweep of social capital: causes and consequences for understanding cities, communities and urban movements’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 27, 110–32. The onward sweep of social capital: causes and consequences for understanding cities, communities and urban movements International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 27 110 32 Google Scholar

MIAZZO, F., and KEE, T. (2014), We Own the City: Enabling Community Practice in Architecture and Urban Planning, Amsterdam, Trancity. We Own the City: Enabling Community Practice in Architecture and Urban Planning Google Scholar

MINORA, F., MULLINS, D. and JONES, P. A. (2013), ‘Governing for habitability: self-organised communities in England and Italy’, Co-operative Management, 6, 33–45. Governing for habitability: self-organised communities in England and Italy Co-operative Management 6 33 45 Google Scholar

MOULAERT, F., PARRA, C. and SWYNGEDOUW, E. (2014), ‘Cities, neighbourhoods and multiscalar governance in urban Europe’, EURE: Revista latinoamericana de estudios urbano regionales, 40, 5–24. Cities, neighbourhoods and multiscalar governance in urban Europe EURE: Revista latinoamericana de estudios urbano regionales 40 5 24 Google Scholar

NEDERHAND, M. J., BEKKERS, V. J. J. M. and VOORBERG, W. H. (2014), ‘Self-organization and the role of government: how and why self-organization evolves in the shadow of hierarchy?’ (paper delivered to the IRSPM 2014 Conference Ottawa, 9–11 April 2014), hdl.handle. net/1765/51070. Self-organization and the role of government: how and why self-organization evolves in the shadow of hierarchy? 9 11 Google Scholar

NEWMAN, J. (2011), ‘Mobilising the active citizen in the UK Tensions, silences and erasures’, in J. Newman and E. Tonkens (eds), Participation, Responsibility and Choice, Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press, 127–45. Mobilising the active citizen in the UK Tensions, silences and erasures Participation, Responsibility and Choice 127 45 Google Scholar

NEWMAN, L., WALDRON, L., DALE, A., and CARRIERE, K. (2008), ‘Sustainable urban community development from the grassroots: challenges and opportunities in a pedestrian street initiative’, Local Environment, 13, 129–39. Sustainable urban community development from the grassroots: challenges and opportunities in a pedestrian street initiative Local Environment 13 129 39 Google Scholar

NICOLIS, G. and PRIGOGINE, I. (1977), Self-Organization in Non-Equilibrium Systems, New York, Wiley. Self-Organization in Non-Equilibrium Systems Google Scholar

NORTH, D. C. (2005), Understanding the Process of Economic Change, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press. Understanding the Process of Economic Change Google Scholar

OUDE VRIELINK, M. J. and VAN DE WIJDEVEN, T. M. F. (2011), ‘Ondersteuning in vieren: Zichtlijnen in het faciliteren van burgerinitiatieven in de buurt’ [Facilitating in Four: Sightlines for Facilitating Civic Initiatives in Neighbourhoods], Tijdschrift voor Beleid, Politiek en Maatschappij, 28, 438–45. Ondersteuning in vieren: Zichtlijnen in het faciliteren van burgerinitiatieven in de buurt Tijdschrift voor Beleid, Politiek en Maatschappij 28 438 45 Google Scholar

OSTROM, E. (2005a), Understanding Institutional Diversity, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press. Understanding Institutional Diversity Google Scholar

OSTROM, E. (2005b), ‘Self-governance and forest resources’, in P. J. Shah and V. Maitra (eds), Terracotta Reader: A Market Approach to the Environment, New Delhi, Academic Foundation, 131–54. Self-governance and forest resources Terracotta Reader: A Market Approach to the Environment 131 54 Google Scholar

PBL and URHAHN URBAN DESIGN (2012), ‘Vormgeven aan de Spontane Stad: belemmeringen en kansen voor organische stedelijke herontwikkeling’ [Shaping the Spontaneous City: Barriers and Opportunities for Organic Urban Development], Den Haag, Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL), http://www.pbl.nl/publicaties/2012/vormgeven-aan-despontane-stad-belemmeringen-en-kansen-voor-organische-stedelijke-herontwikkeling (accessed 12 October 2012). Google Scholar

PORTUGALI, J. (1999), Self-Organization and the City, Berlin, Springer-Verlag. Self-Organization and the City Google Scholar

PORTUGALI, J. (2005) ‘The scope of complex artificial environments’, in J. Portugali (ed.), Complex Artificial Environments, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 9–30. The scope of complex artificial environments Complex Artificial Environments 9 30 Google Scholar

PORTUGALI, J. (2011), Complexity, Cognition and the City, Berlin, Springer-Verlag. Complexity, Cognition and the City Google Scholar

QU, L., and HASSELAAR, E. (eds) (2011), Making Room for People: Choice, Voice and Liveability in Residential Places, Amsterdam, Techne Press. Making Room for People: Choice, Voice and Liveability in Residential Places Google Scholar

RRAAM (Randstadbesluiten Amsterdam-Almere-Markermeer) (2012), ‘Almere Oosterwold: Land-Goed voor initiatieven’ [Almere Oosterwold: Estate for Initiatives], http://www.rraam.nl/Publicaties/Documenten+en+Publicaties+RRAAM/153953.aspx?t=Ontwikkelstrategie%20Almere%20Oosterwold (accessed 2 March 2013). Google Scholar

RAUWS, W. S. (2015) Why Planning Needs Complexity: Towards an Adaptive Approach for Guiding Urban and Peri-Urban Transformations (published PhD thesis), University of Groningen, doi: 10.17418/PHD.2015.9789036778961. Google Scholar

SCHMIDT-THOME, K., WALLIN, S., LAATIKAINEN, T., KANGASOJA, J. and KYTTÄ, M. (2014), ‘Exploring the use of PPGIS in self-organizing urban development: case softGIS in Pacific Beach’, Journal of Community Informatics, 10, http://www.ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/1080 (accessed 5 January 2015). Google Scholar

SEV (Stuurgroep Experimenten Volkshuisvesting) [Steering Committee for Experiments in Public Housing] (2007), Handboek: CPO voor gemeenten [Handbook: Cohousing for Municipal Organisations], Den Haag, Drukkerij Brink. Google Scholar

SICILIANO, J. M. (2009), ‘The process and issues of creating a cohousing development with affordable units in an affluent community: Stamford, Connecticut’ (Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning Masters Projects, Paper 19), University of Massachusetts – Amherst. The process and issues of creating a cohousing development with affordable units in an affluent community: Stamford, Connecticut Google Scholar

SØRENSEN, E. and TRIANTAFILLOU, P. (2013), ‘Politics of self-governance: an introduction’, in E. Sørensen and P. Triantafillou (eds), The Politics of Self-Governance, Farnham, Ashgate, 1–22. Politics of self-governance: an introduction The Politics of Self-Governance 1 22 Google Scholar

SWYNGEDOUW, E. and MOULAERT, F. (2010), ‘Socially innovative projects, governance dynamics and urban change: between state and self-organisation’, in E. Swyngedouw, F. Moulaert, F. Martinelli and S. Gonzales, S. (eds), Can Neighbourhoods Save the City, London, Routledge, 219–34. Socially innovative projects, governance dynamics and urban change: between state and self-organisation Can Neighbourhoods Save the City 219 34 Google Scholar

TERMEER, C. J. A. M., SRUIVER, M., GERRITSEN, A. and HUNTJES, P. (2013) ‘Integrating self-governance in heavily regulated policy fields: insights from a Dutch farmers’ cooperative’, Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 15, 285–302. Integrating self-governance in heavily regulated policy fields: insights from a Dutch farmers cooperative Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 15 285 302 Google Scholar

TIDBALL, K. G. and KRASNY, M. E. (2007), ‘From risk to resilience: what role for community greening and civic ecology in cities?’, in A. Wals (eds), Social Learning Towards a Sustainable World: Principles, Perspectives, and Praxis, Wageningen, Wageningen Academic Press, 149–64. From risk to resilience: what role for community greening and civic ecology in cities? Social Learning Towards a Sustainable World: Principles, Perspectives, and Praxis 149 64 Google Scholar

TOWNSEND, R. E. (1995), ‘Fisheries self-governance: corporate or cooperative structures?’, Marine Policy, 19, 39–45. Fisheries self-governance: corporate or cooperative structures? Marine Policy 19 39 45 Google Scholar

TONKENS, E. (2008), De bal bij de burger: burgerschap en publieke moraal in een pluriforme, dynamische samenleving [The Ball is for the Citizens: Citizenship and Public Moral in a Diverse and Dynamic Society], Amsterdam, Vossiuspers UvA. De bal bij de burger: burgerschap en publieke moraal in een pluriforme, dynamische samenleving Google Scholar

TUMMERS, L. (2011), ‘Self-managed co-housing assessing urban qualities and bottlenecks in the planning system’, in L. Qu and E. Hasselaar (eds), Making Room for People: Choice, Voice and Liveability in Residential Places, Amsterdam, Techne Press. Self-managed co-housing assessing urban qualities and bottlenecks in the planning system Making Room for People: Choice, Voice and Liveability in Residential Places Google Scholar

VAN DAM, R., ESHUIS, J. and AARTS, N. (2009), ‘Transition starts with people: self-organising communities ADM and Golf Residence Dronten’, in K. J. Poppe, C. Termeer and M. Slingerland (eds), Sustainable Agriculture and Food Chains in Peri-Urban Areas, Wageningen, Wageningen Academic Publisher, 81–92. Transition starts with people: self-organising communities ADM and Golf Residence Dronten Sustainable Agriculture and Food Chains in Peri-Urban Areas 81 92 Google Scholar

VAN DAM, R., DUINEVELD, M. and DURING, R. (2014), ‘Delineating active citizenship: the subjectification of citizens’ initiatives’, Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 17, 163–79. Delineating active citizenship: the subjectification of citizens initiatives Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 17 163 79 Google Scholar

VAN DE WIJDEVEN, T. (2012), Doe-democratie: over actief burgerschap in stadswijken, Delft, Eburon. Doe-democratie: over actief burgerschap in stadswijken Google Scholar

VAN MEERKERK, I., BOONSTRA, B. and EDELENBOS, J. (2012), ‘Self-organization in urban regeneration: a two-case comparative research’, European Planning Studies, 21, 1630–52. Self-organization in urban regeneration: a two-case comparative research European Planning Studies 21 1630 52 Google Scholar

VESTBO, D. U. (2000), ‘From collective housing to cohousing: a summary of research’, Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 17, 164–78. From collective housing to cohousing: a summary of research Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 17 164 78 Google Scholar

WILLIAMS, J. (2005) ‘Designing neighbourhoods for social interaction: the case of cohousing’, Journal of Urban Design, 10, 195–227. Designing neighbourhoods for social interaction: the case of cohousing Journal of Urban Design 10 195 227 Google Scholar

WILSON, A. (2009) ‘The “thermodynamics” of the city’, in A. Reggiani and P. Nijkamp (eds), Complexity and Spatial Networks, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 11–31. The “thermodynamics” of the city Complexity and Spatial Networks 11 31 Google Scholar

WOLFRAM, S. (2002), A New Kind of Science, Champaign, IL, Wolfram Media Ltd. A New Kind of Science Google Scholar

ZHANG, S., DE ROO, G. and VAN DIJK, T. (2015), ‘Urban land changes as the interaction between self-organization and institutions’, Planning Practice and Research, 30, 160–78. Urban land changes as the interaction between self-organization and institutions Planning Practice and Research 30 160 78 Google Scholar

Website www.maakoosterwold.nl (accessed 8 January 2015). Google Scholar

ALLEN, P. M. (1997), Cities and Regions as Self-Organizing Systems: Models of Complexity, London, Taylor & Francis. Cities and Regions as Self-Organizing Systems: Models of Complexity Google Scholar

ANDERSON, C. (2002), ‘Self-organization in relation to several similar concepts: are the boundaries to self-organization indistinct?’, Biological Bulletin, 202, 247–55. Self-organization in relation to several similar concepts: are the boundaries to self-organization indistinct? Biological Bulletin 202 247 55 Google Scholar

ARNOUTS, R., VAN DER ZOUWEN, M. and ARTS, B. (2012), ‘Analysing governance modes and shifts: governance arrangements in Dutch nature policy’, Forest Policy and Economics, 16, 43–50. Analysing governance modes and shifts: governance arrangements in Dutch nature policy Forest Policy and Economics 16 43 50 Google Scholar

AVELINO, F., BOSMAN, R., FRANTZESKAKI, N., AKERBOOM, S., BOONTJE, P., HOFFMAN, J., PARADIES, G., PEL, B., SCHOLTEN, D. and WITTMAYER, J. (2014), ‘The (self-)governance of community energy: challenges & prospects’ (Dutch Research Institute For Transitions (DRIFT) Practice brief No. PB 2014.01), Rotterdam. The (self-)governance of community energy: challenges & prospects Google Scholar

BAK, P. (1996), How Nature Works: The Science of Self-Organized Criticality, New York, Copernicus Press. How Nature Works: The Science of Self-Organized Criticality Google Scholar

BAMFORD G. (2001), ‘Bringing us home: cohousing and the environmental possibilities of reuniting people with neighbourhoods’ (paper delivered at the conference, Situating the Environment, University of Queensland, Brisbane). Bringing us home: cohousing and the environmental possibilities of reuniting people with neighbourhoods Google Scholar

BARROS, J. (2005), ‘Simulating urban dynamics in Latin American cities’, in P. Atkinson, G. Foody, S. Darby and F. Wu (eds), GeoDynamics, Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 313–28. Simulating urban dynamics in Latin American cities GeoDynamics 313 28 Google Scholar

BARROS, J. and SOBREIRA, F. (2008), ‘City of slums: self-organisation across scales’, in A. Minai, and Y. Bar-Yam (eds), Unifying Themes in Complex Systems IV, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 265–73. City of slums: self-organisation across scales Unifying Themes in Complex Systems IV 265 73 Google Scholar

BATTY, M. (2005), Cities and Complexity: Understanding Cities with Cellular Automata, Agent-Based Models, and Fractals, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Cities and Complexity: Understanding Cities with Cellular Automata, Agent-Based Models, and Fractals Google Scholar

BATTY, M. (2013), The New Science of Cities, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. The New Science of Cities Google Scholar

BLIJIE, B., VAN HULLE, R., POULUS, C. and HOOIMEIJER, P. (2009), ‘Het wonen overwogen. De resultaten van het Woon Onderzoek Nederland 2009’ [The Housing Sector Considered: The Results of Woon Onderzoek Nederland 2009] (report to Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning, and Environment), Den Haag, Ministerie van VROM en het CBS. Het wonen overwogen. De resultaten van het Woon Onderzoek Nederland 2009 Google Scholar

BOELENS, L. and VISSER, A.-J. (2011) ‘Possible futures of self-construction: post-structural reflections on ten years of experimentation with (C)PC’, in L. Qu and E. Hasselaar (eds), Making Room for People: Choice, Voice and Liveability in Residential Places, Amsterdam, Techne Press, 103–28. Possible futures of self-construction: post-structural reflections on ten years of experimentation with (C)PC Making Room for People: Choice, Voice and Liveability in Residential Places 103 28 Google Scholar

BONABEAU, E., THERAULAZ, G., DENEUBOURG, J. L., ARON, S. and CAMAZINE, S. (1997), ‘Self-organization in social insects’, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 12, 188–93. Self-organization in social insects Trends in Ecology & Evolution 12 188 93 Google Scholar

BOONSTRA, B. and BOELENS, L. (2011), ‘Self-organization in urban development: towards a new perspective on spatial planning’, Urban Research and Practice, 4, 99–122. Self-organization in urban development: towards a new perspective on spatial planning Urban Research and Practice 4 99 122 Google Scholar

CILLIERS, P. (1998), Complexity and Postmodernism: Understanding Complex Systems, London, Routledge. Complexity and Postmodernism: Understanding Complex Systems Google Scholar

DALENOORT, G. J. (1995), ‘Computation and self-organization in the brain’, Cognitive Systems, 4, 217–31 Computation and self-organization in the brain Cognitive Systems 4 217 31 Google Scholar

DE ROO, G. (2010), ‘Planning and complexity: an introduction’, in G. de Roo and E. A. Silva (eds), A Planner’s Encounter with Complexity, Farnham, Ashgate, 1–18. Planning and complexity: an introduction A Planner’s Encounter with Complexity 1 18 Google Scholar

DE ROO, G. and SILVA, E. A. (2010), A Planner’s Encounter with Complexity, Farnham, Ashgate. A Planner’s Encounter with Complexity Google Scholar

ENGELEN, G., WHITE, R., and NIJS, T. (2003), ‘Environment explorer: spatial support system for the integrated assessment of socio-economic and environmental policies in the Netherlands’, Integrated Assessment, 4, 97–105. Environment explorer: spatial support system for the integrated assessment of socio-economic and environmental policies in the Netherlands Integrated Assessment 4 97 105 Google Scholar

FRANTZESKAKI, N., AVELINO, F. and LOORBACH, D. (2013), ‘Outliers or frontrunners? exploring the (self-)governance of community-owned sustainable energy in Scotland and the Netherlands’, in E. Michalena and J. Hills (eds), Renewable Energy Governance, London, Springer, 101–16. Outliers or frontrunners? exploring the (self-)governance of community-owned sustainable energy in Scotland and the Netherlands Renewable Energy Governance 101 16 Google Scholar

GEMEENTE ALMERE and GEMEENTE ZEEWOLDE (2013), ‘Intergemeentelijke Structuurvisie Oosterwold’ [Inter Municipal Development Vision Oosterwold], http://almere20.almere.nl/fileadmin/files/almere/subsites/almere_20/LR_5_Intergemeentelijke_Structuurvisie_Oosterwold_3_1_.pdf (accessed 2 March 2013). Google Scholar

GERRITS, L. M., (2008), The Gentle Art of Coevolution: A Complexity Theory Perspective on Decision Making Over Estuaries in Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands, Erasmus University Rotterdam, http://hdl.handle.net/1765/11152. Google Scholar

HAJER, M. (2011), ‘De energieke samenleving. Op zoek naar een sturingsfilosofie voor een schone economie’ [Shaping the Spontaneous City: Barriers and Opportunities for Organic Urban Development], Den Haag, Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL), http://www.pbl.nl/sites/default/files/cms/publicaties/Signalenrapport_web.pdf (accessed 13 September 2013). Google Scholar

HEALEY, P., CARS, G., MADANIPOUR, A. and DE MAGALHAES, C. (2002), ‘Transforming governance, institutionalist analysis and institutional capacity-region’, in P. Healey, G. Cars, A. Madanipour and C. De Magalhaes (eds), Urban Governance, Institutional Capacity-Region and Social Milieu, Farnham, Ashgate, 6–28. Transforming governance, institutionalist analysis and institutional capacity-region Urban Governance, Institutional Capacity-Region and Social Milieu 6 28 Google Scholar

HELBING, D., MOLNAR, P., FARKAS, I. J., and BOLAY, K. (2001), ‘Self-organizing pedestrian movement’, Environment and Planning B, 28, 361–84. Self-organizing pedestrian movement Environment and Planning B 28 361 84 Google Scholar

HEYLIGHEN, F. (2008), ‘Complexity and self-organization’, in M. J. Bates and M. N. Maack (eds), Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Sciences (3rd edition), Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Complexity and self-organization Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Sciences Google Scholar

HUYGEN, A., VAN MARISSING, E. and BOUTELLIER, J. C. J. (2012), ‘Condities voor zelforganisatie’ [Conditions for Self-Organisation], Utrecht, Verwey-Jonker Instituut, http://www.verwey-jonker.nl/doc/participatie/Condities-voor-zelforganisatie_web_8845%20Printversie.pdf (accessed 7 January 2015). Google Scholar

INNES, J., and BOOHER, D. (2010), Planning with Complexity: An Introduction to Collaborative Rationality for Public Policy, Abingdon: Routledge. Planning with Complexity: An Introduction to Collaborative Rationality for Public Policy Google Scholar

KAUFFMAN, S. (1995), At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity, Oxford, Oxford University Press. At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity Google Scholar

KERNER, B. S. (1998), ‘Experimental features of self-organization in traffic flow’, Physical Review Letters, 81, 3797. Experimental features of self-organization in traffic flow Physical Review Letters 81 Google Scholar

KOOIMAN, J. (2003), Governing as Governance, London, Sage. Governing as Governance Google Scholar

KROKFORS, K. (2012), ‘Cohousing in the making’, Built Environment, 38, 309–14. Cohousing in the making Built Environment 38 309 14 Google Scholar

LANGE, P., DRIESSEN, P. P., SAUE, A., BORNEMANN, B. and BURGER, P. (2013), ‘Governing towards sustainability: conceptualizing modes of governance’, Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 15, 403–25. Governing towards sustainability: conceptualizing modes of governance Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 15 403 25 Google Scholar

LEWIN, R. (1992), Complexity: Life at the Edge of Chaos, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Complexity: Life at the Edge of Chaos Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

LUHMANN, N. (1990), Essays on Self-Reference, New York, Columbia University Press. Essays on Self-Reference Google Scholar

LYDON, M. and GARCIA, A. (2014), Tactical Urbanism, Washington, DC, Island Press. Tactical Urbanism Google Scholar

LIETAERT, M. (2010), ‘Cohousing’s relevance to degrowth theories’, Journal of Cleaner Production, 18, 576–80. Cohousing’s relevance to degrowth theories Journal of Cleaner Production 18 576 80 Google Scholar

MATURANA, H. R. and VARELA, F. (1980), Autopoiesis and Cognition: The Realization of the Living, Dordrecht, D. Reidel Publishing Company. Autopoiesis and Cognition: The Realization of the Living Google Scholar

MAYER, M. (2003), ‘The onward sweep of social capital: causes and consequences for understanding cities, communities and urban movements’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 27, 110–32. The onward sweep of social capital: causes and consequences for understanding cities, communities and urban movements International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 27 110 32 Google Scholar

MIAZZO, F., and KEE, T. (2014), We Own the City: Enabling Community Practice in Architecture and Urban Planning, Amsterdam, Trancity. We Own the City: Enabling Community Practice in Architecture and Urban Planning Google Scholar

MINORA, F., MULLINS, D. and JONES, P. A. (2013), ‘Governing for habitability: self-organised communities in England and Italy’, Co-operative Management, 6, 33–45. Governing for habitability: self-organised communities in England and Italy Co-operative Management 6 33 45 Google Scholar

MOULAERT, F., PARRA, C. and SWYNGEDOUW, E. (2014), ‘Cities, neighbourhoods and multiscalar governance in urban Europe’, EURE: Revista latinoamericana de estudios urbano regionales, 40, 5–24. Cities, neighbourhoods and multiscalar governance in urban Europe EURE: Revista latinoamericana de estudios urbano regionales 40 5 24 Google Scholar

NEDERHAND, M. J., BEKKERS, V. J. J. M. and VOORBERG, W. H. (2014), ‘Self-organization and the role of government: how and why self-organization evolves in the shadow of hierarchy?’ (paper delivered to the IRSPM 2014 Conference Ottawa, 9–11 April 2014), hdl.handle. net/1765/51070. Self-organization and the role of government: how and why self-organization evolves in the shadow of hierarchy? 9 11 Google Scholar

NEWMAN, J. (2011), ‘Mobilising the active citizen in the UK Tensions, silences and erasures’, in J. Newman and E. Tonkens (eds), Participation, Responsibility and Choice, Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press, 127–45. Mobilising the active citizen in the UK Tensions, silences and erasures Participation, Responsibility and Choice 127 45 Google Scholar

NEWMAN, L., WALDRON, L., DALE, A., and CARRIERE, K. (2008), ‘Sustainable urban community development from the grassroots: challenges and opportunities in a pedestrian street initiative’, Local Environment, 13, 129–39. Sustainable urban community development from the grassroots: challenges and opportunities in a pedestrian street initiative Local Environment 13 129 39 Google Scholar

NICOLIS, G. and PRIGOGINE, I. (1977), Self-Organization in Non-Equilibrium Systems, New York, Wiley. Self-Organization in Non-Equilibrium Systems Google Scholar

NORTH, D. C. (2005), Understanding the Process of Economic Change, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press. Understanding the Process of Economic Change Google Scholar

OUDE VRIELINK, M. J. and VAN DE WIJDEVEN, T. M. F. (2011), ‘Ondersteuning in vieren: Zichtlijnen in het faciliteren van burgerinitiatieven in de buurt’ [Facilitating in Four: Sightlines for Facilitating Civic Initiatives in Neighbourhoods], Tijdschrift voor Beleid, Politiek en Maatschappij, 28, 438–45. Ondersteuning in vieren: Zichtlijnen in het faciliteren van burgerinitiatieven in de buurt Tijdschrift voor Beleid, Politiek en Maatschappij 28 438 45 Google Scholar

OSTROM, E. (2005a), Understanding Institutional Diversity, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press. Understanding Institutional Diversity Google Scholar

OSTROM, E. (2005b), ‘Self-governance and forest resources’, in P. J. Shah and V. Maitra (eds), Terracotta Reader: A Market Approach to the Environment, New Delhi, Academic Foundation, 131–54. Self-governance and forest resources Terracotta Reader: A Market Approach to the Environment 131 54 Google Scholar

PBL and URHAHN URBAN DESIGN (2012), ‘Vormgeven aan de Spontane Stad: belemmeringen en kansen voor organische stedelijke herontwikkeling’ [Shaping the Spontaneous City: Barriers and Opportunities for Organic Urban Development], Den Haag, Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL), http://www.pbl.nl/publicaties/2012/vormgeven-aan-despontane-stad-belemmeringen-en-kansen-voor-organische-stedelijke-herontwikkeling (accessed 12 October 2012). Google Scholar

PORTUGALI, J. (1999), Self-Organization and the City, Berlin, Springer-Verlag. Self-Organization and the City Google Scholar

PORTUGALI, J. (2005) ‘The scope of complex artificial environments’, in J. Portugali (ed.), Complex Artificial Environments, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 9–30. The scope of complex artificial environments Complex Artificial Environments 9 30 Google Scholar

PORTUGALI, J. (2011), Complexity, Cognition and the City, Berlin, Springer-Verlag. Complexity, Cognition and the City Google Scholar

QU, L., and HASSELAAR, E. (eds) (2011), Making Room for People: Choice, Voice and Liveability in Residential Places, Amsterdam, Techne Press. Making Room for People: Choice, Voice and Liveability in Residential Places Google Scholar

RRAAM (Randstadbesluiten Amsterdam-Almere-Markermeer) (2012), ‘Almere Oosterwold: Land-Goed voor initiatieven’ [Almere Oosterwold: Estate for Initiatives], http://www.rraam.nl/Publicaties/Documenten+en+Publicaties+RRAAM/153953.aspx?t=Ontwikkelstrategie%20Almere%20Oosterwold (accessed 2 March 2013). Google Scholar

RAUWS, W. S. (2015) Why Planning Needs Complexity: Towards an Adaptive Approach for Guiding Urban and Peri-Urban Transformations (published PhD thesis), University of Groningen, doi: 10.17418/PHD.2015.9789036778961. Google Scholar

SCHMIDT-THOME, K., WALLIN, S., LAATIKAINEN, T., KANGASOJA, J. and KYTTÄ, M. (2014), ‘Exploring the use of PPGIS in self-organizing urban development: case softGIS in Pacific Beach’, Journal of Community Informatics, 10, http://www.ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/1080 (accessed 5 January 2015). Google Scholar

SEV (Stuurgroep Experimenten Volkshuisvesting) [Steering Committee for Experiments in Public Housing] (2007), Handboek: CPO voor gemeenten [Handbook: Cohousing for Municipal Organisations], Den Haag, Drukkerij Brink. Google Scholar

SICILIANO, J. M. (2009), ‘The process and issues of creating a cohousing development with affordable units in an affluent community: Stamford, Connecticut’ (Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning Masters Projects, Paper 19), University of Massachusetts – Amherst. The process and issues of creating a cohousing development with affordable units in an affluent community: Stamford, Connecticut Google Scholar

SØRENSEN, E. and TRIANTAFILLOU, P. (2013), ‘Politics of self-governance: an introduction’, in E. Sørensen and P. Triantafillou (eds), The Politics of Self-Governance, Farnham, Ashgate, 1–22. Politics of self-governance: an introduction The Politics of Self-Governance 1 22 Google Scholar

SWYNGEDOUW, E. and MOULAERT, F. (2010), ‘Socially innovative projects, governance dynamics and urban change: between state and self-organisation’, in E. Swyngedouw, F. Moulaert, F. Martinelli and S. Gonzales, S. (eds), Can Neighbourhoods Save the City, London, Routledge, 219–34. Socially innovative projects, governance dynamics and urban change: between state and self-organisation Can Neighbourhoods Save the City 219 34 Google Scholar

TERMEER, C. J. A. M., SRUIVER, M., GERRITSEN, A. and HUNTJES, P. (2013) ‘Integrating self-governance in heavily regulated policy fields: insights from a Dutch farmers’ cooperative’, Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 15, 285–302. Integrating self-governance in heavily regulated policy fields: insights from a Dutch farmers cooperative Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 15 285 302 Google Scholar

TIDBALL, K. G. and KRASNY, M. E. (2007), ‘From risk to resilience: what role for community greening and civic ecology in cities?’, in A. Wals (eds), Social Learning Towards a Sustainable World: Principles, Perspectives, and Praxis, Wageningen, Wageningen Academic Press, 149–64. From risk to resilience: what role for community greening and civic ecology in cities? Social Learning Towards a Sustainable World: Principles, Perspectives, and Praxis 149 64 Google Scholar

TOWNSEND, R. E. (1995), ‘Fisheries self-governance: corporate or cooperative structures?’, Marine Policy, 19, 39–45. Fisheries self-governance: corporate or cooperative structures? Marine Policy 19 39 45 Google Scholar

TONKENS, E. (2008), De bal bij de burger: burgerschap en publieke moraal in een pluriforme, dynamische samenleving [The Ball is for the Citizens: Citizenship and Public Moral in a Diverse and Dynamic Society], Amsterdam, Vossiuspers UvA. De bal bij de burger: burgerschap en publieke moraal in een pluriforme, dynamische samenleving Google Scholar

TUMMERS, L. (2011), ‘Self-managed co-housing assessing urban qualities and bottlenecks in the planning system’, in L. Qu and E. Hasselaar (eds), Making Room for People: Choice, Voice and Liveability in Residential Places, Amsterdam, Techne Press. Self-managed co-housing assessing urban qualities and bottlenecks in the planning system Making Room for People: Choice, Voice and Liveability in Residential Places Google Scholar

VAN DAM, R., ESHUIS, J. and AARTS, N. (2009), ‘Transition starts with people: self-organising communities ADM and Golf Residence Dronten’, in K. J. Poppe, C. Termeer and M. Slingerland (eds), Sustainable Agriculture and Food Chains in Peri-Urban Areas, Wageningen, Wageningen Academic Publisher, 81–92. Transition starts with people: self-organising communities ADM and Golf Residence Dronten Sustainable Agriculture and Food Chains in Peri-Urban Areas 81 92 Google Scholar

VAN DAM, R., DUINEVELD, M. and DURING, R. (2014), ‘Delineating active citizenship: the subjectification of citizens’ initiatives’, Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 17, 163–79. Delineating active citizenship: the subjectification of citizens initiatives Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 17 163 79 Google Scholar

VAN DE WIJDEVEN, T. (2012), Doe-democratie: over actief burgerschap in stadswijken, Delft, Eburon. Doe-democratie: over actief burgerschap in stadswijken Google Scholar

VAN MEERKERK, I., BOONSTRA, B. and EDELENBOS, J. (2012), ‘Self-organization in urban regeneration: a two-case comparative research’, European Planning Studies, 21, 1630–52. Self-organization in urban regeneration: a two-case comparative research European Planning Studies 21 1630 52 Google Scholar

VESTBO, D. U. (2000), ‘From collective housing to cohousing: a summary of research’, Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 17, 164–78. From collective housing to cohousing: a summary of research Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 17 164 78 Google Scholar

WILLIAMS, J. (2005) ‘Designing neighbourhoods for social interaction: the case of cohousing’, Journal of Urban Design, 10, 195–227. Designing neighbourhoods for social interaction: the case of cohousing Journal of Urban Design 10 195 227 Google Scholar

WILSON, A. (2009) ‘The “thermodynamics” of the city’, in A. Reggiani and P. Nijkamp (eds), Complexity and Spatial Networks, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 11–31. The “thermodynamics” of the city Complexity and Spatial Networks 11 31 Google Scholar

WOLFRAM, S. (2002), A New Kind of Science, Champaign, IL, Wolfram Media Ltd. A New Kind of Science Google Scholar

ZHANG, S., DE ROO, G. and VAN DIJK, T. (2015), ‘Urban land changes as the interaction between self-organization and institutions’, Planning Practice and Research, 30, 160–78. Urban land changes as the interaction between self-organization and institutions Planning Practice and Research 30 160 78 Google Scholar

Website www.maakoosterwold.nl (accessed 8 January 2015). Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details